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Der Internationale Standard für die nachhaltige Wildsammlung von Heilpflanzen (ISSC-MAP) The joint initiative of the IUCN Medicinal Plants Specialist.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Der Internationale Standard für die nachhaltige Wildsammlung von Heilpflanzen (ISSC-MAP) The joint initiative of the IUCN Medicinal Plants Specialist."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Der Internationale Standard für die nachhaltige Wildsammlung von Heilpflanzen (ISSC-MAP)
The joint initiative of the IUCN Medicinal Plants Specialist Group, WWF/TRAFFIC and the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation Germany (BfN) to develop an International Standard for Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ISSC-MAP) started in August In late 2006 this Steering Group has been replaced by an extended Decision making group, adding to the original Steering Group individuals with certification and business expertise and expanding the regional expertise: the Institute for Market Ecology (IMO), the Foundation for Revitalization of Local Health Traditions, India (FRLHT), IUCN Sur and Traditional Medicinal Inc. USA. This lecture explains the background and needs for such a standard, outlines the process and achievements to-date and gives information on the recently started standards‘ implementation.

2 Anwendungsgebiete von Medizinal- und Aromapflanzen (MAP)
Nahrung Medizin Kosmetik ISSC-MAP: Die Art steht im Mittelpunkt – nicht das Produkt! A variety of products offered on the market is plant-based. In many cases the use of botanical raw material is much cheaper than to use chemical alternative substances. As a consequence there is an enormous demand in botanicals resulting in a huge trade on local, regional, national and international level. Medicinal and aromatic plants are used for food, medicines, cosmetics and spices. Often one plant species is used for several purposes, a fact that complicates the analysis of trade data. From the perspective of conservation we look at the plant species rather than at its end uses (species oriented approach). It should be clear that the ISSC-MAP is not limited in scope to only Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and can be applied to any wild plants Gewürze Quelle: U. Schippmann

3 Wichtige Fakten Geschätzte 50,000 – 70,000 Medizinal- und Aromapflanzen werden weltweit genutzt. Etwa 3,000 MAP Arten werden international gehandelt. Ressource unter Druck: Weltweit sind etwa 15,000 Heilpflanzenarten in unterschiedlichem Grad gefährdet (IUCN). Why is a standard for wild collection useful and needed for MAP conservation? A look at some figures shows the important role of medicinal and aromatic plants: Medicinal and aromatic plants have been an important resource for human health care from prehistoric times to the present day. 50,000-70,000 MAP species are estimated to be used in traditional and modern medicine throughout the world. Demand for botanicals by the cosmetic sector is steadily growing. About 3,000 MAP species are traded internationally. An even higher number is traded locally and nationally. Is there a problem? Over-harvesting, land conversion, and habitat loss increasingly threaten a considerable portion of the world’s MAP species and populations: according to the latest estimation of Uwe Schippmann about 15,000 MAP species may be threatened to some degree world-wide. Utilization and commerce of wild plant resources are not detrimental in themselves, but, a growing pressure on plant populations in the wild can be observed. Especially plants that are habitat specific, slow growing and destructively harvested for their bark, roots or whole plant are susceptible to over-harvest (e.g. Prunus africana, Gentiana lutea)

4 !Sammlung muß nachhaltig erfolgen!
Herkunft der Heilpflanzen (MAP) Ca. 900 MAP Arten werden kommerziell angebaut. Foto: Yan Zhijian Out of the several thousand species in international trade only about 900 MAP species are sourced from commercial cultivation (TRAFFIC study, unpublished). The main reason for this low number is that domestication is costly and time-consuming. For most species domestication is not commercially viable. Therefore the majority of MAP species is still collected from the wild and will be in the future. The main challenge for conservation of MAP is therefore to make their collection sustainable! Wild collection generally takes place in countries with low income level where wild collection is often an additional or even the only income. Wild-collection also supports the conservation of traditional knowledge and cultural identity. Abschätzung der Wildsammlung (70)-90% der Arten 50-(70%) des Handelsvolumens Foto: B. Pätzold Die meisten MAP-Arten werden derzeit – und auch in Zukunft – wild gesammelt! Anbau kann nicht die Hauptlösung für Übersammlung sein! !Sammlung muß nachhaltig erfolgen!

5 Herausforderungen für einen Standard zur nachhaltigen Wildsammlung von MAP
Ökologie, Lebensraum, und Nutzungsdruck sind bei jeder Art unterschiedlich Sammlungstechniken: Frage “wie” nachhaltig ge- sammelt werden kann? Unsicherheiten bezüglich nach- haltiger Sammelmengen One important challenge for the ISSC-MAP is to provide a balance between enough guidance and at the same time enough flexibility to be adapted to the variety of local and species specific conditions. Another important point is how to ensure sustainability as often scientific data are missing and complex resource assessments (that would be the basis for identifying the annual sustained yield) are costly and time consuming.

6 Herausforderungen für einen Standard zur nachhaltigen Wildsammlung von MAP
Große Zahl von Produkten, Anwendungen und Märkten Verbreitung von Labeln und Öko-Zertifikaten ohne fachlichen Nachweis der Nachhaltigkeit Lange und komplizierte Lieferketten – Schwierigkeiten, Produktherkünfte nachzuweisen. MAP are significant for a large number of products, uses and markets. The ISSC-MAP has a species-related approach, but its aim is to be adopted by the most important user/product groups. A proliferation of labels and claims already exists – often referring to sustainability but without providing means of verification. This makes it complicated for stakeholders to compare and distinguish between the respective criteria, benefits, gaps etc. The necessity for an extra set of criteria for MAP wild collection has to be explained. One characteristics of the trade in MAP are the long and complex supply chains, which make it difficult to ensure transparency all along the way from source to shelf.

7 Managementplan für Arten und Regionen
WHO GACP WHO IUCN WWF Conservation Guideline Richtlinien für MAP-Schutz, -Produktion, -Qualitätskontrolle (= Allgem. Empfehlungen) Die fehlende Verbindung: Definition von Regeln, Umsetzung und Evaluation guter Management-Praktiken ISSC-MAP ? ? Why is a standard useful and needed for MAP? A variety of principles and guidelines already exists, e.g. the IUCN-WWF-WHO “Guidelines on the Conservation of Medicinal Plants”, the WHO “Good Agricultural and Collection Practice”, the EMEA paper “Points to Consider”. They address primarily the national and international political level, but only indirectly provide the medicinal plant industry and other stakeholders, including collectors, with specific guidance on sustainable sourcing practices. For example the revised WHO/IUCN/WWF/TRAFFIC Guidelines (expected 2008) will provide general principles addressed primarily to governments and other political stakeholders, NGOs, international government organizations and businesses worldwide. There is a deficit and need for the development of a concrete standard and criteria as a practical interface between the general principles set out in the guidelines and the management plans that must be developed for particular species and specific situations. The missing link is a standard that will bridge the gap between existing broad conservation guidelines and management plans developed for specific local conditions. Managementplan für Arten und Regionen Teufelskralle Namibia Arnika Rumänien Bärentraube Russland Ratanhia Peru

8 Rahmenbedingungen & Lücken
Ökosystem-Management z.B. Wald – FSC Biol. Landwirtschaft – IFOAM, Demeter Existing frameworks mainly focus on Health and Safety aspects, or Fair Trade and Equity aspects. Others concentrate on management of the whole ecosystem (e.g. forests, marine, agriculture ecosystems). The novel aspect of ISSC-MAP is its focus on the ecological aspects of a sustainable use, addressing the species level. For the first time the crucial aspects of sustainable yield, regeneration rates, assesments and monitoring, adaptive management, taxonomic accuracy and genetic variability are being addressed. Artenschutz & nachhaltige Nutzung Gerechtigkeit z.B. Fair trade – FLO `Access and Benefit Sharing´-Ansatz, FairWild Gesundheit und Sicherheit z.B. GACP – AHPA, EMEA, WHO

9 Entwicklungen 2004-2006 Umsetzung 2007- …
Prozess Entwicklungen Umsetzung … Modellprojekte Rechtsentwicklung & Policy Entwicklungs- Zusammenarbeit Zertifizierung Menschen & Politik Testen Development ISSC-MAP Version 1.0 (2007) is the result of a 2year development phase ( ). The text of the standard incorporates comments from an international, interdisciplinary advisory group bringing together > 150 representatives from the medicinal plant/herbal products industry, small-scale collection enterprises, non-government organizations, conservation and certification organizations, plant traders & importers, universities, donor agencies; feedback from relevant conferences where the ISSC-MAP has been presented and other stakeholder consultations. field consultations to test the relevance and practicality of the second draft standard, undertaken in five MAP field projects in The projects were selected from different geographical regions, offering a range of socio-economic and resource management circumstances. (Iracambi Medicinal Plants Project, Mata Atlantica, Brazil (financed by Manfred-Hermsen-Foundation); Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Wild Collection and Sustainable Use, BiH (financed by BfN/INA and SIPPO); Community-based agro-artesanal producers’ association (AAPPSME) in Ecuador (financed by UNCTAD, with contribution of Manfred-Hermsen-Foundation); WWF and TRAFFIC China project in Sichuan (financed by WWF Germany); Devil’s Claw Project, CRIAA, Namibia (financed by SALUS Haus Germany). A final field consultation, focusing on community-managed collection areas for medicinal plants in India was carried out in early 2007 by FRLHT, India (funded by Plantlife International). Implementation Potential implementation strategies for the ISSC-MAP have been analyzed in a study conducted in early Based on the results of this study four priority strategies have been identified that will provide a broad range of models and practical experiences in applying the ISSC-MAP : Certification (Independent certification or labelling schemes backed by governments, NGOs, or certification bodies; industry driven certification) Resource management (species and area level) Legal adoption and policy (e.g. Incorporation in government policies like national resource management plans; EU Reg. on organic farming) Voluntary Codes of Practice (e.g. industry or trade associations). Additional strategies identified are Development Cooperation (Project design) CITES (non-detriment assessments) Information and Training (cross-cutting issue) Freiwillige Verfahrensregeln Entwerfen ISSC-MAP Pflanze Produkt Beraten Ressourcen Management Information & Training Beratungsgremium Hauptakteure CITES Konferenzen

10 ISSC-MAP – Zweck Die Sicherstellung von dauerhafter Nutzung und langfristigem Erhalt von MAP-Arten und -Populationen in ihren Lebensräumen, unter Einbeziehung der Traditionen, Kulturen und Lebens-grundlagen aller Interessensgruppen. During an advisory group meeting on the Isle of Vilm in December 2004 participants agreed on the mission and objectives of the standard. The objectives were slightly changed during a 2nd Vilm workshop in December 2005.

11 ISSC-MAP – Ziele Einen Rahmen von Prinzipien und Kriterien bereit zu stellen, der auf das Management von MAP-Arten und ihrer Ökosysteme angewandt werden kann; Leitlinien für die Managementplanung anzubieten; Als Basis für Kontrolle und Berichterstattung zu dienen; und Anforderungen an die Zertifizierung einer nachhaltigen Wildsammlung von MAP-Ressourcen zu empfehlen. ISSC-MAP objectives

12 ISSC-MAP Version 1.0 (2007): 3 Level
6 Prinzipien 18 Kriterien 100+ Indikatoren ISSC-MAP Version 1.0 consists of 6 principles and 18 criteria. Each criterion is supported by a set of proposed indicators and forms of control, or verification. The Standard was officially launched in a press conference at BioFach Fair in Nuremberg, Germany in February First release in North America took place at the Natural Products Expo West in March 2007, mainly addressing industry. The ISSC-MAP is available for download at Pressemitteilung BioFach, Nürnberg, Deutschland Febr 07 Erste Bekanntgabe in Nord-amerika auf der `Natural Products Expo West´, März 07 Informationen online erhältlich:

13 ISSC-MAP Version 1.0: 6 Prinzipien
Erhalt der wilden MAP-Ressourcen Wildsammlung und Naturschutzanforderungen Vermeidung negativer Umwelteinwirkungen The 6 principles of the ISSC-MAP are divided into 3 sections. The ISSC-MAP addresses social and economic factors, but focuses on ecological aspects that are often neglected: resource assessments and sustainable yields. Collection practices based on biological characteristics of the species (Collection method and intensity) and the development of a management plan including regular monitoring of collection impacts are some of the requirements of ISSC-MAP Einhaltung von Gesetzen, Bestimmungen und Vereinbarungen Gesetzliche und ethische Anforderungen Anerkennung von Gewohnheitsrechten Anwendung verantwortbarer Management-Methoden Management und Geschäfts-anforderungen Anwendung verantwortbarer Geschäfts-Methoden

14 „Get dirt on it!“ - Umsetzungsprojekte
→ Promotion → Bewußtseins- bildung → Konsultation → Fundraising Get dirt on it! – ISSC-MAP going into practice ( ) Specific projects are being developed to test the standard‘s applicability in a variety of geographic, ecologic and socioeconomic conditions of MAP collection and use. Don‘t miss the audience, importance of strong partners Important for the succesfull implementation of the ISSC-MAP is the continuous dialogue with relevant stakeholders to make sure their needs and expectations are addressed. Support of and collaboration with strong partners from industry, certification bodies, authorities and development cooperation agencies will be crucial for effective global distribution, acceptance and implementation of the standard. Continued promotion and awareness raising activities among stakeholders and consumers are important to raise support and acceptance of ISSC-MAP. As a variety of standards already exists a growing confusion among producers and consumers can be observed and the need of ISSC-MAP and its possible harmonization with already existing standards has to be communicated. Willingness of industry and consumers to support resulting costs is a crucial aspect for the success of the ISSC-MAP implementation. In addition in several projects fundraising will be necessary for the initial phase of ISSC-MAP implementation. Fotos: G. Kinhal, B. Pätzold, F. Barsch, Was wir brauchen: Starke Partner Privatsektor Organisationen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit Zertifizierer Staatliche Institutionen Ressourcen-Manager, Gemeinden

15 Umsetzungs-Phase I (2007-2009)
Ziele Demonstration des Nutzens für die Beteiligten und die MAP-Arten / Schutz der Lebensräume Identifikation von Herausforderungen und Hindernissen Erstellung von realistischen Kostenkalkulationen der Umsetzung des ISSC-MAP bei verschiedenen Voraussetzungen und unterschiedlichen Umweltbedingungen Entwicklung von weiteren Anleitungsmaterialien Verfassen von Projektberichten und Formulierung von Empfehlungen zur Weiterentwicklung des ISSC-MAP Darstellung von Modellbeispielen zur Erweiterung des ISSC-MAP-Profils Identifikation von Ansätzen, ISSC-MAP mit bestehenden Standards zu verbinden Within a working group including members of the decision making group and the advisory group a guidance document on ISSC-MAP implementation has been developed, identifying the main aims and objectives for the initial implementation phase ( ). The outcomes of the implementation projects will be used to develop guidance and training materials (especially tools and processes for resource assessments, determination of sustainable yields and the development of management plans), case studies and models for good collection practice. This experience will be used to optimize the ISSC-MAP. An revised version 2.0 is expected for 2009. The period will also be used to develop an appropriate business model for ISSC-MAP.

16 Umsetzungsprojekte Bosnien-Herzegowina
Umsetzung des ISSC-MAP in Zusammen-arbeit mit Partnern des örtlichen privaten Sektors und staatlichen Behörden Nepal Anwendung des ISSC-MAP in Schutzgebieten und Pufferzonen, gemanaged von lokalen Gemeinden End of 2007 ISSC-MAP implementation has been initiated in selected projects. The majority of these projects is funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development within the „Saving Plants that Save Lives and Livelihoods“ project ( ). Projects are located in: 1) Asia Nepal: Implementation at two sites - Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (managed by local communities) in the Eastern Himalayan Ecoregion and in the buffer zones of Langtang National Park. ISSC-MAP is planned to be linked to the local forest community management structures. India: Implementation in the states of Uttarakhand (Western Himalayas) and Karnataka (Southern Gaths). In Uttarakhand ISSC-MAP will be introduced along the supply chain using the Mandi structures (national trade system) as an entry point. In Karnataka the ISSC-MAP will be implemented at two community managed sites. ISSC-MAP will be mainly used as a tool for management and training. Cambodia: Implementation at local level after identification of priority species and areas. China: Implementation within an EU-funded Biodiversity project on sustainable resource management in the Upper Yangtze Region, Sichuan, Gansu, Shaanxi ( ). ISSC-MAP will be used as guidance for the further project development, especially resource management strategies. 2) South America: Brazil. Implementation in Acre State, Amazonas region, together with local communities and government authorities. 3) Southern Africa: Implementation in the Kingdom of Lesotho. Together with representatives from the Lesothos and South African Government and local stakeholders a regional management plan for the target plant Pelargonium sidoides will be developed 4) South East Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina: Implementation at local level in cooperation with local companies and the responsible government authorities. Development of local collection systems. The projects start from different conditions, partly building up on longterm work (e.g. India - FRLHT, Nepal - WWF), partly being developed now (e.g. Cambodia) All projects are implemented through regional offices of WWF/TRAFFIC/IUCN in co-operation with local partners (as resource management authorities, local communities, private sector, NGOs, scientists). Meetings and workshops with regional and national stakeholders to raise awareness, establish partnerships and promote the ISSC-MAP are part of all project programmes. China Integration des ISSC-MAP bei der Entwicklung des regionalen Ressourcen- Management-Plans Brasilien Modell-Umsetzung auf kommunaler Ebene in Amazonien Indien Uttarakhand: ISSC-MAP Umsetzung entlang der „mandi“-Handelskette Lesotho Entwicklung eines regionalen Management-Plans für Pelargonium sidoides zusammen mit nationalen Behörden Kambodscha Identifikation von prioritären Arten und Entwicklung eines lokalen Umsetzungsprojektes

17 Im Feld – unterschiedliche Situationen:
Umsetzungsprojekte Im Feld – unterschiedliche Situationen: Schrittweiser Ansatz: Situationsanalyse (ökologische, soziale, kulturelle Aspekte) mit lokalen Beteiligten/Zielgruppen `Übersetzung´des ISSC-MAP-Ansatzes in einen lokalen Ansatz Vorläufige Management-Entscheidungen und Sammel-Protokolle führen zu regelmäßigen Bestandserfassungen und Monitoring Training und Weiterbildung Entwicklung eines Managementplans Regelmäßige Überprüfung How can an international standard be applied to the immense variety of local wild collection situations? The 2 years initial implementation phase will provide valuable experiences to the question how general the ISC-MAP can be and has to be and if and in which way local adaptations have to be developed to ensure ISSC-MAPs applicability on the ground. For the implementation projects a step-wise approach will be followed: A team of local stakeholders and ISSC-MAP experts will analyse the local situation following a general questionnaire including ecological, social, and cultural aspects Based on the outcomes an implementation strategy will be developed ISSC-MAP principles, criteria and indicators will be ‚translated‘ into the local context Interim management decisions and collection protocols will be developed for the operation Training and capacitiy building activities for e.g. collectors, resource managers, authorities will be implemented, addressing the gaps identified in the previous analysis A management plan, including a resource assessment plan, will be developed and regularly reviewed Fotos: G. Kinhal, D. Cole

18 Wer profitiert von einem breit akzeptierten, glaubwürdigen Standard?
Industrie  einheitliche Richtlinien entlang der Handelskette Ressourcen-Manager  Anleitung für MAP- Erhaltung, -Sammlung und -Monitoring Sammler  Absicherung gegen Ressourcen- und Markt-Zusammenbruch Verbraucher  Zuverlässige Aussagen zu ökologischer Nachhaltigkeit Arten und Habitate  Erhalt der Biodiversität To be useful and successful, any standard must have tangible, beneficial results for producers, resource managers and consumers. For industry a “communication tool” within the supply chain would be provided. Required documentation leads to more transparency in the supply chain. ISSC-MAP can be used to comply with corporate social responsibility obligations and corporate sustainability reporting requirements. The inclusion of social and environmental responsibility into companies`strategies are increasingly requested by consumers. Resource managers (who are in many cases also the producers) would benefit from concrete, reliable guidelines for protection, harvest and monitoring. For consumers, there must be evidence that sustainably collected MAP products are better products and therefore worthy of a higher price and or greater loyality to a product, manufacturer or retailer. A widely accepted standard that guarantees sustainable use of wild resources will benefit nature by providing incentives for the conservation of species and their habitats.

19 ISSC-MAP Projekt-Webseite: www.floraweb.de/map-pro
Decision Group: Danna J. Leaman (IUCN-SSC Medicinal Plant Specialist Group) (MPSG) Susanne Honnef (WWF Deutschland und TRAFFIC) Uwe Schippmann (Bundesamt für Naturschutz, BfN) Giridhar A. Kinhal (Indien) Rainer Bächi (Institut für Markt Ökologie, IMO, Schweiz) Josef Brinckmann (Traditional Medicinals Inc., USA) Ximena Buitrón Cisneros (UICN Sur MPSG) All project related documents and background information are available on the website mentioned. Interested persons are invited to get in contact with the Steering Committee. Sekretariat: Britta Pätzold, Susanne Honnef (WWF Deutschland und TRAFFIC, Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universität Frankfurt)

20 ISSC-MAP Projekt-Webseite: www.floraweb.de/map-pro
Umsetzungsprojekt-Koordinatoren: Brasilien: Ximena Buitrón Cisneros (IUCN MPSG, Quito) Kambodscha: Chris Turton (TRAFFIC Vietnam) Indien: Giridhar A. Kinhal und Samir Sinha (TRAFFIC Indien) Lesotho/Südafrika: David Newton (TRAFFIC SA) Nepal: Indu Bikal Sapkota (WWF Nepal) SEE/Bosnien-Herzegowina: Anastasiya Timoshyna (TRAFFIC HU) und Sladjana Bundalo 20

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