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Type / function / form type of words: type of words: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives etc. their function in a sentence: their function in a sentence:

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Type / function / form type of words: type of words: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives etc. their function in a sentence: their function in a sentence:"—  Präsentation transkript:

1 type / function / form type of words: type of words: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives etc. their function in a sentence: their function in a sentence: subject, predicate, object etc. their form depending on their function: their form depending on their function: nominative, accusative, genitive etc.

2 What are Objects? Children play. Peter sleeps. Ingrid wants an answer. She sent us a letter. He works for his uncle. Paula reads the book. Paula reads what? the book. the book is the direct object. They are inviting Paula and her sister. They are inviting whom? Paula and her sister Paula and her sister are two direct objects.

3 AKKUSATIV Peter brings his mother home. His mother brings Peter home. He brings her home. She brings him home. Er bringt sie nach Hause. Sie bringt ihn nach Hause.

4 AKKUSATIV bis bis durch durch für für gegen gegen ohne ohne um um Ich lerne bis nächsten Mittwoch. Ich lerne bis nächsten Mittwoch. Ich gehe durch den Park. Ich gehe durch den Park. Er arbeitet für seinen Onkel. Er arbeitet für seinen Onkel. Er ist gegen diesen Politiker. Er ist gegen diesen Politiker. Sie kommt ohne ihren Freund. Sie kommt ohne ihren Freund. Wir laufen um den Marktplatz. Wir laufen um den Marktplatz.

5 AKKUSATIV direct object direct object object of the prepositions: object of the prepositions: bis durch für gegen ohne um effects: effects: –article words (and adjectives) of masculine nouns –personal pronouns

6 What is a “CASE”? Grammatical cases indicate how certain words function in a sentence. The case of a word is shown by the particular form of the word itself or by the form of the words that accompany it. In German it affects more parts of the speech than in English: in English: pronouns, certain interrogatives in English: pronouns, certain interrogatives in German: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, articles in German: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, articles In English the function of a noun in a sentence and therefore its meaning is defined by the order of the word in the sentence: The girl gives the boy the apple. The girl gives the boy the apple. The boy gives the girl the apple. The boy gives the girl the apple.

7 “CASE”of English pronouns The function of pronouns in English is indicated not only by the word order but also by the form, i.e. the case of the pronoun: I know them. I know them. They know me. They know me. He sees her. He sees her. She sees him. She sees him. In these examples I and me / they and them / he and him / she and her are different forms - different CASES - of the same pronoun.

8 “CASE”of English pronouns the nominative case the nominative case...is used when a pronoun is a subject or a predicate noun. –She and I went to the movie. –We enjoyed the film. –It was he who spoiled the fun. the objective case the objective case...is used when a pronoun is a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition –They invited both him and me. –They send us a note. –We asked about them. the possessive case the possessive case is used when a pronoun shows ownership

9 “CASE” in GERMAN Word order does not indicate the function of nouns within a sentence. This is indicated either by the form of the noun or the form of its definite or indefinite article: The boy gives the girl the apple. The boy gives the girl the apple. Der Junge gibt dem Mädchen den Apfel. Der Junge gibt dem Mädchen den Apfel. Dem Mädchen gibt der Junge den Apfel. Dem Mädchen gibt der Junge den Apfel. Den Apfel gibt der Junge dem Mädchen. Den Apfel gibt der Junge dem Mädchen. The difference in function is indicated by the different forms of the article.

10 “CASE” in GERMAN There are four different cases in German: the nominative [der Nominativ] used for the subject of a sentence and for predicate nouns the nominative [der Nominativ] used for the subject of a sentence and for predicate nouns the accusative [der Akkusativ] used for direct objects the accusative [der Akkusativ] used for direct objects the dative [der Dativ] the dative [der Dativ] used for indirect objects and some special verbs the genitive [der Genitiv] the genitive [der Genitiv] used to show possession or close relation The boy gives the girl the apple. Der Junge gibt dem Mädchen den Apfel. nominativedative accusative

11 ACCUSATIVE As in English German pronouns used as direct objects change their form, i.e. the case: I you he she it we you they I you he she it we you they me you him her it us you them me you him her it us you them ich du er sie es wir ihr sie ich du er sie es wir ihr sie mich dich ihn sie es uns euch sie mich dich ihn sie es uns euch sie In addition in German definite and indefinite articles change: DER DIE DASEIN EINE EIN DER DIE DASEIN EINE EIN DEN DIE DASEINEN EINE EIN DEN DIE DASEINEN EINE EIN

12 ACCUSATIVE more changes: more changes: WER (Who is that?) WER (Who is that?) WEN (Whom did you see?) WEN (Whom did you see?) welcher welche welches welcher welche welches welchen welche welches welchen welche welches dieser diese dieses dieser diese dieses diesen diese dieses diesen diese dieses kein keine kein kein keine kein keinen keine kein keinen keine kein


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