Präsentation zum Thema: "Seminar Windkraftanlagen 16.April 2007 HTBLuVA Wiener Neustadt"— Präsentation transkript:
1Seminar Windkraftanlagen 16.April 2007 HTBLuVA Wiener Neustadt DI Christof FlucherVestas Österreich GmbH
2-Vestas als Anlagenhersteller -Windenergieanlagen von Vestas -Antriebskonzepte und Netzeinspeisung
3Vestas Geschichte - Meilensteine 1898: Das Jahr, als alles begann. Der Schmied H. S. Hansen eröffnete seine erste Werkstatt in Lem, Dänemark.1979: Erste Windener-gieanlage auf dem Markt1998:Börsennotierung an der Kopenhagener Börse1945:VEstjysk STålteknik A/S wird gegründet (Haushalts- und Land-wirtschaftsmaschinen etc.)1987: Vestas Wind Systems A/S wird gegründet2004:Zusammenschluss von NEG Micon A/Sund Vestas Wind Systems A/SMilestones:1898: The year when it all started. The year when H. S. Hansen, the blacksmith, stepped off the train at the station in Lem, Denmark, and opened his first workshop shortly afterwards. “Smith Hansen” was a success from the start on account of his rich stock of ideas and fearless initiative. It seems that he was also an inspiration to his assistant smiths, as many of them subsequently started their own businesses. The town of Lem gradually developed into an important center for the blacksmiths’ craft.1945: Peder Hansen (H.S.´s son) leaves Dansk Stålvindue Industri and joins forces with nine colleagues to establish the company VEstjysk STålteknik A/S, which subsequently changes its name to Vestas. The company’s start capital is DKK 75,000. The Vestas team moves into a collection of simple wooden buildings and starts to manufacture household appliances such as mixers and kitchen scales.1979: Vestas is now ready to deliver the first wind turbines to customers who wish to invest in alternative energy. The following years prove Vestas’ decision to start manufacturing wind turbines to have been the right choice, as the industry experiences a genuine boom at the start of the 1980s. Six years later, in 1985, Vestas employs around 800 people, and it is also during this period that Vestas builds the first extensive turbine factory (12,000 m2) on the outskirts of Lem.1986: A problematic year for Vestas. The special tax legislation that provided advantageous conditions for the establishment of wind turbines in California, expires at the end of 1985, effectively destroying Vestas’ market in the United States. A rescue plan is initiated in February, but on 3 October, the Group is forced to suspend payments. Nevertheless, there is nothing wrong with the turbines themselves, and it soon becomes clear that Vestas’ quality products and extensive know-how constitute an excellent basis for starting again.1987: Following the crisis of 1986, large sections of the Vestas Group are sold off so that it is possible to establish a new company called Vestas Wind Systems A/S at the end of – a company that concentrates exclusively on wind energy. A new management team and around 60 employees form the basis for the second chapter of the Vestas story.1998: Vestas is floated on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange. The purpose of this flotation is to generate capital for growth, which is continuing in all markets and requires new facilities for fibreglass production and unit assembly.2004: The combination of NEG Micon A/S and Vestas Wind Systems A/S is now a reality. The organisation is being launched under the Vestas name and will be the world leader in the wind power industry. It will benefit customers through superior customer service, state-of-the-art technology and synergies of innovation to lead the industry into the future.
4VESTAS - Hauptaktivitäten Entwicklung, Produktion, Vertrieb, Marketingund Wartung von Anlagen,die mit Windenergie Strom erzeugenForschungund Ent-wicklungProduk-tion undTestsVertriebPlanungTrans-portInstal-lationServiceWartung“Vestas’ strategy is to supply customised wind power systems based on standard wind turbines and standardised options that can generate electricity of the optimal quality at the most competitive price.”Vestas’ principal activities are the development, manufacture, sale and maintenance of systems that use wind energy to generate electricity. Vestas supplies a full range of products, from individual turbines to the delivery of turnkey wind power systems.As a strong, independent partner, Vestas can supply guidance to customers in connection with the development, financing and ownership of wind turbine projects. However, Vestas never participates directly in these activities. On the contrary, Vestas is the independent system supplier.In a growing market, Vestas is distinguished by a high degree of vertical integration, manufacturing all components that cannot be purchased from external suppliers in standard or slightly modified forms. By manufacturing the principal parts of the turbine itself, Vestas increases the flexibility of its product development, reduces its dependence on suppliers, and maintains its high level of manufacturing know-how. At the same time, Vestas’ strategy involves ensuring that production and sourcing are carried out as closely to the market as possible, which will similarly reduce dependency on different currencies.Vestas provides maintenance of the turbines in the warranty period (2 or 5 years) - and is offering service solutions for a period of 20 years.
5Windenergieanlagen in über 50 Märkten USADänemarkNorwegenGriechenlandDeutschlandChinaAustralienThe wind turbine market is a global market, and Vestas has installed around 29,000 wind turbines in more than 50 countries. In total Vestas and Vestas’ associated company have delivered 964 MW in 1 half year 2005 which is a minor decline of approximately 1% compared to 1 half year In particular, the deliveries to Australia, India and Italy have increased, whereas deliveries to Germany, Spain and Great Britain have decreased considerably during 1 half year Deliveries to the three last mentioned markets as well as to the USA are, however, expected to increase considerably during 2 half year 2005 where a number of projects are planned for delivery to these areas. In general, the markets are developing satisfactorily and in accordance with Vestas’ expectations with a positive development in the USA and in a number of European and Asian markets. Vestas is experiencing a constantly growing interest for wind power which is not only driven by Vestas’ technological development activities, but also by the price development of other energy sources including in particular the heavily increasing oil prices.Status of selected markets in 1 half year 2005 Germany: Germany is still a large and stable market characterized by huge seasonal fluctuations. Vestas’ order intake in 1 half year 2005 has lived up to the expectations and there will be a big pressure on the transportation and installation capacity in 2 half year. In September 2005, Germany will hold an extraordinary federal election, which may have an effect on the present energy policy. The political direction of the future energy policy is expected to be determined during the spring of Through its ratification of the Kyoto protocol Germany has a target of 12.5% renewable energy before Today the share of renewable energy in Germany is approximately 9%, of which approximately half, equivalent to 17,000 MW, comes from wind power cf. Bundesgesetzblatt (BGBI. I, S ff). If Germany has to reach the Kyoto target and 2% of the remaining 3.5% of the target will come from wind power, this corresponds to installation of another approximately 6,800 MW wind power in Germany. In 1 half year 2005, Vestas delivered 128 MW to the German and Austrian markets.Australia/New Zealand: As anticipated, Vestas’ high level of activity in Australia and New Zealand has continued in 2005 with deliveries of a total of 195 MW in 1 half year. In July, Vestas received an order for 48 units of V MW wind turbines to Australia, which confirms Vestas’ continuous strong position in the Australian market. On 4 August 2005, Vestas’ new blade factory in Portland, Victoria, was officially inaugurated. The factory will be producing blades for MW wind turbines. The Australian market is driven by the availability of the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target (MRET). As described by Vestas in May 2005, there has been a strong pressure on the Australian government to prolong and raise the MRET. It is, however, Vestas’ understanding that the present government intends to continue with an unchanged MRET. Regional initiatives for exploitation of Australia’s excellent wind resources to a certain extent support the market for wind power, but the consequence of the government’s policy is that the long-term market potential for wind power in Australia is now considered very unstable. The market in New Zealand is, however, expected to grow in the coming years. The market is driven by a large wind potential, lack of energy, and the possibility of trading carbon credits.USA/Canada: There is a very high level of activity in the American market where a number of large projects are under construction at the moment. The present Production Tax Credit (PTC) scheme has just been extended for two years and will now expire at the end of The extension of the PTC scheme is a very positive signal to the market and in the short term this will contribute to an increased stability, but unfortunately the suggested mandatory demand for renewable energy (Renewable Portfolio Standard) was not approved. Vestas’ positive expectations for the future prospects for the American market are, however, still supported by RPS schemes on state level as well as higher prices of other energy sources in the USA. Vestas has also positive expectations for the Canadian market, where the Canadian government has increased the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI) from the original target of 1,000 MW to 4,000 MW. The WPPI scheme gives the power producers a payment of 1 cent/kWh over a period of 10 years. Furthermore, the government has published a plan for reduction of Canada’s emission of greenhouse gasses in order to work towards complying with the Kyoto protocol target for The plan comprises a trading system for emission of greenhouse gasses for large industrial polluters and supports the financing of domestic investments which contribute to reducing the emission of greenhouse gasses. At the same time regional initiatives for renewable energy also support a stable growth and e.g. the provinces of Quebec and Ontario have issued Requests For Proposal (RFPs) for 2,000 and 1,000 MW, respectively. In 1 half year, Vestas delivered 78 MW for USA and Canada.
6Development of Vestas turbines The annual production is based on the following conditions:A wind speed measurement at a height of 40 metresAn average wind speed of 7 m/sc = 2.0Air-mass density = kg/m3Wind shear 0.15Maximum noise levelTower heights (hub height): V44: 40m V47: 45mV52: 50mV66: 67mV82: 80 mV80: 78mV90-1.8/2.0 MW*: 80 mV MW: 80 mV MW: 80 mV120: 90 m*For IEC III turbines, the nominal output is 2 MW (V90). The annual production is calculated at a max. mean wind speed of 7.5 m/s at hub height.V100 prototypes will be installed in a number of markets during Vestas expects to commence serial production in The first V120 prototypes are expected to be available in The annual production (MWh/year) for V100 and V120 will not be available until they have been released for sale.The development of Vestas’ product range has moved in the direction of larger turbines. The first turbines that entered the market in 1981 had a rotor diameter of 15 metres, a 22 metre tower and a 55 kW effect. Today, Vestas’ largest turbine - the V120 - has a rotor diameter of 120 m and the nominal output is 4.5 MW. That means that it takes 74 units of V15 turbines to produce the same amount of energy as is produced by one V120 turbine.
7Steigerung des Energieertrages mit größerer Rotorfläche *hub height
8Anlagen Modelle (Serienprod. 2006) Kilowatt -KlasseV kWMegawattklasse 1.5 MWV MWMegawattklasse 2.0 MWV MWV MWV MWV MWMegawattklasse 3.0 MWV MWVestas’ turbines range from kW turbines to 4.5 MW turbines, and the Group operates the broadest product portfolio in the industry.The overriding goal of Vestas’ product development plan is to develop wind power systems that can generate electricity of optimal quality at the most competitive price – without compromising on safety, quality or environmental aspects. With the emphasis on product reliability, it is important that Vestas continues to use and develop tried and tested technologies. Vestas consciously applies integrated product development, which is run in close collaboration with suppliers, universities and other institutions. This ensures that Vestas is in a position continuously to improve product platforms.Vestas’ development efforts have moved from focusing on single wind turbines to focusing on entire Wind Power Systems.The move is a natural consequence of the change in the market place, were projects are getting bigger and bigger and increasing volume of wind power has to be connected to the grid in an efficient way. The turbine programme covers all segments and new turbine models in the pipeline will strengthen the product programme even further. Vestas is focusing on significantly improving the reliability of its products by continuously refining the products and minimising component failure.V MW – the offshore turbine of the futureThe V MW has primarily been developed for offshore operation. One of the factors behind the improved competitiveness is the lighter blades. Moreover, a more intelligent control system contributes to a reduction on the loads on the turbine as a whole. This means that it is possible to use less material to manufacture the tower. At the same time, the amount of material needed for the foundations will also be reduced, thus helping to make the turbine even more competitive.The V120 is expected to be on the market in 2009.V MW – the turbine for sites with low and moderate windsThe V MW turbine is a planned development of the V MW model which, with its special construction in which the main axle has been replaced by a giant ring bearing, constitutes a giant technological leap forward for Vestas. The V MW turbine is based on the same technological platform as the V MW model, and extends Vestas’ product range with a particularly competitive turbine for sites with low to moderate winds.The V100 is designed for IEC II og DIBt II sites. Prototypes will be installed in a number of markets during Vestas expects to commence serial production in 2007.V MW, Germany
10Niederlassungen global Nacelle assembly:Ringkøbing (Denmark), Viborg (Denmark), Randers (Denmark), Lem (machine factory, Denmark), Skagen (machine factory, Denmark), Kristianssand (Windcast, foundry, Norway),Lidköping and Guldsmedshyttan (Windcast, foundry, Sweden), Magdeburg (Windcast, foundry, Germany), Chennai (India), Cambpeltown (Scotland), Galicia (Spain), Wynyard (Australia), Taranto (Italy)Future establishment of nacelle assembly factory:Spain, Villadangos, in the province of Castilla y León. The factory is expected to be put into operation during the first half of 2006 and when fully operational, the factory will have an annual capacity of 300 nacellesProduction/assembly of control units:Ólvega (Spain), Hammel (Denmark), Lem (Denmark), Århus (Denmark)Tower production:Varde (Denmark), Rudkøbing (Denmark), Campbeltown (Scotland), Svendborg (Denmark), Hammel (Denmark)Blade production:Lem (Denmark), Nakskov (Denmark), Taranto (Italy), Lauchhammer (Germany), Isle of Wight (Great Britain), Portland (Victoria, Australia)Future establishment of blade production:China, in Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA), where Vestas has signed a contract to buy about 190,000 m2 of land. The establishment of the factory that will employ about 240 people will be started as soon as possible, and Vestas expects to deliver the first 39-metre blades for V MW wind turbines during the first half of 2006.Sales offices:Denmark, Sweden, Scotland, Great Britain, Poland, Germany, the Netherlands, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, China, United States, Canada, Brazil, Argentina
11Maschinenhausproduktion MaschinenteileDänemarkNabengussteile, etc.NorwegenSchwedenDeutschlandGeneratoren(China)MontageAustralienIndienItalienSchottlandSpanienNacelle:Assembly: Ringkøbing, Denmark; Viborg, Denmark; Chennai, India; Campbeltown, Scotland; Galicia, Spain; Wynyard, Australia; Taranto, Italy; Villadangos, the province of Castilla y León, Spain.Components: Lem, Denmark (machining factory); Skagen, Denmark (machining factory); Kristianssand, Norway (Vestas Castings, casting); Lidköping and Guldsmedshyttan, Sweden (Vestas Castings, casting); Magdeburg, Germany (Vestas Castings, casting); Lübeck, Germany (generator factory)Future establishment of nacelle assembly factory:China, in Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA). The factory will be built as an extension to the blade factory in Tianjin and is expected to start production in first half of The factory will be able to manufacture around 350 nacelles and hubs per year.Future establishment of generator factory:China, in the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area. The factory will be established in connection with Vestas’ other Chinese factories. The establishment will be initiated as soon as possible, and it is expected that the factory will be able to produce its first generators during the second quarter of The factory will from the beginning have an annual production capacity of approx 350 units of 2 MW generators.
12Rotorblattproduktion DänemarkEnglandItalienDeutschlandAustralienChinaUSASpanienBlade production:Lem, Denmark; Nakskov, Denmark; Taranto, Italy; Lauchhammer, Germany; Isle of Wight, England; Portland, Victoria, Australia; Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA), ChinaFuture establishment of blade production:The blade factory in Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA), China, is to double its production capacity. The extension of the factory, which is expected to be operational by the middle of 2007, will double the original factory’s annual production capacity from approx 600 blades to approx 1,200 blades.
13Turmproduktion Dänemark Schottland Tower production: Varde, Denmark; Rudkøbing, Denmark; Campbeltown, Scotland; Svendborg, Denmark; Hammel, DenmarkTowers can be produced in all countries if the project is large and we can find good suppliers - Vestas’ quality standards must be fulfilled.
14Steuerungsproduktion DänemarkSpanienProduction/assembly of control units:Ólvega, Spain; Hammel, Denmark; Lem, Denmark; Århus, Denmark
15Transport per LKWThe size of the Vestas turbines makes it necessary to develop the transportation equipment. In fact, transportation has become a key competence in itself, and Vestas has in cooperation with the Dutch company Nooteboom developed a system for transportation of nacelles and towers.
17Transport per SchiffVestas has developed a container for overseas transport of e.g. blades, which makes it possible to carry three blades - each with a length of 32 m - at a time.River transportTransport on national roads can be problematic. It can be an irritation for the other drivers, authorities can sometimes take a very long time to process the required transport permits, and, finally, road transport generates a degree of environmental impact.One of the big challenges at present is thus to find alternatives to road transport through Europe. The entire Central European region has a very well-developed networks of canals and watercourses, so in 2004, Vestas tested the option of river transport to deliver two V MW wind turbines to a project in Switzerland.Vestas considers river transport to be a good alternative to conventional forms of transport. However, there are a number of factors that have an appreciable effect on the profitability of this solution. For example, the turbine site must be close to the landing point to eliminate the need for a long drive to the site. Similarly, the transport time must be taken into account as the barges sail relatively slowly and the route by water is often longer than that by road.
18Warum Offshore? Vorteile bessere Windverhältnisse geringere Turbulenzenviele große unerschlossene Gebietekeine „physikalischen Grenzen” in Bezug auf Größe und GewichtEs gibt keine Menschen in der Umgebung, die sich belästigt fühlenNachteileInstallation und Wartung sind komplizierter und kostenintensiverOffshore, there is typically more wind and less turbulence than onshore because there are no mountains, buildings, or vegetation to create ”roughness”.In many places, for example Denmark, it is often difficult to find additional suitable sites onshore and this provides a good reason to erect them offshore. That way it is also avoided that people are bothered by the noise and the sight of the large machines.The offshore turbines are mostly erected several kilometres from the shore, so that people can only catch a glimpse of them in the horizon. As a result, the turbines can rotate faster and thus make more noise without disturbing people. Tests have shown that neither fish nor birds are bothered by the turbines.The disadvantages of the offshore turbines are the more difficult installation and service caused by waves impeding access to the turbines. The work at sea also requires other safety measures and extended safety courses.V80-2,0 MW, England
19Entwicklung der jährlichen kumulierten installierten Leistung
20Weltmarkt Anteile 2005 Source: BTM Consult ApS Source: BTM Consult ApS, World Market Update Forecast March 2006.Source: BTM Consult ApS
21Einführung in die Technik einer Windenergieanlage
22Inhaltsverzeichnis Was ist Wind, und warum sind wir daran interessiert Grundelemente einer WEAAntriebskonzepte, Anlagenregelung, Stromeinspeisung und StromaufbereitungHusk nu at skrive speakers notes istedet for at overdynge sliden med tekst!!
23Was ist Wind, und warum sind wir daran interessiert Die Erde dreht sich um ihre eigene Achse. Schon dadurch werden Winde erzeugt.Durch die Sonneneinstrahlung wird die Erde unterschiedlich erhitzt. Warme Luft strömt vom Äquator zu den Polen.
24Was ist Wind, und warum sind wir daran interessiert Die Luft erwärmt sich schneller über dem Land als über dem Meer.Warme Luft steigt auf und kühlt sich hoch im Himmel wieder ab.Über dem Meer drückt die abgekühlte Luft die Luft darunter gegen das Land - Wind
25Was ist Wind, und warum sind wir daran interessiert Preise für fossile Energieträger steigenDagegen wird die Technik der WEA effizienterWindenergie - eine saubere EnergienutzungGrößere Unabhängigkeit von Ölimporten (Ölpreis – Ölförderung)
27Grundelemente einer WEA GondelRotorTurmTrafoFundament
28Grundelemente einer WEA Das Herzstück der Windenergieanlage:
29Grundelemente einer WEA Nabe mit hydraulischer BlattverstellungAnemometerGetriebeTrans-formatorRotorIMPORTANT INFORMATIONPlease do not include too much information on the slides. Instead, the speaker should make use of “speaker notes”.“The blue line” guidelines:The use of the blue line at the bottom of the photo is optionalThe blue line should be used if there is a need to add relevant text to a photo (site name, turbine model etc.) and must be placed at the bottom of the photo (with no space between the line and the photo)Photo text layout: Verdana 12 pt, font colour whiteThe blue line is not a pre-fixed element on photo slides. Use the copy/paste function to move the line to other slidesThe length of the blue line can be adjusted, but the height of the line must always correspond to the height displayed on this slide (0.6 cm).To ensure the correct height of the blue line, right click on the line, select Format Autoshape from the menu > Size > Size and rotate and select 0.6 cm for heightHauptwelleSchnelle WelleGenerator
32Art der Leistungsbegrenzung STALL-EFFEKT Leistungsbegrenzung durch Strömungsabriss (Stall)Die Stall-Regelung ist die einfachste und das älteste Regelungssystem
33Art der Leistungsbegrenzung PITCH-EFFEKT Leistungsbegrenzung durch Verdrehung der Rotorblätter (Pitch)Die Regelung der Leistung ist bei pitch-geregelten Windkraftanlagen durch das Verdrehen der Rotorblätter gewährleistet.
35Antriebskonzeptze netzparalleler WKA Die wichtigsten Konzepte netzeinspeisender WKA sind folgende:ältestes Konzept: Stall, Asynchronmaschine (dänisches Konzept)Eine verbesserte Variante des dänischen Konzepts ist die Verwendung des Asynchrongenerators mit Schlupfregelungindirekte Netzeinspeisung mit Synchrongenerator über UmrichterIndirekte Netzeinspeisung mit doppelt gespeistem Asynchrongenerator
36Dänisches Konzept (Stall-Anlage mit ASM-Kurzschlußläufer)
37Asynchrongenerator mit Schlupfregelung Hier wird der Rotor durch eine Blattverstellung geregelt und arbeitet in einem begrenzten Bereich drehzahlvariabel. Der Asynchrongenerator kann durch eine Schlupferhöhung bei Böen oder starkem „drehzahlweich“ rotieren, um Belastungen für die Struktur stark zu reduzieren. Hierbei kann die Böe in eine Drehzahl- und damit in eine Schlupferhöhung umgesetzt werden, welche dann durch eine Blattwinkelverstellung der Rotorblätter aufgefangen wird. Die dabei entstehende Verlustleistung wird als Wärme an die Umgebung abgegeben und kann nicht als Energieertrag genutzt werden.
41Stromproduktion einer WKA GeneratorenDer Generator ist ein Energiewandler und wandelt die mechanische Energie des Rotors in elektrische Energie um.Bauarten heutzutage:Für Windgeneratoren gibt es im wesentlichen zwei unterschiedliche Bauarten:SYNCHRONGENERATORASYNCHRONGENERATORAsynchrongeneratoren (und besonders die doppelt gespeisten Asynchrongeneratoren) werden in der Windindustrie sehr häufig verwendet.
42Strom, Spannung, Transformation Windkraftanlagen produzieren 3-Phasen-Wechselstrom wie jedes elektrische Kraftwerk.Die Spannung hängt von der Leistungsklasse der Windkraftanlage ab:400 V bei kleinen Anlagen (bis max. 600 kW)690 V bei sehr großen Anlagen (0,5 bis 2,5 MW)1000 V bei sehr großen Anlagen(z.B. bei der V MW)
43(Frequenz)UmrichterGeneratoren wandeln die mechanische Energie des Rotors in elektrische Energie um. Konzepte mit Starrer Drehzahl sind mit Asynchrongeneratoren ausgestattet und können ins Netz direkt einspeisen: ein Umrichter ist bei diesem Konzept nicht nötig.Heute wird jedoch die große Mehrheit der Windkraftanlagen mit variabler Rotordrehzahl betrieben. Hierfür ist ein Umrichter nötig.Abb: Schema eines Umrichters
44SpannungsanpassungDiese Spannung wird mit einem Transformator auf kV hochtransformiert, in Abhängigkeit von der lokalen Netzspannung. Der Transformator kann sich in der Gondel, im Turm oder in einer Trafostation neben der Anlage befinden. Bei den großen Vestas-Anlagen ist er in der Gondel situiert.Die Mehrheit der errichteten Anlagen ist mit frequenzvariablen Generatoren ausgerüstet. Dieser Strom wird dann mit Hilfe eines Umrichters an die gewünschte angepasst (50 Hz in Europa, 60 Hz in Amerika).
45Die Windkraftanlage V90-2.0 MW BeschreibungGrundriß im TurmfußBlitzschutz- und ErdungskonzeptÜbersichtsschaltbildGeneratordatenVMP-ControllerMittelspannungsanschlußNetzüberwachung