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Standortsysteme im Postfordismus

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Standortsysteme im Postfordismus"—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Standortsysteme im Postfordismus
VU © Peter Weichhart 3 Std. Mittwoch ; Hs. 5A (NIG), Kapitel 6.12 Modul 04/02 Die postfordistischen Standortsysteme und ihre Entwicklungsdynamik I © Peter Weichhart, 2002 SSPF2/04/02/01

2 Die Ausgangslage Vor dem Hintergrund der Globalisierung
sollte es eigentlich keine Standortdiffe- renzierungen mehr geben. Der empirische Befund zeigt, dass diese Annahme aber nicht haltbar ist: regionale Disparitäten werden nicht abgebaut, sondern verschärfen sich; es kommt zur Entwicklung von regio- nalen Wirtschaftssystemen. SSPF2/04/02/02

3 Der „Motor“ der Standortdifferenzierung
Die Globalisierung führte zu einer ex- tremen Verschärfung des Wettbewerbs. Zwang zur Modernisierung, Kostensenkung und Effizienzsteigerung SSPF2/04/02/03

4 Standorte der Macht „Global Cities“ Steuerungs- und Kontrollzentralen,
Standorte zentralisierter Manage- mentfunktionen für hochspezialisierte Dienstleistungen und die Zentralen der Finanzwirtschaft. S. SASSEN, 1996, Metropolen des Weltmarkts. Die neue Rolle der Global Cities. – Frankfurt u. New York. SSPF2/04/02/04

5 Globale Tendenzen der Standort-entwicklung im Postfordismus
Räumliche Streuung („Enträumlichung“) der Wirtschaftstätigkeit Komplementarität Zentralisierung und Ballung von Kontroll- funktionen und Topmanagement in Orten „globaler Zentralität“ SSPF2/04/02/05

6 Das institutionelle Gefüge der gegenwärtigen Weltwirtschaft
Herausbildung neuer strate- gischer Schau- plätze Transnationale Konzerne Globale Finanzmärkte Liberalisierter Geld-und Warenverkehr Transnationale Handelsblöcke (NAFTA, EU) SSPF2/04/02/06

7 ANDEAN The Andean Community is a subregional organi-
zation with an internatio- nal legal status. It is made up of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Vene- zuela and the bodies and institutions comprising the Andean Integration System (AIS). (Hyperlinks!!!) SSPF2/04/02/07

8 ANDEAN - Ziele “The key objectives of the Andean Community
(CAN) are: to promote the balanced and harmonious development of the member countries under equitable conditions, to boost their growth through integration and economic and social cooperation, to enhance partici- pation in the regional integration process with a view to the progressive formation of a Latin American common market, and to strive for a steady improvement in the standard of living of their inhabitants.” Quelle: Homepage ANDEAN SSPF2/04/02/08

9 MERCOSUR Mercado Comun del Sur SSPF2/04/02/09

10 MERCOSUR MERCOSUR, known as The Southern Common
Market, was created by the Treaty of Asunción signed by Argentina, Brazil, Para- guay and Uruguay in the Paraguayan capital on March 26, Chile and Bolivia became asso- ciate members in 1996 and 1997 respectively. With a population of 220 million and a GDP of US$ 1.3 trillion in 1997, MERCOSUR is the fastest growing trading bloc in the world. It experienced a trade growth of 400% in the period SSPF2/04/02/10

11 ASEAN ASEAN was formed during an era of turmoil and upheaval in the region, giving rise to great skepticism over its survival. Through the efforts of H.E. Dr. Thanat Khoman, Thailand's Foreign Minister at that time, the idea of regionalism was promoted. The Association of Southeast Asia (ASA), composed of Thailand, Malaya(Malaysia) and the Philippines, was created in 1962 to foster intra-Southeast Asia economic, social and cultural cooperation. However, it ran into difficulties between its member states. Similarly, Maphilindo, an acronym composed from the names of its members, namely Malaya, the Philippines and Indonesia, was planned to be established but the concept was aborted even before it was formally launched because of hostilities among its members. However, these two initiatives laid the intellectual groundwork for the creation of ASEAN, a regional grouping which would later become a key player within Southeast Asia and the Asia-Pacific. aaaaaPost-war conditions among the Southeast Asian nations were to a large extent turbulent. Ideological revolution, insurgency, internal tensions and civil strife often led to fighting and bloodshed. Although most of these conflicts were internal within the newly independent nations, there was also some friction between the nations, one notable case being the episode of confrontation on Singapore and the British controlled territories of Sabah and Sarawak. An end of colonial rule, faced with an intensified Vietnam War and the growing communist threat, Thai leaders saw the need to establish stronger relations with the new leaders of her newly independent neighbors. aaaaaAt that time, a number of factors had altered the political environment of the region. Indonesia experienced drastic changes with the rising of the New Order which brought about an end to the Confrontation between Indonesia and Malaysia. A change of government in the Philippines further paved the way for improved diplomatic relations between Malaysia and the Philippines. These positive developments together with the effort of Thailand as a conciliator were helpful in improving relations between the three nations. This was followed by quiet diplomacy and an exploration of the areas of congruence and convergence in the aspirations of the various nations, which culminated in the historic meeting in Bangkok on 8 August 1967, attended by the Foreign Ministers of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. This meeting resulted in the signing of the ASEAN Declaration which give birth to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN.           Aside from being a significant contributor in the establishment of ASEAN, Thailand also played a critical role in the political aspect, which was one of the main objectives in the establishment of ASEAN. Thailand had been involved in activities aimed at solving conflicts among nations and to sustain peace within ASEAN. Thailand also played an important part towards the declaration of ASEAN as the Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN), and worked towards the signing of the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation. In addition, Thailand initiated the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and the signing of the treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (SEANWFZ) during the Fifth ASEAN Summit in Bangkok, December As a consequence and to honour her efforts, the said treaties are being deposited in Thailand.             With the collapse of the cold war, issues such as economic, trade and investment have become topics of global interest. In order to extend ASEAN cooperation into the economic arena, the former Prime Minister of Thailand, H.E. Anand Panyarachun, proposed the creation of an "ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) ", to enhance intra-ASEAN-trade. The idea was endorsed by the ASEAN Heads of Government at the Fourth Summit in Singapore in 1992 and was implemented in January Other areas of economic cooperation such as the ASEAN Industrial Cooperation (AICO) Scheme and cooperation in investment and services have also emerged. At the Fifth Summit in Bangkok in December 1998, social and functional cooperation was elevated to a higher plane. The theme of Bangkok Declaration 1995 was : "Shared prosperity through human development, technological competitiveness and social cohesiveness." Consequently, the ASEAN Foundation was established, aimed at supporting educational activities and promoting exchanges among the peoples of ASEAN member countries. This foundation was developed partly from the founding of a social development fund by H.E. Mr. Amnuay Virawan, Thai Foreign Minister at that time. In addition, at the Second Informal Summit in December 1997, Thailand played a major part in the adoption of the ASEAN Vision 2020, which aims to serve as a guide for ASEAN in the 21st Century.          At the Sixth Hanoi Summit in December 1998, Thailand also pushed for stronger ASEAN commitment to existing and newer economic cooperation and integration schemes as a means to confront the regional crisis. With the expansion of ASEAN, Thailand felt that it was also opportune for the Leaders to discuss issues aimed at maintaining unity and open dialogue within ASEAN. In the Hanoi Declaration, Thailand pushed for insertion of ideas on "the need to move ASEAN onto a higher plane of regional cooperation in order to strengthen ASEAN's effectiveness."   It calls for intensifying dialogues on current and emerging issues. In addition, Thailand also proposed ideas aimed at promoting total human development and the strengthening ASEAN cooperation on transnational and cross-border issues. In the HPA, Thailand submitted refinements on the need to emphasize on human resources development, elimination of poverty and socio-economic disparities, information technology and infrastructure, environmental and sustainable development, and amelioration of the social impact of the financial situation in the region. aaaaaASEAN was a truly regional initiative. It was created by Southeast Asians, for Southeast Asians. Its aims were indeed modest: to foster economic, social and cultural cooperation amongst its members. The implications, however, were immense. It was an attempt by Southeast Asian countries to regain command of their own destiny. ASEAN offered a base for the development of a regional order to govern relations within Southeast Asia which transcended the divisions of the Cold War. It was conceived that, ultimately, all Southeast Asian countries would be part of ASEAN. With the admission of Vietnam into the Association in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997 as well as Cambodia in 1999, ASEAN today encompasses all 10 countries of Southeast Asia, fulfilling the long-cherished vision of its Founding Fathers. ASEAN 10 with around 500 million people and endowed with abundant natural resources will continue to consolidate all efforts towards the next millenium. Quelle: Homepage Asean Büro Thailand Notiz!! SSPF2/04/02/11

12 EU – Einheit und Vielfalt
Europäische Grenzregionen 2000 SSPF2/04/02/12

13 „Strategische Orte“ der Weltwirtschaft
Industrieagglo- merationen Hafen- städte Exportorientierte Produktionszonen Offshore- Banken- zentren „Global Cities“ SSPF2/04/02/13

14 Global Cities ... „... sind zentrale Standorte für hochent-
wickelte Dienstleistungen und Tele- kommunikationseinrichtungen, wie sie für die Durchführung und das Manage- ment globaler Wirtschaftsaktivitäten erforderlich sind.“ S. SASSEN, 1996, S. 39 SSPF2/04/02/14

15 Funktionen der Global Cities
Steuerungszentren der Weltwirtschaft Standorte der Zentralen transnatio- naler Konzerne Standorte hochspezialisierter Dienst- leistungsunternehmen postindustrielle Produktionsstätten des Quartärsektors SSPF2/04/02/15

16 „Zentralitätsstufen“ von Global Cities
Weltzentren: New York, Tokio, London supranationale/multinationale Zentren Paris, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Los Angeles, Singapur, (Zürich) nationale Zentren: Madrid, Sydney, Buenos Aires, (Zürich), ... „Headquarter Economy“ SSPF2/04/02/16

17 „Headquarter Economy“
Produktion von „global control capability“: Gesamtheit der Aktivitäten und organisatori- schen Arrangements, die für die Implemen- tierung und Aufrechterhaltung des globalen Produktionsprozesses notwendig ist. (C. SCHMID, 1996, S. 32). (Buchhaltung, Werbung, Entscheidungs- findung, ... Sekretärinnen, Wartungsarbeiter, Reinigungskräfte, Wachdienste, Boten, ...) SSPF2/04/02/17

18 Die Headquarter Economy ...
„... bildet somit einen spezifischen Pro- duktionskomplex, der sich aus einem Ensemble von spezialisierten Unterneh- men zusammensetzt, für deren Koope- ration Face-to-face-Kontakte oder räum- liche Nähe weiterhin unabdingbar sind“. (C. SCHMID, 1996, S. 32). SSPF2/04/02/18

19 Rahmenbedingungen der Headquarter Economy
erstklassige Verkehrsanbindung hochrangige urbane Infrastruktur Bestausstattung Telekommunikation differenzierter Arbeitsmarkt, gute Reproduktionsbedingungen SSPF2/04/02/19

20 Die globalen Netzwerke der Arbeitsmigration
Manila, Colombo, Dhaka, Hyderabad Global Cities I Global Cities II Netzwerk- Knoten für Kapital-, In- formations- und Waren- ströme Netzwerkknoten für den Import von Arbeitsmigranten SSPF2/04/02/20

21 Managementstrukturen der internationalen Arbeitsmigration
„contract procurement“ Verhandlungen und Vereinbarungen zwischen Arbeitsvermittlern, ausländischen Arbeitgebern und staatlichen Institutionen „labor recruitment“ Interaktion zwischen Arbeitsvermittlern, Bewerbern und staatlichen Institutionen „worker deployment“ Entscheidung auf Haushaltsebene Nach J. A. TYNER, 2000, S. 63. SSPF2/04/02/21

22 Overseas Employment De- velopment Board (OEDB)
„Arbeitskräfte-Export“ als staatliches Entwicklungskonzept der Philippinen Bureau of Employ- ment Services 1974: Overseas Employment De- velopment Board (OEDB) National Seaman‘s Board (NSB) 1982: Philippines Overseas Employ- ment Administration (POEA) Kommandozentrale: MANILA SSPF2/04/02/22

23 Global Economy P E R I P H E R I E Regionale Cluster Strategische Orte
Industrieagglo- merationen Hafen- städte Exportorientierte Produktionszonen Offshore- Banken- zentren „Global Cities“ SSPF2/04/03/23

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