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(Corporate) Environmental Management Systems (EMS)

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Präsentation zum Thema: "(Corporate) Environmental Management Systems (EMS)"—  Präsentation transkript:

1 (Corporate) Environmental Management Systems (EMS)
“Business von morgen besteht nicht nur aus Produkten oder Produktivität, sondern auch aus der Art und Weise wie Geschäfte gemacht werden … »

2 Agenda Methode: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Beispiel: Kaffeemaschine (vier Schritte) Environmental Management Systems (EMS) ISO 14001

3 1. Life Cycle Assessment Eine kurze Übersicht … Alles ist verbunden
A simple overview of a complex process … everything is connected A life cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is the investigation and evaluation of the environmental impacts of a given product or service caused or necessitated by its existence. The goal of LCA is to compare the full range of environmental and social damages assignable to products and services, to be able to choose the least burden some one. At present it is a way to account for the effects of the cascade of technologies responsible for goods and services. It is limited to that, though, because the similar cascade of impacts from the commerce responsible for goods and services is unaccountable because what people do with money is unrecorded. As a consequence LCA succeeds in accurately measuring the impacts of the technology used for delivering products, but not the whole impact of making the economic choice of using it. The term 'life cycle' refers to the notion that a fair, holistic assessment requires the assessment of raw material production, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal including all intervening transportation steps necessary or caused by the product's existence. The sum of all those steps – or phases – is the life cycle of the product. The concept also can be used to optimize the environmental performance of a single product (ecodesign) or to optimize the environmental performance of a company. Common categories of assessed damages are global warming (greenhouse gases), acidification (soil and ocean), smog, ozone layer depletion, eutrophication, eco-toxicological and human-toxicological pollutants, habitat destruction, desertification, land use as well as depletion of minerals and fossil fuels. The procedures of life cycle assessment (LCA) are part of the ISO environmental management standards in ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006 (ISO replaced earlier versions of ISO to ISO ) Source: R. E. Ricklefs’ Economy of Nature 3

4 1. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Ist eine Methode die Energie und Roh-stoffverbrauch, verschiedene Arten von Emissionen und andere Faktoren, die wichtig im Zuammenhang mit dem gesamten Produkt-lebenszyklus sind, aus Sicht der Umwelt ganzheitlich betrachtet. Learning objectives: Get acquainted with LCA/LCA kennen lernen Understand how to conceptually apply the main steps of LCA/ Verstehen, wie die wesentlichen Schritte des LCA Konzepts anzuwenden sind Understand some of the difficulties and/or limitations of each LCA step / Die Schwierigkeiten und/oder Grenzen jedes LCA Schrittes verstehen LCA: brief history: Started in the early 1970s to investigate energy requirements of different processes Emissions and raw materials were considered later Numerous variants of LCA “methods” were developed and/or investigated initially A widely accepted series of guidelines and definitions was published by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Today ISO is considered the LCA standard LCA main steps (compare slide 6 and example coffee maker): Step 1: Goal Definition & Scope (ISO 14040) Step 2: Inventory Analysis (ISO 14041) Step 3: Impact Assessment (ISO 14042) Step 4: Improvement Assessment / Interpretation (ISO 14043) (c) 2006 Dr. Bert Bras & Felipe Roman, Georgia Institute of Technology (for LCA)

5 1. Life Cycle Assessment Introduction LCA:
We are a manufacturer of several kitchen appliances (Haushaltsgeräte) Step 1: Establish purpose & goal (we want to analyse –first!- one of our products, a coffee maker) Define decision criteria, function & functional unit (see later: production of a coffee maker) Define system boundaries (cp. world map slide 9) Life cycle stages (cp. slide 9) Time Place Determine required data quality To be seen is a general example of a life cycle for a product (left) and the percentage of the usage of energy in it´s life cycle (right). Compare slide 3!

6 1. Life Cycle Assessment Teil der ISO 14000
Interpretation (ISO 14043) Ziel und Umfangs- definition (ISO 14040) Bestandsanalyse (ISO 14041) Auswirkungs einschätzung (ISO 14042) Umweltsystem ISO 1404x Verbesserung Bewertung/ The “International Organisation for Standardisation “=ISO is situated in Geneva/Switzerland ( ). compare: for Europe (EN - European Norm), for Germany (DIN - Deutsche Industrienorm) Common standards of certification: ISO 9001 (Quality Management) or ISO (Environmental Management) Goal: To quantify inputs and outputs for a system in terms of a standardized unit of measure. The scope and structure of the LCA are directly dependent upon the unit of measure (functional unit): Energy embodied in a single product (s.a.); Green house gasses produced per unit product (s.a.); Tons of carbon produced per volume of product (s.a.); Volume of water consumed per mass of product … Goal and Scope of LCA must be formulated at the outset of the project, and the functional unit must be defined. LCA Process is described in the ISO 14040ff. Standards. ISO 14040:2006 Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment – Principles and Framework ISO 14044:2006 Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment – Requirements and Guidelines Step 1: Goal Definition & Scope (ISO 14040) Step 2: Inventory Analysis (ISO 14041) Step 3: Impact Assessment (ISO 14042) Step 4: Improvement Assessment / Interpretation (ISO 14043)

7 2. Beispiel: Kaffeemaschine
Interesting homepage: howstuffworks … Source:

8 Schritt 1: Kaffeemaschine
Zweck des LCA Ermittlung aller Möglichkeiten die Umweltverträglichkeit einer Kaffeemaschine zu verbessern Mögliche Entscheidungskriterien Totaler Energieverbrauch eco-indicator Punktzahl 99 (EI99) CO2 Produktion und (CO2 Fußabdruck) Funktionseinheiteneiner Kaffeemaschine Wassererhitzung, Filter, Anzahl Tassen Kaffee, Zeit etc Systemeinschränkungen durchschnittlich 5 Jahre Nutzung, Herstellung nur in EU Raum EI99 – Eco-Indicator 99: DerÖko-Indikator 99 ist eine schadensorientierte Methode der Lebensdauerbewertung.http://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/Definition/eco-indicator-99.html … ein Verfahren zur Ökobilanzierung (Ökobilanz). Über den gesamten Lebenszyklus sollen Schädigungen der natürlichen Umwelt bewertet werden. Bewertungskategorien sind dabei die menschliche Gesundheit, die Qualität der Ökosysteme und natürliche Ressourcen (vgl. Müller-Wenk 2000, S. 11).Das Verfahren wird auch von Software-Lösungen, wie z.B. von Umberto, SimaPro und Eco-It, angewendet. Öko-Bilanz z.B. zu Aufzügen: Another standard/unit to measure it is: the Carbon footprint (CF) – also named Carbon profile – is the overall amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (e.g. methane, laughing gas etc.) associated with a product, along its complete supply chain and sometimes including from usage and end-of-life recovery and disposal - causes of these emissions are, e.g., electricity production in power plants, heating with fossil fuels, transport operations and other industrial and agricultural processes. Compare: function cp. carpet/Interface

9 Schritt 1: Zieldefinition
Definition der Zielsetzung Definition von Entscheidungs-kriterien und Funktionseinheiten Definition von Systemeinschränkungen Ort (Welt/ Kontinent/ Land) Lebenszyklusphasen Zeit (individuell definierbar) Definition der erforderlichen Datenqualität/ Quellen (größtes Problem in der Praxis) Set of limitations and main goals to reduce complexity

10 Je mehr Prozesse, desto komplexer …
Schritt1: Lebenszyklusphasen Je mehr Prozesse, desto komplexer … Energie Wasser Energie Wasser Herstellungs- prozess Energie Wasser Herstellungs- prozess Rohstoffe Herstellungs- prozess Abgase Rohstoffe Abgase Festabfall Flüssigabfall Festabfall Flüssigabfall Abgase Rohstoffe Energie Wasser Festabfall Flüssigabfall - Focussing on production - Much more detailed and differentiated over (in this case) four manufactoring process steps Herstellungs- prozess Endprodukt Abgase Festabfall Flüssigabfall 10

11 Wo hören die Grenzen des Systems auf?
Schwierigkeiten & Einschränkungen bei Schritt 1 Wie vergleicht man verschiedene Produkte mit ähnlichen Funktionen oder Dienstleistungen? Wie vergleicht man ähnliche Produkte mit mehreren Funktionen oder Dienstleistungen? Wie definiert man abstraktere Funktionseinheiten - wie den Unterhaltungswert eines Spielzeugs-, oder einen hohem Selbstrespekt? Wo hören die Grenzen des Systems auf? Problem: complexity of the most supply chains; was kann ich beeinflussen (Macht in der SC), siehe HLA6 Alles das berücksichtigen Unternehmen üblicherweise nicht! (negative Abgrenzung)

12 Schritt 2: Bestandsanalyse
Herstellung eines Verfahrensstammbaumes und Ablaufschemas um die Abläufe des Produktlebenszykluses zu klassifizieren. Festlegung aller Untersuchungsteile sowie Energie Input- und Outputmengen. Sammlung relevanter Daten! Hypothesen über fehlende Daten. Schaffung von (korrekten) Material- und Energieverhältnissen für jede Phase. What to do in a company

13 Schritt 2: Kaffeemaschine
Zuerst: Produktkomponenten und Materialien verstehen Liegende (untere) Ansicht Obere(interne) Ansicht Quelle: Stückliste (compare HLA6 IBE Logistics Management) engl. Bill of Material (BOM) Untere (interne) Ansicht Heizer Ansicht Gesamtansicht Source:

14 Schritt 2: Kaffeemaschine
Vereinfachter Verfahrensstammbaum Kaffeemaschine Also: was berücksichtigen wir? (Einflußmöglichkeit) See also input/output diagram: EPA Life-Cycle Design Guidance Manual, EPA Report no. EPA/600/R-92/226, p. 104 Injection moulding: Spritzguss (Verfahren zur Kunststoffverarbeitung) Source:

15 Schritt 2: Kaffeemaschine
Lebenszyklus Inventur der Kaffeemaschine Verpackungen werden in der Inventur nicht berücksichtigt =Einheiten. Die Kg-Anteile der Materialien (Produktion) und kWh (Verbrauch über die Lebensdauer) sind ermittelt und ergänzt “Filterproduction”; Alternative Nylon- oder Goldfilter Für Papier und Elektroverbrauch wurden Standards festgelegt, für Wasser nicht. Source:

16 Schwierigkeiten und Einschränkungen bei Schritt 2
Daten sind schwer zu finden - zeitaufwändig Veröffentlichte Daten sind zwar leicht zu finden, aber oft nicht eindeutig oder nicht direkt anwendbar. Erhaltene Daten sind oft diskret, statisch und linear (viele vereinfachende Vermutungen) Fehler in der Bewertung Massen- und Energieverhältnisse können unkorrekt sein Resultate können falsch interpretiert werden Harmonisierung der Daten zur zielgerichteten Analyse und passenden Aussagen bzw. Konsequenzen oder auch: Abstrahierung

17 Schritt 3: Einschätzung von Wirkungskategorien
Definition von Wirkungskategorien Festlegen der Kriterien durch die Wirkungskategorien beeinflusst werden. Bestimmung der Indikatoren der jeweiligen Wirkungskategorien. Festlegung der Gewichtung der Kategorien. Environmental Impact Environmental Load Treibhauseffekt Abbau der Ozonschicht Eutrophisierung Abbau von unbiotischen Ressourcen (Sommer) smog Absäuerung Kupfer CO2 FCKW SO2 NOx Phosphor Flüchtige organische Verbindungen Schwermetalle PCB Pestizide Styrene Umweltvergiftung Abbau von biotischen Ressourcen Humane Vergiftung Geruch Skalar Indikator General overview, not in detail! Copper – Kupfer Volatile organic compound - Flüchtige organische Verbindung Styren – Phenylethylen Depletion – Abbau Ozone layer depletion – Abbau der Ozonschicht Eutrophication – Überdüngung (von Gewässern) Odour - Geruchsbelästigung Scalar indicator – Messskala/Anzeigeskala

18 Schritt 3: z.B. Papier oder Plastik
… der Output, aber … was ist besser?... Carcinogene – Krebs erzeugende Stoffe oft politisierte Diskussion

19 Schritt 3: Kaffeemaschine
= Gesamtergebnis, nun sind Entscheidungen nach geeigneten Kriterien zu treffen! Wenn wir das allein nicht können, zurück greifen auf Fachleute/Wissenschaft (“Stand der Technik” bzw. des Wissens) Bsp. Alurolle in der Küche = Unsinn Source:

20 Schwierigkeiten und Einschränkungen bei Schritt 3
Subjektiv , subjektiv, subjektiv! Auswirkungskategorien ausgewählt Indikatoren für Auswirkungskategorien ausgewählt Auswirkungen der Metrik und Masse auf die Indikatoren Gewichtung verschiedener Kategorien Wo treten die Auswirkungen der Umweltbelastung auf? U.S.A, Europa, Brasilien? Welche Umweltbelastungen kann eine Region vertragen, bevor es zu einer Umweltkatastrophe kommt? Kann die Region ohne Probleme überleben? Wie können Manager und Ingenieure erkennen, wie Effekte (potitive/negative) entstehen?

21 Schritt 4: Verbesserungsanalyse
Identifizierung der Verbesserungsbereiche und Möglichkeiten. Beurteilung anhand der ursprünglichen Zieldefinition. Zielsetzung auf Lebenszyklusbereiche/-prozesse und –ereignisse mit umweltpolitischen Auswirkungen Große Mengen mit wenig Gefahren Kleine Mengen mit hohen Gefahren Hauptfrage: Welche Ressourcen werden benötigt mit welchen Risiken sind sie behaftet? zu 2) Systemgrenzen zu 3) Priorisierung

22 Schritt 4: Kaffeemaschine
Wie können wir die Kaffeemaschine verbessern? Worauf setzen wir den Fokus? Komplexität reduzieren und Schwerpunkte setzen! (cp. Slide 21 No.3) hier auf Papier und Elektoverbrauch (danach Polystyrene) Source:

23 Generelle Kommentare/Diskussion
Eine Haushaltskaffeemaschine ist ein einfaches Produkt Wie unterscheidet sie sich von einer kommerziellen Maschine (z.B. Starbucks)? Repräsentativität der Ergebnisse im Zusammenhang mit den Anwendungen und Wirkungen in der Nutzungsphase Welche Materialien den Produktes entfalten eine negative Umweltwirkung in der Nutzungsphase? Welche Materialien entfalten eine negative Wirkung in der Produktions- oder Entsorgungsphase Appliances – Haushaltsgeräte Last question: - production: Fleischproduktion / Baumwolle (s.Gruppenpräsentation) disposal: Atomkraft/Kernenergie und Chemikalien/Gifte (s.story of stuff) Further information, also concerning “EMAS”: EMAS Helpdesk: European Union: European Environment Agency: ISO (International Standard Organization):http://www.iso.ch/ European Committee for Standardization: World Standards Services Network: SME portal: Green Public Procurement: EMAS Register: Table Source & Figures from 1st Slide: Ashby and coauthors, 2004, “The CES Eco-Selector – background reading”, 2nd edition, University of Cambridge and Granta Design, pp

24 2. LCA - Zusammenfassung Es wird der gesamte Produktlebenszyklus eines Produktes analysiert - nicht allein die Produktion. Hauptschritte des LCA sind in den Normen (ISO ) beschrieben. Schwierigkeiten und Einschränkungen bei jedem Schritt des LCA müssen dokumentiert werden. Trotz der vielen Einschränkungen führt das LCA in die richtige Richtung. … aber wie sieht nun die organisatorische Umsetzung in Unternehmen aus … ?

25 3. Umwelt Management Systeme
Unternehmen haben verschiedene Management Systeme, mit denen sie versuchen ihren Aufgaben gerecht zu werden (Qualitätsmanagement/Arbeitssicherheit …) Massive increase of demand for leadership courses after Sept. 11 (Babson College: plus 34 % with course „leadership and influence“ „If there‘s any minor silver lining that one can take from such horrific events, it‘s that it has forced companies to begin to assess more carefully the impact and effectiveness of their leaders (Douglas Ready, president of ICEDR, Int. Consortium of executive Development Research) Für die Berücksichtigung der für Unternehmen relevanten Umweltgesichtspunkte (sehr individuell!) werden EMS eingesetzt

26 3. Umwelt Management Systeme
welche Elemente müssen gemessen werden, um beurteilen zu können, ob ein EMS vollständig ist: More details to the several steps (not to be done in the lesson) Develop written environmental policy Baseline resource use and waste Determine significant aspects and impacts Set action plans for priority aspects General environmental awareness training Control legal and other requirements Environmental Aspect Element of an organisation’s activities, products or services that can interact with and impact the environment Environmental Criteria Surroundings in which an organisation interacts, including air, water, land, natural resources, biodiversity (flora & fauna), human health and their interrelation Environmental Impact Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organisation’s activities, products or service Six Step Environmental Management Plan: Create an Environmental Policy Statement Determine Environmental Priorities Define Actions to Address Priorities Implement the Plan Measure Effectiveness Review This will put your mind on a path to sustainability and continuous environmental improvement

27 3. Umwelt Management Systeme
Ein Management System ist ein ganzheitliches System und zeigt auf, welche Prozesse und Aktivitäten die Unternehmensorganisation analysieren muss. Zeigt, welche Ziele die Unternehmensorganisation sich mit ihren Produkte und Dienstleistungen setzen muss. Z.B.: Befriedigung der Kundenbedürfnisse, Erfüllung der Regularien oder Die Erfüllung umweltlicher Ziele To be really efficient and effective, the organisation can manage its way of doing things by systemising it.Nothing important is left out. Everyone is clear about who is responsible for doing what, when, how, why and where. Management system standards provide the organisation with an international, state-of-the-art model to follow. Large organisations, or ones with complicated processes, could not function well without management systems. Companies in such fields as aerospace, automobiles, defence or health care devices have been operating management systems for decades. Dioxin, Atomkraf,t Crom … also proaktiv agieren, bevor etwas verboten wird, ist nachhaltig!

28 3. Umwelt Management Systeme
ISO 9000ff. und ISO 14000ff. Diese Normen werden von in 175 Ländern umgesetzt. ISO 9001 hilft Unternehmen/Organisationen Qualitätsmanagement zu definieren. ISO hilft Unternehmen/Organisationen Umweltmanagement zu definieren. Neu 2010: ISO hilft Organisationen soziale Verantwortung zu definieren. ISO's name Because "International Organization for Standardization" would have different acronyms in different languages ("IOS" in English, "OIN" in French for Organisation internationale de normalisation), its founders decided to give it also a short, all-purpose name. They chose "ISO", derived from the Greek isos, meaning "equal". Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of the organization's name is always ISO. ISO is made up of 162 members ( ) which are divided into three categories. 153 full time staff from 26 countries Finance: 140 million CHF (55% through membership fees 45% through sales of publications and other income from services) See: What does "international standardization" mean? When the large majority of products or services in a particular business or industry sector conform to International Standards, a state of industry-wide standardization can be said to exist. This is achieved through consensus agreements between national delegations representing all the economic stakeholders concerned - suppliers, users and, often, governments. They agree on specifications and criteria to be applied consistently in the classification of materials, the manufacture of products and the provision of services. In this way, International Standards provide a reference framework, or a common technological language, between suppliers and their customers - which facilitates trade and the transfer of technology. What benefits does international standardization bring to businesses? For businesses, the widespread adoption of International Standards means that suppliers can base the development of their products and services on reference documents which have broad market relevance. This, in turn, means that they are increasingly free to compete on many more markets around the world. What benefits does international standardization bring to customers? For customers, the worldwide compatibility of technology which is achieved when products and services are based on International Standards brings them an increasingly wide choice of offers, and they also benefit from the effects of competition among suppliers. What's different about ISO 9001 and ISO 14001? The vast majority of ISO standards are highly specific to a particular product, material, or process. However, ISO 9001 (quality) and ISO (environment) are "generic management system standards". "Generic" means that the same standard can be applied to any organization, large or small, whatever its product or service, in any sector of activity, and whether it is a business enterprise, a public administration, or a government department. ISO 9001 contains a generic set of requirements for implementing a quality management system and ISO for an environmental management system. Generic standards can be applied to any organization. Generic also signifies that no matter what the organization's scope of activity if it wants to establish a quality management system, ISO 9001 gives the essential features or if it wants to establish an environmental management system, ISO gives the essential features. Both ISO 9001 and ISO concern the way an organisation goes about its work. They are not product standards. They are not service standards. They are process standards. They can be used by product manufacturers and service providers. Processes affect final products or services. ISO 9001 gives the requirements for what the organization must do to manage processes affecting quality of its products and services. ISO gives the requirements for what the organization must do to manage processes affecting the impact of its activities on the environment. Collect Performance Requirements for an EMS Legislation Regulations Codes of practise (branches) Consents, Licences, Permits ISO 14001, EMAS Policy, Objectives, targets News: ISO's social responsibility standard approved for publication ( ) ISO 26000, which gives organizations guidance on implementing social responsibility (SR), has successfully passed the last development phase and been approved for publication as an ISO International Standard. ISO targets publication on 1 November 2010.

29 ISO 14001 steht für Umweltmanagement.
3. Umwelt Management Systeme ISO steht für Umweltmanagement. Ziel ist es gefährliche Auswirkungen zu minimieren, Die anwendbaren regulierenden Bedingungen anzupassen und Stetige Verbesserung in der Umweltaktivität zu erreichen. Why is an proved EMS important? To provide assurance of environmental performance to key stakeholders – marketing and reputational benefits Save money in key activity areas (e.g. insurance premium) To formalise the approach to environmental management To provide a systematic approach that engages the organisation at all levels To help ensure compliance with environmental legislation and regulation. NB – An EMS is a tool not a solution in itself Barriers to Implementation Implementation may be costly – especially for large organisations and those with multiple sites Implementation can be very time consuming Costs associated with training personnel Costs associated with hiring consultancy assistance Technical costs associated with monitoring impacts Where to start? The process can seem overwhelming

30 + ISO 14001 3. Umwelt Management Systeme
Der am meist verbreitete und verwendete Standard (Most widely recognised and adopted standard) > zertifizierte Organisationen weltweit (Stand Januar 2011 in 155 Länder) guter Ruf und international anerkannt Umsetung allerdings zeitaufwändig - vor allem in großen, komplexen Organisationen Möglicherweise sehr kostspielig Zusatzinfo: Costs for ISO implementation are calculated based upon the size of the organisation, e.g. annual turnover, number of sites and number of employees, and are therefore quoted on a bespoke (“maßgeschneiderte”) basis. At the end of the “notices” you´ll find 7 points ... ISO is the world largest standards developing organization. Between 1947 and the present day, ISO has published more than International Standards, ranging from standards for activities such as agriculture and construction, through mechanical engineering, to medical devices, to the newest information technology developments. Given the multi-sector scope of the organization, it would be hard to present an historical perspective summarizing the challenges, the passion, the outstanding achievements or, sometimes, the missed opportunities, in the large variety of sectors covered by ISO’s technical work.   We have therefore chosen to highlight the key markers in the history of the organization from a general perspective. Environmental management and other management standards ISO's portfolio of generic management systems standards was extended beyond quality during the 1990s. In particular, the establishment of the ISO technical committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management, was the result of a sequence of activities, leading to a coordinated world response to common environmental challenges. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit, was a major conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3-14 June 1992, attended by 110 heads of State and a total of 172 governments. Some representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) attended, with people at the parallel NGO Forum who had so-called "consultative status". UNCED issued the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, a set of principles for achieving sustainable development, along with Agenda 21, a comprehensive policy guidance document, and a number of agreements - including the Framework Convention on Climate Change which in turn led to the Kyoto Protocol. Environmental concerns were not new in ISO. For example, ISO technical committees developing standards for air and water quality were established in 1971. However, the focus on environmental standards intensified in the preparatory period leading up to the 1992 Earth Summit, in which ISO and its partner IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) became directly involved. UNCED wanted to ensure that business was fully engaged in the process. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) was established as a result of these efforts. This WBCSD approached the two international standards organizations to see what they were doing in the area of environmental management and to encourage them to become more active. This request from WBCSD came at a time when work was already in progress within the ISO/IEC Presidents' Advisory Board on Technical Trends and other instances of the two organizations. As a result, in August 1991, ISO and IEC formally established the Strategic Advisory Group on the Environment (SAGE) to study the situation and make recommendations. The SAGE process had two major end products: a series of ISO/IEC recommendations on environmental management, which were submitted to the UNCED preparatory conference in January 1992; and in October 1992, a recommendation to create a new ISO technical committee to develop standards in the area of environmental management. The recommendations to UNCED became a key element of the major documents that came out of that conference, Agenda 21, and the Rio Declaration. The recommendation to ISO and IEC led to the creation in 1993 of ISO/TC 207, Environmental management, which held its inaugural plenary session in Toronto in June of Its first standard, ISO 14001, Environmental management systems -- Specification with guidance for use was published in 1996 (ISO/TC 207 News article, PDF, 132 kB). The tremendous impact of ISO 9001 and ISO on organizational practices and on trade has stimulated the development of other ISO standards and deliverables that adapt the generic management system to specific sectors or aspects: Food safety Information security Supply chain security Medical devices Local government Education and so on … If you don’t already have an environmental management system (EMS), you can use this ISO standard to establish one. And once you’ve established your EMS, you can use it to manage the environmental aspects of your organization’s activities, products and services, and to improve its overall environmental performance. Environmental performance is all about how well you manage and control your environmental aspects and the impact they have on the environment. You can also use this standard to demonstrate that you are doing everything you can to protect the environment and improve your environmental performance. You can demonstrate your organization’s commitment in several ways: You can simply announce to the world that your EMS complies with the ISO standard (if it actually does). You can ask your customers or other interested parties to confirm that your EMS complies with the ISO standard. You can ask an ISO registrar or external auditor to verify that your EMS complies with the ISO standard. ISO expects organizations to comply with all of the requirements that make up the standard. No exceptions. According to ISO, every ISO requirement must be built into every EMS. However, the size and complexity of environmental management systems vary quite a bit. How far you go is up to you. The size and complexity of your EMS, the extent of your documentation, and the resources allocated to it will depend on many things. How you meet each of the ISO requirements, and to what extent, depends on many factors, including: The size of your organization. The location of your organization. The scope of your organization’s EMS. The content of your environmental policy. The nature of your activities, products, and services. The environmental impact of your environmental aspects. The legal and other requirements that must be met. 30

31 3. Umwelt Management Systeme
ISO SYSTEMATISCHE ANFORDERUNGEN 4.1 STETIGE VERBESSERUNG MANAGEMENT NACHPRÜFUNG 4.6 UMWELT STRATEGIE 4.2 VERIFIKATION KORREKTUR 4.5 Compare: PDCA-cycle: Plan – Do – Check – Act The Plan – Do – Check – Act (PDCA) cycle is the operating principle of ISO's management system standards. Plan – establish objectives and make plans (analyze your organization's situation, establish your overall objectives and set your interim targets, and develop plans to achieve them). Do – implement your plans (do what you planned to). Check – measure your results (measure/monitor how far your actual achievements meet your planned objectives). Act – correct and improve your plans and how you put them into practice (correct and learn from your mistakes to improve your plans in order to achieve better results next time). ISO 14001:2004 is an environmental management standard. It specifies a set of environmental management requirements for environmental management systems. The purpose of this standard is to help all types of organizations to protect the environment, to prevent pollution, and to improve their environmental performance. Following the complete structure of the ISO (not to be done in lesson)! 4.1 Systemic requirements: Establish an environmental management system that complies with the ISO standard. Document your environmental management system in accordance with the ISO standard. Implement your environmental management system in accordance with the ISO standard. Maintain your environmental management system in accordance with the ISO standard. Continually improve your environmental management system in accordance with the ISO standard. 4.2 Policy requirements: Establish your organization’s environmental policy. Define your organization’s environmental policy. Document your organization’s environmental policy. Implement your organization’s environmental policy. Maintain your organization’s environmental policy. Communicate your organization’s environmental policy. 4.3 Planning requirements 4.3.1 Identify your environmental aspects. Establish procedures to identify the environmental aspects of your activities, products, and services. Implement procedures to identify the environmental aspects of your activities, products, and services. Document the environmental aspects of your organization’s activities, products, and services. Maintain procedures to identify the environmental aspects of your activities, products, and services. 4.3.2 Clarify legal and other requirements. Establish procedures to identify and clarify the legal and other requirements that apply to your organization’s environmental aspects. Implement procedures to identify and clarify the legal and other requirements that apply to your environmental aspects. Maintain procedures to identify and clarify the legal and other requirements that apply to your environmental aspects. 4.3.3 Establish objectives and programs. Establish environmental objectives and targets. Implement environmental objectives and targets. Maintain environmental objectives and targets. Establish programs to achieve your organization's environmental objectives and targets. Implement programs to achieve your environmental objectives and targets. Maintain programs to achieve your environmental objectives and targets. 4.4 Operational requirements 4.4.1 Provide resources and establish jobs. Provide the resources needed to support your organization’s environmental management system. Provide the resources needed to establish your environmental management system. Provide the resources needed to implement your environmental management system. Provide the resources needed to maintain your environmental management system. Provide the resources needed to improve your environmental management system. Establish environmental management roles, responsibilities, and authorities. Define your environmental management roles, responsibilities, and authorities. Document your environmental management roles, responsibilities, and authorities. Communicate your environmental management roles, responsibilities, and authorities. Appoint someone to assume the role of management representative. 4.4.2 Deliver training and awareness programs. Make sure that people, who perform tasks that could potentially have a significant environmental impact, are in fact competent. Establish your environmental training programs. Identify your organization’s environmental training needs. Deliver training programs that meet your environmental training needs. Maintain a record of your organization’s environmental training activities. Establish a procedure to make people aware of your environmental management system. Implement your environmental awareness procedure. Maintain your environmental awareness procedure. 4.4.3 Establish communication procedures. Establish a procedure to control your organization’s internal environmental communications. Implement your organization’s internal environmental communications procedure. Maintain your organization’s internal environmental communications procedure. Establish a procedure to control your organization’s external environmental communications. Implement your organization’s external environmental communications procedure. Maintain your organization’s external environmental communications procedure. 4.4.4 Document your environmental management system. Document your organization’s environmental objectives. Document your organization’s environmental targets. Document the scope of environmental management system. Document the main parts of environmental management system. Describe how the parts of your organization's environmental management system interact. 4.4.5 Control environmental management documents. Control documents required by the ISO standard. Control documents required by your environmental management system. Control your environmental management system records. 4.4.6 Control environmentally significant operations. Identify those operations that are associated with your organization’s significant environmental aspects. Establish procedures to manage and control operational situations that could have significant environmental impacts. Document your environmental operational control procedures. Implement your environmental operational control procedures. Maintain your  environmental operational control procedures. Establish procedures to control the significant environmental aspects of the goods and services provided by your suppliers and contractors. Implement your environmental supplier and contractor control procedures. Maintain your environmental supplier and contractor control procedures. 4.4.7 Establish an emergency management process. Prepare for emergency situations and accidents that could have a significant impact on the environment. Establish procedures to identify potential emergency situations and accidents that could have an impact on the environment. Implement procedures to identify potential emergency situations and accidents that could have an impact. Maintain procedures to identify potential emergency situations and accidents that could have an impact on the environment. Establish procedures to respond to actual emergency situations and accidents that have an impact on the environment. Implement procedures to respond to actual emergency situations and accidents that have an impact. Maintain procedures to respond to actual emergency situations and accidents that have an impact on the environment. Test your environmental emergency response procedures. Respond to actual environmental emergencies and accidents. Prevent or mitigate the adverse environmental impacts that emergencies and accidents can and do cause. Review and revise your environmental emergency preparedness and response procedures. 4.5 Checking requirements 4.5.1 Establish monitoring and measurement capabilities. Establish procedures to monitor and measure the operational characteristics that could have a significant impact on the environment. Implement your organization's environmental monitoring and measuring procedures. Maintain your organization's environmental monitoring and measuring procedures. Use calibrated or verified environmental monitoring and measuring equipment. Maintain your organization’s environmental monitoring and measuring equipment. Keep a record of your environmental monitoring and measuring activities. 4.5.2 Evaluate legal and other compliance. Evaluate compliance with legal requirements. Establish a procedure to periodically evaluate how well your organization complies with all relevant legal environmental requirements. Implement a procedure to periodically evaluate how well your organization complies with all relevant legal environmental requirements. Maintain a procedure to periodically evaluate how well your organization complies with all relevant legal environmental requirements. Record the results of your organization's legal environmental compliance evaluations. Evaluate compliance with other requirements. Establish a procedure to periodically evaluate how well your organization complies with other environmental requirements. Implement a procedure to periodically evaluate how well your organization complies with other environmental requirements. Maintain a procedure to periodically evaluate how well your organization complies with other environmental requirements. Record the results of your organization's other environmental compliance evaluations. 4.5.3 Deal with your nonconformities. Establish nonconformance management procedures. Implement nonconformance management procedures. Maintain nonconformance management procedures. Change documents when nonconformities make it necessary. 4.5.4 Control your environmental records. Establish environmental records for your organization. Establish procedures to control your environmental records. Implement procedures to control environmental records. Maintain procedures to control environmental records. 4.5.5 Perform internal environmental management audits. Plan the development of an internal environmental management audit program. Establish your environmental management audit program. Implement your internal environmental management audit program. Maintain your internal environmental management audit program. Establish an environmental management audit procedure. Implement your internal environmental management audit procedure. Maintain your internal environmental management audit procedure. Conduct internal audits of environmental management system. Report internal audit results to your organization’s management. 4.6 Review requirements Perform environmental management reviews. Review the suitability, adequacy, and effectiveness of your environmental management system. Assess opportunities for improvement. Assess whether or not your environmental management system should be changed. Assess whether or not your organization’s environmental policy should be changed. Assess whether or not your organization’s environmental objectives should be changed. Assess whether or not your organization’s environmental targets should be changed. Keep a record of your environmental reviews. In short ... 4.2 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY Policy from senior management 4.3 PLANNING Know how the business effects the environment Operations / activities Products / services Legal and other requirements Know what requirements must be met Objectives and targets Aimed at improving performance based on policy and knowledge of aspects Programme Responsibilities, actions, resources, and timescales for reaching objectives and targets 4.4 IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION Structure and responsibility Management representative Who does what for ‘key activities’ Specialist skills / technology / resources as required Training awareness and competence ‘Key activities’ undertaken by competent personnel; necessary education, training and experience Communication Internal and external 4.4.4 & 5 System documentation and control EMS description in writing Documents controlled Operational control For ‘key activities’ : written instructions, operating criteria, characteristics and limits Performance of suppliers and subcontractors Emergency preparedness and response Plans - established, maintained, reviewed and tested 4.5 CHECKING / CORRECTIVE ACTION Monitoring and measuring ‘Key activities’, objectives, targets, legislation and regulations Calibration and maintenance 4.5.2 Non-conformance / corrective and preventive action Problems and near misses Records EMS audits Undertake activities as planned Meet requirements of ISO 14001 Systematic, planned 4.6 MANAGEMENT REVIEW Is the EMS suitable, adequate and effective Change and improvement PLANUNG 4.3 DURCHFÜHRUNG 4.4


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