Präsentation zum Thema: "The German language – A very short introduction by Lena, Jana, Magdalena & others."— Präsentation transkript:
The German language – A very short introduction by Lena, Jana, Magdalena & others
Areas with the German language German is the official language German is a lingua franca German speaking minorities
1st German dictionary by the Brothers Grimm (1854)
The alphabet in German A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z (The red letters are vowels)
Special letters and sounds Umlaute & diphthongs ä ö ü au ei eu äu Sibilants & other difficult sounds ß ch sch st sp ck
Examples zählen (count) Österreich (Austria) Münze (coin) Frau (woman) Eier (eggs) Leute (people) Mäuse (mice) süß (sweet) acht (eight), ich (I) Schule (school) Stern (star), Ast (branch) springen (jump) Schnecke (snail)
Difficult & funny words Naschkätzchen (somebody with a sweet tooth) Streichholzschächtelchen (a small matchbox) Fruchtzwerg (literally „fruitdwarf“, name of a small fruit joghurt) Zweiundzwanzig (22) Eichhörnchen (squirrel) Achterbahn (roller coaster) Tollpatsch (klutz)
Difficult grammar German has three articles: der (male) die (female) das (neuter) Remembering the correct article is difficult enough, but what makes it even worse, the articles change depending on whether the noun is the subject, an accusative object, a dative object or a genitive object.
Declination of articles nominative: die Sonne der Mond das Meer genitive: der Sonne des Mondes des Meeres dative: der Sonne dem Mond dem Meer accusative: die Sonne den Mond das Meer To make things even more difficult, not only the articles have to change, but e.g. adjectives are also changed with the noun e.g. singular / plural: die helle Sonne, die hellen Sonnen / der runde Mond, die runden Monde / das blaue Meer, die blauen Meere
Conjugation of verbs: Verbs have to be changed according to the subject: ich singeI sing du singstyou sing er/sie/es singthe/she/it sings wir singenwe sing ihr singtyou sing sie singenthey sing These are the grammar structures that are a lot more difficult than in English. But always look on the bright side, there are things that are a lot easier in German than in English!
German tenses To communicate you only need two (!) different tenses: 1.Präsens: for everything that happens or is happening in the present or will happen in the future 2.Perfekt: for everything that happened in the past Of course, there are more tenses, but you only need them in written German. (to) learn I learn/ I am learning / I will learn I have learned / I learned
German word order Since the articles and the verb tell you which word is the subject of the sentence and which words are objects, you can play with the word order, almost everything is possible! The woman gives the boy the book: Die Frau gibt dem Jungen das Buch. Die Frau gibt das Buch dem Jungen. Dem Jungen gibt die Frau das Buch. Dem Jungen gibt das Buch die Frau. Das Buch gibt die Frau dem Jungen. Das Buch gibt dem Jungen die Frau.
Compounds You can create very long nouns by just putting several words together: Haustürschlüsselloch = „housedoorkeyhole“: Haus (house) + Tür (door) + Schlüssel (key) + Loch (hole) Blumentopferdesack = „flowerpotearthsack“: Blume (flower) + Topf (pot) + Erde (earth) + Sack (sack) Hundehüttendachabdeckungsschaden = „doghutroofcoverdamage“: Hund (dog) + Hütte (hut) + Dach (roof) + Abdeckung (cover) + Schaden (damage) Donaudampfschifffahrtselektrizitätshaupt- betriebswerksbauunterbeamtengesellschaft (association for subordinate officials of the head office management of the Danube steamboat electrical services) Does your language have a word with 80 letters???
Don‘t worry, speak German! Although some aspects of the German grammar are rather complicated, don‘t worry. Germans do understand you even if you use the wrong article or the infinitive of the verb instead of its correct form. Forget about grammar, just speak Outtakes Ende - the End