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Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch Department of Geo-hydraulics and Engineering.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch Department of Geo-hydraulics and Engineering."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch Department of Geo-hydraulics and Engineering Hydrology University of Kassel PhD Student and Research Assistant: Mehran Iranpour and Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Manfred Koch

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3 Transition Zone: Relative Densities of sea water Tides Pumping wells The rate of ground water recharge Hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer

4 Seawater intrusion is a process that occurs in virtually all coastal aquifers, where they are in hydraulic continuity with seawater coastal Salt water intrusion happens when salt water is drawn in to fresh water aquifers. The behavior is caused because sea water has a higher density than fresh water. This difference in density causes the pressure under a column of the same height of fresh water. If these 2 columns are connected at the bottom then the pressure difference would cause a flow of saltwater column to the freshwater until the pressure equalize.

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6 Model design Mean, Variance, Correlations Q Q Initial Concentration Specified Pressure( Boundry Conditions) p ( z) = rh (c = 0 ) * g * z Mesh Structure(392*98) Time steps Each element: 2.5 *1.25 cm

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14 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch Klightest Density

15 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

16 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

17 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

18 q = - K grad h Generalization of Darcy’s column  h/L = hydraulic gradient q = Q/A Q is proportional to  h/L

19 -In 1856, Henry Darcy studied the movement of water through porous material. He determined an equation that described groundwater flow. The following description tell how Darcy determined his equation: -It may be noted that this velocity is not quite the same as the velocity of water -flowing through an open pipe. In an open pipe, the entire cross section of the pipe conveys water. On the other hand, if the pipe is filed with a porous material, say sand, then the water can only flow through the pores of the sand particles. -Hence, the velocity obtained by the above expression is only an apparent velocity, with the actual velocity of the fluid particles through the voids of the porous material is many time more.

20 Constant HeadFalling Head

21 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

22 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

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24 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

25 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

26 Din Standard

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33 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

34 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

35 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

36 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

37 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

38 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

39 How to generate numbers with TBM (Turning Band Method) Batchfile for running all programs to generate a sandpack User’s Guide for Turning Band Code Pack generation to illustration in SURFER and pack generation for Excel-data with PACKBILD- VALUES a.turn2d.exe Copy turn2d.exe & turn2d1.dat & turn2d2.dat in a new folder. The file turn2d.exe needs two input files named turn2d1.dat & turn2d2.dat which have been written by Editor/WordPad/Notepad, so we need also put these two in the folder. In the file turn2d1.dat we can change mean conductivity and standard deviation. For example, mean of conductivity is between 0, 0016 and 0, 0036, and standard deviation is between 1 to 3. For example, we can assign 49 to “nx”, etc.

40 070802,1 idate,irun …currect date; run numbers 49,49,1 nx,ny,nz …numbers of points in the x,y,z direction 0.204, , 0. dx,dy,dz …spacings in the x,y,z direction 0.5,0.02,0. xl1,xl2,xl3 …correlation lengths (ξp is, intuitively, "some average distance of two sites belonging to the same cluster" (Stauffer and Aharony 1991, p.60), and it "is proportional to a typical cluster diameter" (ibid., p. 22). Stauffer and Aharony (1991, p.60) define it as ξ2 = Σr r2 g(r) / Σr g(r)). 1.6E-3,1.23 condg,sig …geometric mean Kg; standard deviation  f ---copy to above--- for 392x ,1 idate,irun 392,98,1 nx,ny,nz 0.025, , 0. dx,dy,dz 0.5,0.02,0. xl1,xl2,xl3 1.6E-3,1.23 condg,sig

41 for 49x ,1 idate,irun 49,49,1 nx,ny,nz 0.204, , 0. dx,dy,dz 0.5,0.02,0. xl1,xl2,xl3 1.6E-3,1.23 condg,sig Geometric mean: In mathematics, the geometric mean is a type of mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers by using the product of their values (as opposed to the arithmetic mean which uses their sum). The geometric mean is defined as the nth root (where n is the count of numbers) of the product of the numbers. For instance, the geometric mean of two numbers, say 2 and 8, is just the square root of their product; that is \sqrt{2\cdot 8}=4. As another example, the geometric mean of the three numbers 4, 1, and 1/32 is the cube root of their product (1/8), which is 1/2; that is \sqrt[3]{4\cdot 1\cdot 1/32}=1/2

42 In the turn2d2.dat we can change value of seed between 48,000 to 52,000.(“iu” means “seed”) 300,.025,500 nline, …numbers of lines to be used delzet, …physical spacing  along each line nztest …equal to the maximum numbers of points simulated on any line 50.,0.2 bigk,dk …maximum normalized frequency 1,31345,12 nmont,iu,nl …numbers of Monte Caulo simulation to perbru …arbritary (willkürice) odd …iutagel; prime uniform ramdom numbers generator iu for fct. RAND  ≤2 20 

43 -3.,3.,24 cmin,cmax,...minimum& maximum values used iu computing Ndelt … the range of values  cmin-cmax  1,1,0 ks(1),ks(2),ks(3)...sample euseuhe & single heplicate statistics for the N(0,1); Held are computed iu for j-ru direction 1 ilog …=1; for N(0,1) held iu transforward according to log usual no file nfile …results of au Moute Caulo runs will be written “nfile=no file” nothing is writen logcond.dat tfile …print out file When we run turn2d.exe, 1: "lnk.dat" for gam2 and 2: "perm.dat" for SUTRA, 3: logcon.dat (= real conduct.) 4.turn.log will be generated. Turn2d.exe calculated hydraulic conductivity for 392x98 Matrix for SUTRA. And recalculate hydraulic conductivity Kf to permeability K in SUTRA.

44 compute auto-correlation of TBM output with gam2 parameter file for gam2 b.tbmtogeom.exe If we run tbmtogeom.exe, 392x98 Matrix converts to 49x49 Matrix, and calculate mean of Kf. It generate file out_geom.grd.

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46 SUTRA model grid: * set up to mimic the x-z cross-sectional geometry of the tank. * each sand block was represented by 8 x 4 elements, resulting in a total of nx * ny = 392 x 98 = elements. Boundary conditions: Previously: outflow BC for p was set to be equal to the initially set outflow fresh water head (BC0), giving rise to some discrepancy in the experimental and modeled plume positions Presently: use of Dirichlet BC for p that is more consistent with the pressure distribution of the homogeneously mixed fresh and saltwater in the outflow chamber at steady state conditions using the mixing concentration Cmix ~ 0.5* C0 at the saltwater inlet so that this pressure BC (denoted as BC1) at the outflow boundary varies with depth z as p_BC = (Cmix) *g *z

47 SUTRA-modeled concentration distributions using pressure boundary conditions BC1 (mixed saltwater head) at the outflow boundary for tracer case and C0= ppm. Note the backwater effects at the outflow boundary for the high concentration case

48 statistical deviation of the migration of a dissolved component in with respect to an average value caused by microscopic velocity variations on the pore-scale impossible to survey microscopic flow processes therefore dispersion is visualized by variations in the concentrations macroscopic feature to describe microscopic flow processes Basic Concepts of Dispersion What is Dispersion?

49 Diffusion: process where a constituent moves from a higher concentration to a lower concentration, fick equation. Dispersion: mixing caused by physical processes The hetrogeneity of porous media creats groundwater velocity fields that are highly complex at the pores. The hetogenity creat a varaince in the ground water velocity around the avarage linear velocity. In fact mechanical disperson is indirect transport process. Combined effects of mechanical dispersion and molecular is hydrodynamic dispersion. time

50 Properties of transport equation:

51  Conceptual Model (Model Geometry, Boundaries,…)  Mathematical Model  Numerical Model  Code Verification  Model Validation  Model Calibration  Model Application  Analysis of uncertainty and stochastic modeling  Summery, conclusion and reporting

52 Bc: Drichlet, Neumann, cauchy Solutions of math models are analytical method, Numerical Method(finit eelement, finite difference) SET OF ASSUMPTIONS model Calibration: changing values of model input parameters to match field condition. Sensitivity Analysis: a process of varying model input parameter over a reasonable range and observing the relative change in model response.

53 Thank you Vielen Dank سپاسگزارم Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

54 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch Tank Experiments and numerical Modeling of Macrodispersion of Density-dependent Transport in stochastically heterogeneous Media PhD Candidate and Research Assistant: Mehran Iranpour Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Manfred Koch

55 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch 1.Saltwater attack to coastal aquifers (seawater intrusion) Bear et al (1999); 2.Saltwater upconing in formation aquifers Voss and Koch (2001); 3.Vertical seepage of brackish water from open ocean canals Koch and Zhang (1998); 4.Movement of brine solutions in salt domes that have been targeted as possible nuclear waste repositories Herbert et al (1988); 5.Infiltration of dense aqueous (miscible) or non-aqueous (immiscible) phase liquids Kimmel and Braids (1980). Some typical examples :

56 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch According to the previous researchers :

57  Tank Experiment Tank design and experimental setup Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

58 Mean, Variance, Correlations Q Q Initial Concentration Specified Pressure( Boundry Conditions) p ( z) = rh (c = 0 ) * g * z Mesh Structure(392*98) Time steps Each element: 2.5 *1.25 cm Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

59 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

60 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch Digital conductivity meter: Vial Holder Valve Vial Needle

61 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

62 Stochastic packing of the tank 1. Order Sand, sieve analysis and measurement of hydraulic conductivity Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

63 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch Stochastic packing of the tank

64 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

65 Stochastic packing of the tank 2. Generate stochastic numbers with Gaussian Distribution throw TBM Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

66 Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch The optimum plot was obtained when we took the values of correlation lengths in x and y direction to be four times that of the block size.

67  49 x 49 = 2401 blocks for the whole tank The latter is packed under water (to eliminate air bubbles) Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

68 Measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of the tank, experimentally: Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch

69 Computation of the hydraulic conductivity of the tank (equivalent K), theoretically: Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch = 0.01

70 Thank you Vielen Dank سپاسگزارم Fachgebiet Geohydraulik und Ingenieurhydrologie Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred Koch


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