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„The will of a child is rubbish!“ The History and Current Questions of Children‘s Rights.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "„The will of a child is rubbish!“ The History and Current Questions of Children‘s Rights."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 „The will of a child is rubbish!“ The History and Current Questions of Children‘s Rights

2 I. The history of Children‘s Rights – a general view For many centuries the history of education was a history of violence. Children were comitted to strict obedience against their parents, and legally were seen as the property of their father. Corporal punishments were common (parental home, school, reformatories) Children were seen as immature, incomplete, subordinated beeings, whom an adult doesn‘t have to take seriously „A child is ment to be seen and not heard!“ ? 1. Children as objects – the centuries before the children‘s rights movement

3 „The mind of the child has to be kept in a cheerfull mood and educators have to avoid pampering, which makes touchy, angry and grumpy, as well as excessive harshness, which causes timidity and a slavish mind.“ Platon 2. The (modern) history of Children‘s Rights started in the era of enlightenmend. Recognition of childhood as an independent period of life Pestalozzi Humboldt Fröbel I. The history of Children‘s Rights – a general view

4 Human right‘s declaration of the French Revolution (1789): „All men are born free and with equal rights and stay in this condition for their entire lifes“ (Art. 1)  Claims to acknowledge specific needs of children.  Claims to differentiate between the criminal law for adults and for adolescents.. restriction:  Alienation of labour (wage labour) and the development of nuclear families caused problems in child care (negligence because of work).  Development of public welfare and legal protection as repressive institutions (military-like structures).  Human rights were the rights of MEN! I. The history of Children‘s Rights – a general view

5 Janusz Korczak 3. Roots of the Children‘s Rights Movement in the (late) 19th. century Ellen Key Requirement of independent children's rights. Criticism of the authoritarian school system and the practice of corporal punishment Child must be considered as an independent personality, not merely as a mirror of parental expectations. Testing educational models such as "children's courts of justice " at the orphanage. Basic maxim: unconditional respect for the child. (1942 together with 192 children were deported to Treblinka and murdered.) progressive education  Criticism of the mentality of oppression and blind obedience (Nazi-pedagogy!).  Encourage independent thinking, mutual respect + social learning. 1902: Proclamation of the 20th Century as the century of the child. I. The history of Children‘s Rights – a general view

6 Alexander S. Neill  1924 Foundation of the Summerhill boarding school in Leiston as the first democratic School in the world.  Unwavering commitment to anti-authoritarian education (or "self-regulated education") and the principle of non-violence.. Not compulsory! Children had the opportunity to outvote the adults. Eglantyne Jebb  Founder of the „Save the Children Fund“. (Against the background of the misery of many Children in the postwar period).  1923: Publication of the first Declaration of the Rights of the Child in the magazine „The World‘s Children“. Submission of the document to the League of Nations in Geneva: "I am convinced that we claim to certain rights of children rise, and should work for the general recognition of these rights." I. The history of Children‘s Rights – a general view

7 1924: Verabschiedung der „Children‘s Charter“ durch den Völkerbund in Genf (Genfer Erklärung). Keine Rechtsverbindlichkeit Verliert mit der Auflösung des Völkerbundes 1946 jegliche Grundlage. 1949: Mit dem Inkrafttreten des Grundgesetzes der Bundesrepublik Deutschland werden auf Kinder bezogene Rechte verbindlich (Art. 2: freie Entfaltung der Persönlichkeit; Art. 6: Schutz der Familie). 1945: Gründung der UNESCO (Recht auf Bildung). 1946: Gründung der UNICEF zur Unterstützung der vom 2. Weltkrieg betroffenen Kinder. 1948: Allgemeine Erklärung der Menschenrechte (Art. 25: Recht der Familie auf Unter- stützung; Art. 26: Recht auf Bildung) With the founding of the UN Declaration of 1924 is formally waived. 4. International agreements and national anchorage ## I. The history of Children‘s Rights – a general view

8 1959: Die Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen verabschiedet am 20. November die Erklärung der Rechte des Kindes. Konkrete Rechte wie das Recht auf einen Namen, eine Staatszugehörigkeit und unentgeltlichen Unterricht. Als Rechtsgrundlage kaum verbindlicher als die Genfer Erklärung. Der 20. November gilt seitdem als Tag des Kindes. 1979: Internationales Jahr des Kindes der UNO. 1989: Verabschiedung der UN-Kinderrechtskonvention am Tag des Kindes. Under international law, binding obligation of States to work actively for the welfare of the child. Summary and harmonizing the scattered in numerous international documents, regulations on children's rights in a document. Later supplemented by an Additional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict (child soldiers protocol) and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (2002). I. The history of Children‘s Rights – a general view

9 Exkurs 1: Demokratische Erziehung auf der Grundlage humanistischer Pädagogik Carl Rogers Charlotte Bühler Rudolf Dreikurs  Kinder sind grundsätzlich gleichwertige und gleichwürdige Menschen !  Kindern stehen jedoch nicht die gleichen Rechte zu wie Erwachsenen.  Die Verantwortung für viele wichtige Entscheidungen obliegt weiterhin den Erwachsenen (Eltern). Exkurs 2: Antipädagogische Kinderrechtsbewegung John Holt Richard Farson Alice Miller  Kinder und Erwachsene sind kompromisslos als gleichberechtigt anzuerkennen.  Kinder dürfen in allen Belangen selbst über ihr Leben bestimmen.  Violence not only as an educational tool, but any education claim is rejected (Adults are not eductors, but „companions“). I. The history of Children‘s Rights – a general view

10 5. The UN-Convention 20. Nov Occurred in September 1990 as a legally binding international document in force. Meanwhile ratified by 193 UN member states. Exceptions: Somalia and the United States.. Who saves the rod hates his son, / he who loves him, takes him to the early breeding. (Spr 13,24) He that loveth his son holds, ready the floor for him so he can be happy in the end (Sir, 30, 1) "The Convention can not be interpreted as the unlawful entry of a foreigner in the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany or his unlawful stay there allowed.“  In addition, Germany reserves the right in general to tread foreigners and residents unequally. Germany ratified the UN CRC on 5 April Proviso: I. The history of Children‘s Rights – a general view

11 5. Children's rights under the UN Convention In all actions concerning children, whether they are made of? Public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a, the primary consideration. (Art. 3 Abs. 1) Right to: nonviolent education protection against exploitation Education development of personality Protection of the family care nutrition Participation freedom of expression Protection against physical, mentally & sexual abuse Freedom Support in educational problems name + citizenship Despite international efforts is still unclear how the required or even enshrined rights are to be implemented and monitored. I. The history of Children‘s Rights – a general view

12 II. Current Questions (and Problems) of Children‘s Rights 1. Generell and basic problems:  Many formulations of the CRC are the lowest common denominator, correspondingly vague and open to different interpretations.  In particular, the participation and decision rights of the child (eg in terms of future- related issues), are not clearly defined.  The debate about children's rights is primarily conducted by experts, while the? Awareness of children's rights issues in the public still rather weak? pronounced.  Children's rights are rarely subject to the politics of the day (it can be just a few VoteS win).  Children's rights violations usually draw no consequences.

13 2. Problem-specific fields of violating children’s rights : Child abuse Genital Mutilation Child Soldiers Child labour Poverty Child Trafficing (Prostitution) II. Current Questions (and Problems) of Children‘s Rights

14 II. Aktuelle Fragen (und Probleme) der Kinderrechte 2. problem-specific fields / areas of violation of Children‘s Rights: Current data:  Worldwide more than 6 million children die of hunger every year - more than ever before in the history of mankind. (→ Connection between Western consumerisms and impoverishment in the South)  Alone in the OECD countries, 3,500 children die each year from the effects of abuse, maltreatment and neglect.  The number of murdered children and adolescents on the world is estimated 70,000 for  In sub-Saharan Africa + the Middle East over 3 million Girls are circumcised each year.

15  Approx. 150 million girls and 73 million boys under 18 years of age are forced to sexual intercourse, about 1.8 million into prostitution. (→ The "market“ for child prostitution & -pornography worldwide makes about 12 billion U.S. dollars sales per year = third largest (illegal) market after the markets for weapons and drugs!)  Nearly 6 million children live in bonded labor (child slaves), 150 Million children between 5 and 14 years are forced to work. II. Aktuelle Fragen (und Probleme) der Kinderrechte  More than 100 million children worldwide are not in school (2/3 of them live in countries shaken by conflicts and crises, mainly in Africa and Asia)  More than 100 million children (homeless) street children. (Metropolises!) 2. problem-specific fields / areas of violation of Children‘s Rights: More examples:

16 II. Current Questions (and Problems) of Children‘s Rights Child labour worldwide

17 Is the UN Children's Convention merely patiently paper? Melodious intent, political lip service? Without real substance? II. Current Questions (and Problems) of Children‘s Rights

18 3. Fakten und Zahlen zur Situation in Deutschland: Kinderarmut 2,6 Millionen Kinder leben auf Sozialhilfeniveau (fast jedes sechste Kind!). Gefährdet sind insbesondere Kinder von Alleinerziehenden sowie von Ausländern.  Knapp Jugendliche gehen jährlich ohne Abschluss von der Schule ab (hoher Anteil an Migrantenkindern).  Flüchtlingskinder haben nur eingeschränkt Zugang zu ärztlicher Behandlung; Schul- besuch oder Beginn einer Berufsausbildung werden erschwert.  Rund Kinder unter 15 werden von ihren Eltern körperlich misshandelt; jede Woche sterben 2 Kinder an den Folgen von Misshandlung und Vernachlässigung.  Deutschland ist blühender Markt für internationale Kinderhändler und Kinderporno- grafie. (Geschätzte regelmäßige Konsumenten!)  Investitionen in das Wohl des Kindes haben – entgegen der Grundregel nach Art. 3 der UN-Konvention – keinen Vorrang! Im Bereich der Investitionen in frühkindliche Bildung ist Deutschland Schlusslicht unter 21 Industrieländern.  Bis zu Minderjährige leben zumindest teilweise auf der Straße. II. Current Questions (and Problems) of Children‘s Rights

19 4. UNICEF-Forderungen für die Kinder in Deutschland:  Kinderrechte im Grundgesetzt verankern! (Als Signal, das Wohl des Kindes tatsächlich im Sinne der UN-Konvention als Kernaufgabe zu betrachten.)  Entwicklung eines nationalen Aktionsplans gegen Kinderarmut!  Verbesserung Chancengleichheit in der Bildung! (Abbau der Benachteiligung von Kindern aus bildungsfernen Familien und Verbesserung der Angebote für Kinder mit Migrationshintergrund!)  Gleichbehandlung von Flüchtlingskindern! (Kinderrechte dürfen nicht vom ausländer- rechtlichen Status abhängig sein.)  Verbesserung der Beteiligungsmöglichkeiten für Kinder! (Aktive Demokratieerziehung)  Rücknahme der Vorbehalte gegen die Kinderrechtskonvention! II. Current Questions (and Problems) of Children‘s Rights


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