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Post-1990 Immigrations from Eastern Europe: Aussiedler and jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge VICTORIA DOVASTON, GENEVIEVE NUTAKKI & BETHANY RICHES.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Post-1990 Immigrations from Eastern Europe: Aussiedler and jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge VICTORIA DOVASTON, GENEVIEVE NUTAKKI & BETHANY RICHES."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Post-1990 Immigrations from Eastern Europe: Aussiedler and jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge VICTORIA DOVASTON, GENEVIEVE NUTAKKI & BETHANY RICHES

2 Introduction (Spät)Aussiedler: Ethnic Germans from the successor states of the former Soviet Union and from other Eastern European states (BAMF. 2013) Jüdische Kontingentflüchtlinge: Difference to other migrant groups already studied – According to the German Federal Administration Office - approximately 128,000 Jewish migrants, including their family members, came to Germany between 1990 and 2000.

3 Who are the Aussiedler? Two categories Staatsangehörige ◦German parents ◦Proof through birth certificates etc. Volkszugehörige ◦German ethnicity based on a person’s identification and recognition as a German in country of origin (cultural practices, language, etc.) ◦German ancestry

4 History of Aussiedler Why leave Germany? ◦Invitation to Russia ◦Changing borders Push factors for return to Germany ◦Family reunion ◦Better prospects for their children ◦Prejudice in country of origin ◦National identity and a sense of belonging Impact of threat to build Berlin Wall ◦Sense of now or never Impact of fall of Communism ◦Fewer administrative restrictions on travel

5 History of Aussiedler (Waffenschmidt. 1999)

6 Geographical distribution in Germany (Waffenschmidt. 1999)

7 German identity What is German? What makes somebody German? How important is language in defining identity? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9i-eklXKxg (32:15)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9i-eklXKxg

8 Language Testing to Mark Ethnicity Language used to show they have cultural traditions and have grown up in a German environment Encouragement of dialects – better integration Perfect grammar and extensive language proficiency not the main aim Language tests did have problems: o Test construct o Social and political contexts neglected o Underqualified examiners o Younger generations more likely to use Standard German

9 Benefits of Aussiedler’s Knowledge of German Perform better at school compared to other migrant groups Receive more help with integration when they arrive (e.g. free intensive language courses)

10 More favourable integration opportunities Special provisions: ◦compensation for property left behind ◦subsidies aimed at promoting integration (payments for establishment of new households) ◦language training Special pensions available – controversial Portrayal as victims so politicians succumbed to a lot of their demands

11 More favourable integration opportunities Is this fair? Should Aussiedler receive preferential treatment?

12 Integration problems Short term: Accommodation (social housing/staying with friends and relatives) Jobs (lack of language is key deficiency; lack of technical skills) Pressure on German government and the socially weak Germans

13 Integration problems Long term: Settlement process Linguistic problems Employment Acceptance by native Germans Should they be encouraged to live as groups of their own country of origin or integrate into German communitites?

14 Reception of Aussiedler in Germany In comparison to other migrant groups, Aussiedler are seen more positively Lower German working classes weren’t very welcoming Negative stereotypes – e.g. thieves ◦https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9i-eklXKxg (17:08)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9i-eklXKxg Survey about Germans marrying migrants ◦Aussiedler more popular than Turks but less popular than Italians

15 Reception of Aussiedler in Germany BundesregierungKommunenBevölkerung Alle, die kommen wollen, sollen aufgenommen werden Sind Deutsche Sind ein Gewinn fur unser Land Besitzen gunstige Alterstruktur Konnen offene Facharbeiterstellen besetzen Tragen zur Sicherung der Renten bei Schäfere Prufungen, ob Voraussetzungen für eine Aussiedlung vorliegen, sind notwendig Aufnahmemoglichkeiten der Stadte und Gemeinden neigen sich dem Ende zu Unterbringung in Notquartieren schafft soziale Brennpunkte Gemeinschaftsleben von Städten und Gemeinden wird stark beschränkt Kommunalhaushalte warden stark belastet Aussiedlerstrom sollte gestoppt werden Sind wirklich alle Deutsche? Sie sind Konkurrenten Sie erhalten Vergungstigungen Sie sind Schuld fur die Mangel- und Konkurrenzsituation Ablehnung, Ausgrenzung, Diskriminierung (Gugel. 1990)

16 Are Aussiedler’s German identities recognised in Germany? Legally have the right to citizenship on arrival Took native German population a long time to recognise Aussiedler as fellow ‘Landesleute’ 1946 survey – only half of locals saw new arrivals as fellow citizens 1989 survey – 38% of host Germans considered Aussiedler fellow ‘Landesleute’, 36% saw them as Ausländer Language as a tool of acceptance Difference between perceptions of government/institutions and German communities

17 Public debate on Aussiedler Mainly regional news stories Focus on rising numbers of Aussiedler arriving Generally portrayed more positively than other migrant groups In comparison to other migrants groups, very little public discussion – why?

18 Thoughts on this headline? http://www.lz.de/lippe/lage/20413525_Aussiedler-gruenden-erfolgreiche-Firmen.html

19 References Ahonen, P., 2014. On Forced Migrations: Transnational Realities and National Narrative in Post-1945 (West) Germany. German History, 32(4), p.599-614. Balasko, S. 2014. Migranten fühlen sich in Hamburg gut integriert. Die Welt, [online] 9 December. Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2015]http://www.welt.de/regionales/hamburg/article135169343/Migranten-fuehlen-sich-in-Hamburg-gut- integriert.html Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge. 2013. Spätaussiedler. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25/05/2015]http://www.bamf.de/DE/Migration/Spaetaussiedler/spaetaussiedler-node.html Dietz, B. Lebok, U. and Polian, P., 2002. The Jewish Emigration from the Former Soviet Union to Germany. International Migration, 40(2), p.29-48. Doku4You24. 2013. Die Russlanddeutschen – Auf der Suche nach Heimat. [video online] Available at: [Accessed 25 April 2015]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9i-eklXKxg Gugel, G., 1990. Ausländer-Aussiedler-Übersiedler: Fremdenfeindlichkeit in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Tübingen: Verein fur Friedenspädagogik Tübingen e.V. Jones, P.N. and Wild, M.T., 1992. Western Germany's 'Third Wave' of Migrants: the Arrival of the Aussiedler. Geoforum, 23(1), p.1-11.

20 References cont. Münz, R. and Ulrich, R. 1998. Germany and its immigrants: a socio-demographic analysis. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 24(1), pp. 25-56 Muchowiecka, L., 2013. The End of Multiculturalism? Immigration and Integration in Germany and the United Kingdom. Student Pulse, 5(06). Available at: [Accessed 17 April 2015]http://www.studentpulse.com/a?id=735 Rock, D. and Wolff, S., 2002. Coming Home to Germany. Oxford: Berghahn Books Schüpbach, D., 2009. Testing Language, Testing Ethnicity? Policies and Practices Surrounding the Ethnic German Aussiedler. Language Assessment Quarterly, 6, p.78-82. Sewing, A. 2015. Aussiedler gründen erfolgreiche Firmen. Lippische Landes-Zeitung, [online] 24 March. Available at: [Accessed 19 April 2015]http://www.lz.de/lippe/lage/20413525_Aussiedler-gruenden-erfolgreiche-Firmen.html Söhn, J. 2008. Bildungsunterschiede zwischen Migrantengruppen in Deutschland: Schulabschlüsse von Aussiedlern und anderen Migranten der ersten Generation im Vergleich. Berliner Journal für Soziologie. 3, pp. 401-431 Waffenschmidt, H. 1999. Integration deutscher Spätaussiedler in Deutschland [pdf] Sankt Augustin: Konrad- Adenauer-Stiftung. Available at: [Accessed 25/05/2015]http://www.kas.de/wf/de/33.4816/

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