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W ORKSHOP S OCIAL W ORK Inclusive Education: Ending Exclusion and Segregation in the Educational System? By Stephanie Vogel and Jürgen Baumgartner, University.

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1 W ORKSHOP S OCIAL W ORK Inclusive Education: Ending Exclusion and Segregation in the Educational System? By Stephanie Vogel and Jürgen Baumgartner, University of Applied Sciences, Munich, Germany

2 1. P RESENT S ITUATION IN G ERMANY Ratification of the UN-Disability-Convention took place in march 2009; Integration in some cases - still far from real inclusion (see Häberlein-Klumpner 2009, 42); 16 Bundesländer (federal states) with different school systems; More than children and young people with "special needs" (over attending special schools, almost public schools); 6% of all pupils attend 9 different types of special schools (trend is rising); 2.6% attending special schools for "learning difficulties" [with a high social selection and a high proportion of children with a migrant background (see Saldern 2009, 72)]; Bavaria: After 4 years of primary school, children are seperated into four different types of schools [only 30 model schools in over 4000 federal schools (Wenzel, Tollkühn 2011)]. (Statistical figures : see KMK 2009, 275)

3 V ERNOR M UNOZ ( INSPECTOR OF THE UN H UMAN R IGHTS C OMMISSION OF E DUCATION ) ASSESSED THE G ERMAN SITUATION IN 2009 : „… It is the early and premature selection of children after only four years of learning together in primary schools. It is the classification of children according to different school types that produces multiple effects of social disadvantage, discrimination and exclusion, especially for children with social deprivation, migrant background and disabilities. …” (Munoz 2009, 7)

4 2. S TRATEGIES, P OLICIES AND R EGULATIONS REGARDING INCLUSIVE E DUCATION IN THE EU „ET 2020“(based on the Lisbon Strategy): - Strategic framework for education and training; - Essential for the development of today's knowledge of society and economy. Four strategic objectives: 3. Promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship - To enable all citizens to acquire and develop skills and competences needed for their employability and which support further learning, active citizenship and intercultural dialogue; - Social disadvantage should be addressed through high quality inclusive and early education.

5 Efficiency and equity in European education and training systems (COM (2006) 481) - Early tracking has especially negative effects on the achievement levels of disadvantaged children; - The most important factors for efficiency and equity are the quality, experience and motivation of teachers and the types of pedagogy they use. Commission staff working paper „schools for the 21st century“ - How can school systems best respond to the need of promoting equity, to respond to cultural diversity and to reduce early school leaving? With „A School for all“ (COM 2007, 8).

6 2.1. I MPLEMENTATION OF EU STRATEGIES, POLICIES AND REGULATIONS IN G ERMANY The German Steady Conference of Ministers of Culture and Education has published recommendations for inclusive education in Dec. 2010, the important point in this paper is the real systemically inclusive perspective, opposed to integration (KMK 2010, S.9 ff.). Bavaria: Passage in the education law of "active participation" should be deleted. (see Özlü, Ercin 2011) During the last years Germany has invested more in pre-primary education (language support; providing more childcare places etc.) (www.bmfsfj.de). Expansion of all-day classes and schools ensure equal access for young people to high quality education and training at all levels and promotes better links between formal education and non-formal learning (www.dji.de).

7 3. I NTEGRATION OR I NCLUSION ? Integration: Integration devides between „children with special education needs“ and such without. (Schumann 2009) The practice of integration is seen in a critical light, because it is still opposed by the traditional schools. (see Booth/ Ainscow 2002, 3). Salamanca Declaration in 1994: Beginning spread of the concept of inclusion; (UNESCO) Inclusion: No inclusion without changing the system of education!

8 3.1. I NTEGRATION OR I NCLUSION ? Sander distinguishes three meanings of 'inclusion': 1. Inclusion synonymous with integration; 2. Inclusion as an optimized integration; 3. Inclusion as an optimized and extended integration ; The third point is seen as a pioneer concept of current and future developments (see Sander 2004, 11f).

9 3.2. I NDEX FOR I NCLUSION „Inclusion involves change. It is an unending process of increasing learning and participation for all students. It is an ideal to which schools can aspire but which is never fully reached. But inclusion happens as soon as the process of increasing participation is started. An inclusive school is one that is on the move.“ (Booth/ Ainscow 2002, 3). Further: Honouring all pupils and staff equally; Improving the participation of pupils in culture, curricula and communities of local schools; Identifying barriers in learning and participation and reducing them; Differences between pupils are resources to support learning, not problems. (see: Booth/ Ainscow 2002, 3)

10 4. E XAMPLES OF G OOD P RACITICE IN G ERMANY Kreuzberger Primary School: 04/2011 PAD of KMK distinguishes it for its COMENIUS school- partnerships. With staff from partner- schools in Norway, France, Cypris, Czech Republik and Finland they cooperated to bring forward the school development through European teamwork. The partners concentrated on realizing the principle of inclusion in the daily school life. (www.kmk.org)

11 C OMENIUS 2.1. P ROJECT EU-M AIL ( EU ROPEAN M IXED A BILITY AND I NDIVIDUALISED L EARNING ) Core question: How can teachers support individualised learning in mixed-ability groups? 13 institutions from five European states worked together (England, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Norway); They get to know and to share best practice in the partner countries by observation of classroom teaching and interviews of teachers, pupils, and parents; Key result: pupils must be the subject of their own learning; Leading to developing modules for teachers education and in-service training; Running time of the project was October, 2004, to August, (see: 2011)

12 5. L IMITS OF I NCLUSION – O UR S TANCE The ambivalence between separation, with is still in staff´s and parents´ minds, and alive inclusion is still a great challenge. (Wenzel, Tollkühn 2011) Special train- the- teachers- courses, which they could get for their own development, are nearly non- existing in Germany (see above). In Bavaria the separation is not yet overcome by legislation (see above). Inclusion is above all a construct of perception. Constructivistic and systemic view is part of a responsible and reflected teachers thinking. But it is a long and difficult process to really understand the meaning of this view. More or better tuition for teachers is in vain if the number of staff is not increased. „Higher – faster – more extensive“: Does the age of narcissm make the implementation of inclusion impossible?

13 Happy childhood: Thank you for your attention

14 L ITERATURVERZEICHNIS I Bmfsfj (2010) Familienministerin Kristina Schröder: "Jedem Kind eine faire Chance!" ( ).http://www.bmfsfj.de/BMFSFJ/kinder-und-jugend,did= html Booth, Tony; Ainscow, Mel (2002) Index for inclusion. Developing learning and participation in schools. ( ). Com (2006) 481 : Communication from the Commission to the Council and to the European Parliament of 8 September 2006 on Efficiency and equity in European education and training systems. Com (2007) COMMISSION STAFF WORKING PAPER. SCHOOLS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY. ( ). DJI (2010). DJI Bulletin. Ganztags lernen. bin/bulladmin/panel.php?sprache=D&demand=bull91_d&dex=/srv/www/htdocs/bulletin/d_bull_d/bull91_d/bull91_7.htm ( ).http://www.dji.de/cgi- bin/bulladmin/panel.php?sprache=D&demand=bull91_d&dex=/srv/www/htdocs/bulletin/d_bull_d/bull91_d/bull91_7.htm (ET 2020) Education and Training 2020 Council Conclusions of 12 May 2009 on a strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020) [Official Journal C 119 of ]. ( ).strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training eu-mail.info (2011) About the Projekt. Projekt Summary. Background. Objektives. ( ).http://eu-mail.info/project/index.htm Häberlein-Klumpner, Ramona (2009) Separation – Integration – Inklusion unter problemgeschichtlicher Perspektive. In: Thoma, Pius; Rehle, Cornelia (Hrsg.) Inklusive Schule. Leben und Lernen mittendrin. S. 35 – 44. Bad Heilbrunn: Julius Klinkhardt. Happy Childhood: KMK (2009) Das Bildungswesen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland PDF-Dateien bildungswesen-in-der-bundesrepublik-deutschland/dossier-deutsch/publikation-zum-download.html ( ).http://www.kmk.org/dokumentation/das- bildungswesen-in-der-bundesrepublik-deutschland/dossier-deutsch/publikation-zum-download.html KMK (2011 ) (Zugriff )

15 L ITERATURVERZEICHNIS II KMK 2010: Inklusive Bildung von Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Behinderungen an Schulen auf: fhttp://www.kmk.org/fileadmin/pdf/Bildung/AllgBildung/Anhoerungstext-Entwurf AK.pd f ( ) Özlü, Ercin (2011) Regelschulen öffnen sich für Behinderte. Artikel im Landsberger Tagblatt Nr. 73 vom Munoz, Vernor (2009): Foreword In: Höhmann, Katrin; Kopp, Rainer; Schäfers, Heidemarie; Demmer, Marianne (Hrsg.) Lernen über Grenzen. Auf dem Weg zu einer Lernkultur, die vom Individuum ausgeht. S Opladen & Farmington Hills: Barbara Budrich. Sander, Alfred (2004) Inklusive Pädagogik verwirklichen – Zur Begründung des Themas. In:Schnell, Irmtraud; Sander, Alfred (Hrsg.) Inklusive Pädagogik. S Bad Heilbrunn: Julius Klinkhardt. Schumann, Brigitte (2009): Inklusion: eine Verpflichtung zum Systemwechsel – deutsche Schulverhältnisse auf dem Prüfstand des Völkerrechts, Zeitschrift für Inklusion, Nr. 1 auf ( )http://www.inklusion-online.net/index.php/inklusion/issue/view/7 Traxler, Hans (1975) Chancengleichheit, Cartoon, auf : ( )http://eu-mail.info/project/index.htm UNESCO: Die Salamanca Erklärung und der Aktionsrahmen zur Pädagogik für besondere Bedürfnisse auf ( ) Wenzel, Klaus ; Tollkühn, Frank (2011): Inklusionsidee erfordert konsequentes Handeln auf ( )


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