Präsentation zum Thema: "What is a “CASE”? in English: pronouns, certain interrogatives"— Präsentation transkript:
1 What is a “CASE”? in English: pronouns, certain interrogatives Grammatical cases indicate how certain words function in a sentence. The case of a word is shown by the particular form of the word itself or by the form of the words that accompany it.In German it affects more parts of the speech than in English:in English: pronouns, certain interrogativesin German: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, articlesIn English the function of a noun in a sentence and therefore its meaning is defined by the order of the word in the sentence:The girl gives the boy the apple.The boy gives the girl the apple.
2 “CASE”of English pronouns The function of pronouns in English is indicated not only by the word order but also by the form, i.e. the case of the pronoun:I know them.They know me.He sees her.She sees him.In these examples I and me / they and them / he and him / she and her are different forms - different CASES - of the same pronoun.
3 “CASE”of English pronouns the nominative case...is used when a pronoun is a subject or a predicate noun.She and I went to the movie.We enjoyed the film.It was he who spoiled the fun.the objective case...is used when a pronoun is a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a prepositionThey invited both him and me.They send us a note.We asked about them.the possessive caseis used when a pronoun shows ownership
4 “CASE” in GERMAN The boy gives the girl the apple. Word order does not indicate the function of nouns within a sentence. This is indicated either by the form of the noun or the form of its definite or indefinite article:The boy gives the girl the apple.Der Junge gibt dem Mädchen den Apfel.Dem Mädchen gibt der Junge den Apfel.Den Apfel gibt der Junge dem Mädchen.The difference in function is indicated by the different forms of the article.
5 “CASE” in GERMANThere are four different cases in German:the nominative [der Nominativ] used for the subject of a sentence and for predicate nounsthe accusative [der Akkusativ] used for direct objectsthe dative [der Dativ]used for indirect objects and some special verbsthe genitive [der Genitiv]used to show possession or close relationThe boy gives the girl the apple.Der Junge gibt dem Mädchen den Apfel.nominative dative accusative
6 ACCUSATIVE I you he she it we you they me you him her it us you them As in English German pronouns used as direct objects change their form, i.e. the case:I you he she it we you theyme you him her it us you themich du er sie es wir ihr siemich dich ihn sie es uns euch sieIn addition in German definite and indefinite articles change:DER DIE DAS EIN EINE EINDEN DIE DAS EINEN EINE EIN
7 ACCUSATIVE more changes: WER (Who is that?) WEN (Whom did you see?) welcher welche welcheswelchen welche welchesdieser diese diesesdiesen diese dieseskein keine keinkeinen keine kein
8 What are Objects? us a letter. his uncle. Children play. Peter sleeps. an answer.Ingrid wantsShe sentusa letter.his uncle.He works forPaula reads what? the book.the book is the direct object.Paula reads the book.They are inviting Paula and her sister.They are inviting whom? Paula and her sisterPaula and her sister are two direct objects.
9 AKKUSATIV Peter brings his mother home. His mother brings Peter home. He brings her home.She brings him home.Er bringt sie nach Hause.Sie bringt ihn nach Hause.
10 AKKUSATIV bis durch für gegen ohne um Ich lerne bis nächsten Mittwoch. Ich gehe durch den Park.Er arbeitet für seinen Onkel.Er ist gegen diesen Politiker.Sie kommt ohne ihren Freund.Wir laufen um den Marktplatz.
11 AKKUSATIV direct object object of the prepositions: bis durch für gegen ohne umeffects:article words (and adjectives) of masculine nounspersonal pronouns
12 type / function / form type of words: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives etc.their function in a sentence:subject , predicate , object etc.their form depending on their function:nominative , accusative, genitive etc.