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Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 1 Vertrauen – SS 2001 6.6.2001 Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 1 Vertrauen – SS 2001 6.6.2001 Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 1 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Vertrauen ein ökonomisches und ethisches Prinzip elektronischer Märkte Vertrauenssicherung in der Wirtschaft V Juni 2001 Dozent: Rainer Kuhlen IB-HU-Berlin

2 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 2 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Vertrauensfunktionen Vertrauenssicherung in elektronischen Netzen hängt im wesentlichen von drei Faktorengruppen ab:  Respekt (vor Privacy)  Qualität (der Anbieter und Angebote)  Sicherheit (in Transaktionen)

3 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 3 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Vertrauenssicherung – Faktorgruppe I Qualität als Funktion der Anbieter bzw. der Angebote  Ist der Auftritt des Angebots/der Site professionell?  Macht die Informationsarchitektur Sinn?  Kann man in der Site leicht und schnell navigieren?  Kann die Site leicht benutzt werden?  Sind die Preise vernünftig bzw. nachvollziehbar?  Image des Produktes  Vertrauen andere Leute der Site bzw. den Produkten oder den Anbietern?  Reputation der Anbieter: ist der Anbieter bekannt und vertraut  Absicherung/Qualitätskontrolle durch neutrale Dritte und durch Referenzen  Sind Feedback-Möglichkeiten, auch FAQ, Gästebücher etc geben?  Kommen Auditing-Techniken zum Einsatz?

4 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 4 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Vertrauenssicherung – Faktorgruppe II Sicherheit als Funktion des Ablaufes der Transaktionen  Werden Verschlüsselungs- techniken angewendet?  Sind die Transaktionen transparent?  Kann man jederzeit aus einer laufenden Transaktion aussteigen?  Sind Logistik, Auslieferungs- verfahren transparent (Tracing)?  Welche institutionellen Absicherungen der Transaktionen kommen zum Einsatz  Welche Verfahren der Identitätssicherung  Welche Verfahren der Authentizität  Welche Sicherungsverfahren für Zugriff (Passwort etc.)  Wie wird der After-Sales-Service betrieben?

5 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 5 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Vertrauenssicherung – Faktorgruppe III Respekt/Privacy als Funktion der Sicherung von Privacy bzw. der Offenlegung der Privacy-Politik  Offenlegung der Privacy-Politik, insbesondere Transparenz bezüglich der Verwendung  Nicht-Weitergabe erhobener Interaktionsdaten  Möglichkeit, seine persönlichen Daten einzusehen  Möglichkeiten, seine persönlichen Daten löschen zu lassen Respekt vor den persönlichen Daten anderer: Jedes Datum, das auf eine Person referenziert werden kann, ist ein persönliches Datum.

6 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 6 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Vertrauensfaktoren Jarvenpaa, Tractinsky, Saarinen et Vitale, Consumer Trust in an Internet Store : A Cross-Cultural Validation, 2 mai 2001, p. 2 (http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol5/issue2/jarvenpaa.html)Consumer Trust  Higher consumer trust towards an Internet store will reduce the perceived risks associated with buying from that store  The store’s perceived reputation is positively associated with a consumer’s trust in an Internet store.  The store’s perceived size is positively associated with a consumer’s trust in an Internet store  Higher consumer trust toward an Internet store will generate more favorable attitudes towards shopping at that store  The lower the consumer’s perceived risk associated with buying from an Internet store, the more favorable the consumer’s attitudes towards shopping at that store. Konsequenzen von Vertrauen für E-Commerce (B2C)

7 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 7 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Vertrauensfaktoren Jarvenpaa, Tractinsky, Saarinen et Vitale, Consumer Trust in an Internet Store : A Cross-Cultural Validation, 2 mai 2001, p. 2 (http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol5/issue2/jarvenpaa.html)Consumer Trust  Favorable attitudes towards an Internet store will increase the consumer’s willingness to purchase from that Internet store  Reduced perceived risks associated with buying from an Internet store will increase a consumer’s willingness to purchase from that Internet store  Consumers from individualistic cultures exhibit higher trust in specific Internet stores  Consumers from individualistic countries exhibit a lower perception of risk in specific Internet stores.  In an individualistic culture, size and reputation will have a stronger effect on trust than in a collectivist culture Konsequenzen von Vertrauen für E-Commerce (B2C)

8 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 8 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 1. Trustworthiness is a Function of Time and Formal Characteristics of Sites In order for trust to occur, individuals first rely on certain forms being followed. Over time, reliance on these forms gives way to a reliance on experience. Such experience is a necessity for true trust to develop. Highlights of the study

9 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 9 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study Hypothese Cheskin-Study: Vertrauenswürdigkeit wächst mit der Zeit Trustworthiness First and foremost, it’s important to recognize that “Trust” is understood by most consumers to be a dynamic process. Trust deepens or retreats based on experience. The trusting process begins when an individual perceives indications — “forms” — that suggest a firm may be worthy of trust. These indications can include behaviors such as manners, professionalism and sensitivity. Both consumers and firms understand that these forms are designed to represent trustworthiness. These formal claims to trustworthiness become strengthened over time and are eventually transformed into “character traits,” such as dependability, reliability and honesty.

10 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 10 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study Hypothese Cheskin-Study: Vertrauenswürdigkeit wächst mit der Zeit

11 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 11 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study Hypothese Cheskin-Study: Vertrauenswürdigkeit wächst mit der Zeit Gegenhypothese / Jarvenpaa et al: Skepsis bis Mißtrauen wächst mit größerer Erfahrung mit elektronischen Diensten (und ist kulturabhängig) results very tentatively suggest that greater experience with the web is associated with lower trust and higher risk in a particular merchant. Israelis, who were less experienced in web browsing and shopping, exhibited on average higher trust and lower risk perception than the Australians. Finns, who were most experienced in web browsing and web shopping, exhibited even lower trust than the Australians. An earlier study in the U.S. found that the more experienced the consumer in web usage, the more likely the consumer was to report higher levels of perceived risk in shopping on the Internet in general (Jarvenpaa & Todd, 1997). Jarvenpaa, Tractinsky, Saarinen et Vitale, Consumer Trust in an Internet Store : A Cross-Cultural Validation, 2 mai 2001, p. 2 (http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol5/issue2/jarvenpaa.html)Consumer Trust

12 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 12 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study Gegenhypothese/ Jarvenpaa et al: Skepsis bis Mißtrauen wächst mit größerer Erfahrung mit elektronischen Diensten (und ist kulturabhängig) These findings lead us to speculate that as consumers gain experience in Web shopping, they might become even more uncertain of current risks and their consequences, and less trusting and more risk-averse in regards to specific Web merchants. These results contradict the speculation of Quelch and Klein (1996) that trust is a critical factor in the early stages of Internet development and supports the prediction of Keen (1997) that the issue of consumer trust is a long-term issue. Quelch, J. A., & Klein, L. R. (1996). The Internet and international marketing. Sloan Management Review, 37, Vol. 3, Keen, P. G. W. (1997, April 21). Are you ready for "trust" economy? ComputerWorld, p 80

13 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 13 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 2. Six Fundamental „Forms“ Communicate Trustworthiness Brand, navigation, fulfillment, presentation, up-to-date technology and the logos of security-guaranteeing firms constitute the essential formal characteristics of Web sites that communicate trustworthiness to visitors. These six forms, in turn, can be divided into a total of 28 components that can be used to communicate trustworthiness. Highlights of the study – Seals of Approval Seals of Approval — Symbols, like VeriSign and Visa, designed to re-assure the visitor that security has been established. The companies that provide these seals of approval are referred... as “security brands.”VeriSign

14 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 14 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study Seals of Approval Information about other companies that specialize in assuring the safety of Web sites Network Level 1: Icons symbolizing security of the computer network as a whole, such as TRUSTe, or VeriSignTRUSTeVeriSign Network Level 2: Text accompanying the icons Technology Level 1: Icons symbolizing commerce-enabling functions, such as MS Commerce Server, ICAT, IBM e.business mark, and Browser compatibility marks Technology Level 2: Text accompanying the icons Merchant Level 1: Icons symbolizing merchant service security like MasterCard, VISA, Amex Merchant Level 2: Text accompanying the icons

15 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 15 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 2. Six Fundamental „Forms“ Communicate Trustworthiness Brand, navigation, fulfillment, presentation, up-to-date technology and the logos of security-guaranteeing firms constitute the essential formal characteristics of Web sites that communicate trustworthiness to visitors. These six forms, in turn, can be divided into a total of 28 components that can be used to communicate trustworthiness. Highlights of the study - Brand Brand - The corporation’s promise to deliver specific attributes and its credibility based on reputation and the visitor’s possible previous experience.

16 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 16 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study Brand Overall Brand Equity: Consumer awareness of what this company does for consumers outside of the Web Web Brand Equity: How well the company’s Web site fits with consumers’ sense of what the company is about generally Benefit clarity: On one’s first visit to the site, how easy it is to discern what the site is promising to deliver Portal/Aggregator Affiliations: Mention of an affiliation to portals and aggregators such as Yahoo, eXcite, ivillage, Lycos, etc. Co-op third Party Brands: Promotion of “third-party” quality brands Relationship Marketing: Sending updates and other notices to consumers Community Building: Facilitating interactions between individual shoppers Depth of Product Offering on the Site: How many varieties of product types the site contains Breadth of Product Offering on the Site: How many types of products the site contains

17 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 17 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 2. Six Fundamental „Forms“ Communicate Trustworthiness Brand, navigation, fulfillment, presentation, up-to-date technology and the logos of security-guaranteeing firms constitute the essential formal characteristics of Web sites that communicate trustworthiness to visitors. These six forms, in turn, can be divided into a total of 28 components that can be used to communicate trustworthiness. Highlights of the study - Navigation Navigation — The ease of finding what the visitor seeks.

18 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 18 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study Navigation Navigation Clarity: Terminologies for navigation and content are apparent for the user to differentiate Navigation Access: The navigation system placement is consistent, persistent and easy to find Navigation Reinforcement: There are prompts, guides, tutorials, instructions to aid and inform the user to perform transaction and or search tasks on the site

19 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 19 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 2. Six Fundamental „Forms“ Communicate Trustworthiness Brand, navigation, fulfillment, presentation, up-to-date technology and the logos of security-guaranteeing firms constitute the essential formal characteristics of Web sites that communicate trustworthiness to visitors. These six forms, in turn, can be divided into a total of 28 components that can be used to communicate trustworthiness. Highlights of the study - Fulfillment Fulfillment — Clearly indicates how orders will be processed, and provides information on how to seek recourse if there are problems.

20 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 20 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study Fulfillment Protection of Personal Information: The information one provides is guaranteed to be used for no purpose other than what one gave it for, without their approval Tracking: The site provides feedback or a confirmation number once the order is placed Recourse: The transaction process allows for recourse if one has a problem at any time during the process Return Policy: How clearly the return policy is explained Simplicity of Process How simple it is to buy something

21 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 21 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 2. Six Fundamental „Forms“ Communicate Trustworthiness Brand, navigation, fulfillment, presentation, up-to-date technology and the logos of security-guaranteeing firms constitute the essential formal characteristics of Web sites that communicate trustworthiness to visitors. These six forms, in turn, can be divided into a total of 28 components that can be used to communicate trustworthiness. Highlights of the study - Presentation Presentation — Design attributes that connote quality and professionalism.

22 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 22 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study Presentation Clarity of Purpose: The visuals/layout effectively convey the idea and the purpose of the site. Consumers would know they can purchase products when they get to the site Craftsmanship: The degree to which, when one first views the homepage, one believes that the Web site developers were skilled in their efforts Resembles other Trusted Sites: How much the site resembles others consumers have come to trust

23 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 23 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 2. Six Fundamental „Forms“ Communicate Trustworthiness Brand, navigation, fulfillment, presentation, up-to-date technology and the logos of security-guaranteeing firms constitute the essential formal characteristics of Web sites that communicate trustworthiness to visitors. These six forms, in turn, can be divided into a total of 28 components that can be used to communicate trustworthiness. Highlights of the study – Technology Technology — State of the art connotes professionalism, even if it’s difficult to use.

24 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 24 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study Technology Functionality: Overall, how well the site seems to work Speed: How quickly each page, text and images appears

25 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 25 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 3. E-Commerce Trust Begins in Chaos and Ends in Trustworthiness Consumers see the world of the Web as one of chaos, offering both possibilities and threats. Only after they believe they have secured control over their own personal data within the system, are they willing to begin to try out e-commerce. While trust develops over time, communicating trustworthiness must occur as soon as interaction with a site begins. Highlights of the study

26 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 26 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 4. Effective Navigation is Generally a Precondition to Communicating E-Commerce Trust and the Perception that Sites Meet Consumer Needs Effective navigation is a necessary pre-condition to successfully communicating the trustworthiness of a site. Having a well-known brand is also tremendously important. Generally speaking, effective navigation combined with a well-known brand is the best way of communicating trustworthiness. Combining strong navigation with effective fulfillment can also achieve this.. Highlights of the study

27 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 27 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study...and a Lesser-Known Brand Must Have Quality Navigation and Fulfillment to Compete For lesser-known brands, navigation of and fulfillment from their Web site play significant roles in establishing trust. Any new Web- based brand MUST build in excellent navigation and fulfillment if it is to be trusted. Highlights of the study

28 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 28 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 5. Web-Based Seals of Approval Matter More than Credit Card Brands in Communicating Trustworthiness The presence of credit card symbols do little to communicate trustworthiness, even though they’re universally recognized by consumers. In contrast, Web-based “security brand” seals of approval, such as VeriSign, when recognized, DO communicate trustworthiness. Given the choice, smart Web retailers will place security brand logos on their sites. Highlights of the study

29 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 29 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study... but Their Technology Matters Even More On the other hand, consumers want to see that specific security brands use technologies understood to be important to security, such as encryption. Savvy security brands will work to equate their brands with such technologies, and explicitly mention their use of these technologies. Highlights of the study

30 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 30 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 6. The most Trusted Web Brands Are Well-Known Brands Seven of the 12 most trusted brand names in e-commerce originated on the Web. Regardless of where a brand established itself, however, one key aspect of establishing trust with consumers is the reputation of a brand, together, in many cases, with personal experience. Highlights of the study

31 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 31 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study... and the Least-Trusted Sites Arent`t Well-Known All of the least-trusted sites on the Web originated there. Virtually none are well-known, however. Generally speaking, a site that has never been visited and isn’t well-known is unlikely to be a trusted site. Highlights of the study

32 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 32 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 7. Trustworthiness isn´t the Most Important Attribute a Site Can Possess, It´s Still Fundamental While trustworthiness matters, it’s not necessarily the key attribute of a brand in cyberspace. Strong fulfillment and navigation are key, independent of trust issues. In addition, overall value, selection and lower cost all can be more important. Trustworthiness, however, is often communicated when other fundamental needs are met, such as effective fulfillment. Consequently, taking steps that communicate trustworthiness simultaneously satisfies many of the other needs expressed by consumers. Highlights of the study

33 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 33 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 8. Effective Navigation Key to Meeting Needs Beyond the question of communicating trustworthiness, consumers rely on the quality of navigation, more so than other components, to tell them if a site is likely to meet their needs. Highlights of the study

34 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 34 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 9. Clearly-Stated Policies, Limited Information Requests and Guarantees Are Keys to Future Growth Beyond the question of communicating trustworthiness, consumers rely on the quality of navigation, more so than other components, to tell them if a site is likely to meet their needs.  Clearly state their policies on security and encryption;  Ask for only necessary information;  Provide shipping and return guarantees; and  Provide good communication with consumers. Highlights of the study

35 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 35 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 10. Consumers Expect the Future of E-Commerce to be Like the Present Generally speaking, consumers expect that they’ll be engaging in e- commerce in much the same ways they are today — buying books, CDs and software. Some product categories, such as jewelry and groceries, are expected to do poorly on the Web. Highlights of the study

36 Institut für Bibliothekswissenschaft an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin 36 Vertrauen – SS Vertrauens- und Privacy-Sicherung in der Wirtschaft Ecommerce Trust Study Cheskin Research 11/99: Study 11. Brand Now Matters More than Medium Seven of the 12 most trusted sites originated on the Web and have no presence outside of it. In addition, 3 of the five dirt-world sites most trusted by consumers aren’t seen as particularly appealing sites from which to purchase. In addition, some Web-based brands, such as Amazon.com, have established brands with more desirable attributes than their traditional retail competitors. Increasingly, these Web-based brands could snare a significant market share if they choose to open traditional retail outlets. Overall, we found that brand attributes increasingly matter more than the medium in which they are established. This suggests that traditional retailers need to see Web retailers as a far more dangerous threat than they have previously. Highlights of the study


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