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Studiengang Informatik FHDW

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1 Studiengang Informatik FHDW
Vorlesung: Betriebssysteme 4. Quartal 2005

2 Linux: Überblick An dieser Stelle soll ein aktueller Überblick über die zur Verfügung stehenden Technologien und Strategien im Linux-Umfeld gegeben werden. Im Kern der Betrachtungen stehen dabei die Synergiepotenziale verschiedener Technologien am Beispiel von SuSE und Novell. Aus der Sicht von Lösungen wie z.B. Identity Management, soll die Stellung von Betriebssystemen neu definiert werden. Erhärtet sollen die Ausführungen durch die Strategien aktueller Hersteller wie z.B. HP, Oracle etc. Case-Studies zeigen zudem reale, praxisbezogene Umsetzungen der Lösungsansätze In der folgenden Präsentation werden die Original-Folien der Hersteller verwendet (siehe Quellenangaben)

3 Linux: Überblick Zu aller erst soll die Strategie für die Zusammenführung zweier Betriebssystemstrategien anhand von SuSE und Novell aufgezeigt werden.

4

5 Open Enterprise Server: Earlier Than Expected Convergence

6 Executing on a Solid Strategy
NetWare 6/6.5 - Emphasis on the Services NetWare 6/6.5 - Open Source technologies Novell Linux Services 1.0 Ximian and SUSE Acquisitions Open Enterprise Server Announcement NetWare Open Enterprise Server N Enterprise Services Linux N L L

7 Open Enterprise Server
The Best of Two Worlds Novell Open Enterprise Server Protect your investment Infuse agility to your environment Manage costs Leverage Open Platform computing Keep your options open The Best of NetWare - Mature Enterprise Services - Directory Services - Security and Reliability The Best of Linux - Application Support - Partner Support - Strong Community

8 Open Enterprise Server Building the solutions foundation
GroupWise ICE Full Pervasive Collaboration Environ. Ximian XD2 integration OO integration Nsure “Zero-day” provisioning policies B2B ExteNd Web Services (J2EE) Legacy apps web integration NRM Policy-based mgt One-to-many mgt Full SW distribution Remote config mgt Manage all devices Grid Computing Capacity on demand Hardware repurposing Adaptable access based on time, access point, device type Novell extended focus solutions Open User Experience Enterprise Identity & Security Global Management Business Continuance Open Enterprise Server Global management, scalable security, pervasive access for enterprise-class networking services Personal data security Location-base printing Virtual teaming Global Web view of data and services Pervasive Collaboration Environ. foundation Single enterprise identity and sign on eDir, NDS, Domains, AD unification Granular file access mgt Advanced auth Extensible, hierarchical, centralized, Web-based mgt Role-based mgt ACL-based access mgt to all services HA clustering Business continuance clustering Storage management Server consolidation Supported Operating Environments LINUX / NetWare

9 Linux: Überblick Im folgenden wird Anhand der verschiedenen Filesysteme die Unterschiede zwischen SuSE-Linux und Novell-Netware erläutert. Auf der Basis der Architekturmodelle werden die Möglichkeiten der Integration deutlich.

10 Linux Architecture Applications and Services User
Virtual File Services (VFS) Kernel EXT3 Reiser XFS NFS (client) SAMBA (client) Logical Volume Manager (LVM) Network Protocols Device Drivers LAN Drivers

11 Some Limitations Linux File System Limitations Case Sensitive
Restricted to POSIX compliance Case Sensitive Single stream Simplistic access controls Read, Write, eXecute for Owner, Group, World Only one per file or directory ACL package allows for multiple per file or directory Volume Manager Limitations Hard device relationships No on the fly expansion

12 Novell's File System NSS (Novell Storage Services)
NetWare style File system Rich ACL model S,R,W,C,E,M,F,A + inheritance + IRFs Rich Attributes 17 different file attributes Plus extended attributes (application defined) Integrated with eDirectory For enterprise wide management NSS on Linux Novell Nterprise Linux Services v2.0 (NNLS) Implemented as a File System in Linux

13 NSS on Linux Architecture
_Admin Management Edir Handler User Kernel Virtual File Services (VFS) Up call NCP EFL EXT3 Reiser XFS Posix Semantic Agent NSS Enterprise Volume Management System (EVMS) Media Manager Logic Device Drivers

14 NSS Why? Why? - Two goals: Visibility Tree Inherited Rights Salvage
Rich & Secure File management Visibility Tree Inherited Rights Salvage Quotas eDirectory GUIDs And more (NONE of the existing 20 or so Linux file systems have these features) Easy Migration Simply mount existing data on Linux

15 Clustering NWCS on Linux Any fast mount Journaled File System
Edirectory Enabled Full rich HA Clustering solution Any fast mount Journaled File System Not just NSS EXT3, Reiser, etc. Clustered Parallel File Systems (GFS, Polyserv, Lustre, Etc.) EVMS integrated Cluster Volume Broker integrated with EVMS SUSE Clustering Base Simple 2 Node only Heartbeat package for service management.

16 Linux: Überblick Der folgende Abschnitt zeigt einen Auszug aus der Strategie von Oracle in Bezug auf Linux.

17 Linux: Überblick

18 Linux: Überblick

19 Linux: Überblick

20 Linux: Überblick

21 Linux: Überblick

22 Linux: Überblick

23 Linux: Überblick

24 Linux: Überblick

25 Linux: Überblick

26 Linux: Überblick

27 Linux: Überblick

28 Linux: Überblick

29 Linux: Überblick

30 Linux: Überblick

31 Linux: Überblick

32 Linux: Überblick Der folgende Abschnitt gibt einen Überblick über die Strategie von HP in Bezug auf Linux. Bemerkenswert sind die Ideen und Ausführungen zur LRA

33 Die Linux-Strategie von HP
Warum Linux? Was macht HP? Beispiele aus der Praxis

34 Warum ist Linux so großartig?
Multi- User Tasking CPU Architektur (plattformunabhängig) Relativ kleiner, modularer Kernel Treiber nachladbar Posix-orientiert Open Source weltweit über Projekte über 1 Mio. Entwickler (allein in den USA?) Preis-Leistungs-Verhältnis „[Windows] NT war nie als Multiuser-System gedacht, nach Microsofts Vorstellung sollte auf jedem Desktop ein Windows-PC die Programme lokal ausführen. Wegen der Bedrohung durch den Network-Computer (NC) und der Kritik an den hohen Unterhaltskosten von PCs riss Bill Gates kurz entschlossen das Steuer herum. Er nahm die „Multiwin“-Erweiterung von Citrix in Linzenz aus denen die Terminaldienste hervorgingen.“ Computerwoche Online, ,

35 Linux ist gut programmiert
Marktforschung Reasoning Geringer Fehleranteil im Code: 0,1 Fehler gegenüber 0,55 Fehler pro 1000 Zeilen Code. Untersucht wurde jeweils der Code für TCP/IP. Untersuchung von MySQL zeigt ähnliches Ergebnis. inspectionreport.html The defect classes Reasoning inspected include: Memory leaks - refers to the loss of available memory space that occurs when dynamic data is no longer used, but is never de-allocated. Each time the leak occurs, the application drains the available memory pool. On some systems, memory may be allocated from a global pool, in which case the loss of available memory may affect the entire system, not just the application that caused it. Eventually, the performance degradation may lead to a fatal out-of-memory condition. NULL pointer dereferences (NPD’s) - occur when there is an attempt to access data at an invalid address. This defect class also reports situations where a NULL pointer is used in an assignment – even though the assignment is not a defect by itself, a subsequent dereference will cause a program exception. The defect is reported at the assignment, because this is the earliest point in the code where the problem could be identified. Bad deallocations - use of an inappropriate memory release operation for deallocating memory, or to the deallocation of memory that was never explicitly allocated. Depending on the compiler and the specific operation, the impact of this defect may range from no effect at all, to unexpected results, a memory leak, memory corruption, or a program exception. Out of bounds array access’s - an array index expression is not within the upper and lower bounds of the array. This defect can cause data corruption, or can lead to a program exception. Uninitialized variables - local and dynamic variables are not explicitly initialized prior to use. Usage of uninitialized variables can cause unpredictable results in the program, because the value of the variable is essentially random. Quelle: Reasoning Whitepaper 412 if (!xprt->addr.sin_port) { 413 task->tk_status = -EIO; 414 return; 415 } 416 417 if (!xprt_lock_write(xprt, task)) 418 return; 419 if (xprt_connected(xprt)) 420 goto out_write; 421 422 if (sock && sock->state != SS_UNCONNECTED) 423 xprt_close(xprt);

36 Linux ist schnell Samba 3 läuft unter Linux 2,5 mal schneller als Windows 2003 Server. HP ProLiant BL10e Server CPU: 900MHz Pentium III Festplatte: 40 GB ATA Speicher: 512MB Ziff-Davis NetBench Fileserver Benchmark mit 48 Clients. Das entspricht ca. 500 realen Clients. 14. Oktober 2003

37 Linux wächst stark >30%
$8B $2B IDC 11/2003: „Der Markt für Linux-Server umfasste 743 Millionen US-Dollar Umsatz und wuchs damit gegenüber dem Vorjahr um 49,8 Prozent und bei den Stückzahlen um 51,4 Prozent. Auch der Markt für Windows-Server konnte zulegen, und zwar mit 10,3 Prozent gegenüber dem dritten Quartal 2002 auf 3,4 Milliarden US-Dollar, während an Unix-Servern 4,1 Milliarden US-Dollar umgesetzt wurde, 3,8 Prozent weniger als 2002.“ Quelle: server revenues 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: IDC, 2002 IDC Prognose 2002: jährliches Wachstum > 30% IDC 11/2003: Jahreswachstum 50% Q3’03 zu Q3’02, US-Dollar und Stückzahl Quelle:

38 IDC Forecast 2002-2007 Betriebssysteme

39 Linux ist „free“ Linux ist frei verfügbar
GPL: GNU General Public License Linux ist nicht kostenlos Lizenzen Maintenance / Support Anpassung Schulung

40 GPL: GNU General Public License
Der Quellcode darf weitergegeben werden, auch gegen Gebühr (§1). Gewährleistung ist ausgeschlossen, Garantie ist möglich (§2). Der Quellcode muss ohne Lizenzgebühr verfügbar gemacht werden. Der Quellcode darf abgeändert werden (§2). Jegliche darauf beruhende Software muss wieder unter der GPL stehen. Der ursprüngliche Autor verliert durch die Weitergabe seiner Software nicht die Urheberschaft und nicht sein Urheberrecht. Der ursprüngliche Autor darf die Software ein weiteres Mal unter einer anderen Lizenz veröffentlichen. Für Unternehmen bedeutet das: Produkte, die zum Beispiel auf GPL-Bibliotheken aufsetzen und für einen Kunden entwickelt wurden, müssen wieder unter der GPL zugänglich gemacht werden. Siehe:

41 Linux spart Kosten Studie der Robert Frances Group
am Beispiel Web-Server (Apache bzw. IIS) Solaris: Extreme Hardwarekosten Hohe Servicekosten Windows: Hoher Verwaltungsaufwand für Sicherheitsupdates Quellen:

42 Hardwarekosten Beste Performance bei niedrigen Kosten
Einfacher Übergang von Solaris nach Linux Klares RoIT: neue Server bezahlen sich selbst. Mehr als doppelte Performance pro Server bedeutet: halb so viele Server im Einsatz halbe Stellfläche halbe Stromleistung deutlich geringere Kühlleistung Search Server Web Server App Server Simplest Transition - Solaris to Linux: Application architecture/design Migration asessment (risk, cost, time) Application Porting and Migration Performance tuning/benchmarking System programming Environment check OS Installation & administration Source compatibility with HP-UX Kernel Programming 3.06 GHz Web Server App Server Search Server 3.6 3.06 GHz

43 Einsatzgebiete von Linux
client devices business application server data/ content server Network Edge Server Infrastructure Server proxy caching VPN RAS firewall directory security load bal. file/print web mail NAS E R P S C M C R M on-line trading databases documents compute clusters design/visualization and animation

44 Neues im Kernel 2.6 “The Wonderful World of Linux 2.6”, Joseph Pranevich, Einige der neuen Features von Kernel 2.6: Unterstützung von mehr Architekturen und mehr Hardware. Eingebettete Systeme können kleiner gemacht werden, andererseits skaliert der Kernel besser auf »große« Hardware mit mehr als vier Prozessoren. Und ucLinux, eine Variante ohne Hardware-Speicherverwaltung, ist in den Kernel integriert. Unterscheidung von »Subarchitekturen«, d.h. Trennung von Prozessortyp und Hardwaretyp. Unterstützung von NUMA durch »Topologie-API«, Änderungen im Scheduler und in der Speicherverwaltung. Die maximale Anzahl von User-IDs ist vier Milliarden statt 65536, die Prozess-IDs reichen bis zu einer Milliarde statt bis 32767, die maximale Zahl offener Dateien muss nicht mehr festgelegt werden, die maximale Dateisystem-Größe ist nun 2 TB. Die Interaktivität des Kernels ist wesentlich besser: Der Kernel ist unterbrechbar, die Latenzzeiten wurden minimiert und der Timer-Takt von 100 auf 1024 Hz erhöht. Das stark verbesserte I/O-Subsystem trägt ebenso dazu bei wie die FUTEXe, eine Erfindung von Paul "Rusty" Russell. Die Kernel-Module wurden verbessert (und benötigen neue Tools anstelle der bisherigen modutils). Die Thread-Implementierung zusammen mit der NTPL-Bibliothek stellt eine extrem schnelle Thread-Implementierung dar, die hunderttausende von parallelen Threads unterstützt. Neues vereinheitlichtes Device-Modell: »Kernel Objects«. Darauf bauen u.a. ACPI und das neue sysfs-Dateisystem auf, das das proc-Dateisystem ergänzt und teilweise ersetzt. ALSA ersetzt die alten OSS-Soundtreiber. Unterstützung für digitales Fernsehen (DVB). IPsec ist im Kernel, ebenso User Mode Linux, Software Suspend und variable CPU-Geschwindigkeit (Speedstep u.a.). NFSv4 wird unterstützt, u.a. mit stärkerer Authentikation. Sicherheitsmodule erlauben völlig andere Sicherheitsmodelle als bisher. Die traditionelle Superuser-Methode ist zwar das einzige bisher offiziell unterstützte Modell, aber es lässt sich ersetzen.

45 Migrationsleitfaden des BMI
Entscheidungshilfe - der Migrationsleitfaden des BMI Die Koordinierungs- und Beratungsstelle der Bundesregierung für Informationstechnik in der Bundesverwaltung (KBSt) im Bundes-ministerium des Innern stellt einen „Leitfaden für die Migration von Basissoftwarekomponenten auf  Server- und Arbeitsplatzsystemen“ zur Verfügung. Ziel des Leitfadens ist es, sowohl strategisch-wirtschaftliche als auch detailliert technische Entscheidungshilfen bei einer geplanten oder gerade vollzogenen Migration zu bieten. Europäische Kommission Leitfaden zur Migration (The IDA Open Source Migration Guidelines)

46 Was macht HP? Server Workstation Desktop Itanium Hochverfügbarkeit
Storage Drucker Software

47 HP gewinnt weiter mit Linux
HP macht über zwei Milliarden Dollar Umsatz mit Linux. Mit Linux, ist HP… #1 im ww Serverumsatz #1 in IA32-Serverstückzahlen und -umsatz #1 im ww Itanium-Marktanteil >80% #1 im ww Blades-Marktanteil #1 im ww Umsatz von Festplattensystemen #1 an ww gelieferten SAN-Festplattensystemen 1 1 IDC's Worldwide Quarterly Server Tracker, Q1 2003, IDC's Worldwide Disk Storage Systems Tracker, Q1 2003 Itanium is a trademark or registered trademark of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.

48 Linux-Markt West-Europa

49 Linux-Markt Deutschland Q1/2004
HP seit 13 Quartalen #1 nach Stückzahl und Umsatz Umsatz HP erneut Marktführer Basierend auf den aktuellen IDC Marktzahlen konnte HP den Mitbewerb erneut auf die Plätze verweisen. Mit 36,6 % Marktanteil im Segment Linux-Server konnte HP nicht nur den Marktanteil in Deutschland leicht ausbauen, sondern hat damit mehr Linux-Server im deutschen Markt verkauft als IBM und Dell zusammen.

50 HP im Wettbewerb Wo Linux-Kunden profitieren:

51 Gartner VendorRatings 3/2004
HP is a strong choice for Linux.  The company achieved several management and technology changes in 2003 that increased its rating for Linux to 'positive'.  It has developed a clear vision around its Linux strategy and demonstrates a strong commitment to Linux.  Linux is well integrated into HP's hardware and software strategy Quelle:

52 HPs “Drei-Plattform-Strategie“
Adaptive Enterprise As you know, HPs Enterprise Strategy is all about delivering adaptive IT Infrastructure to our customers helping them to increase their return on Information Technologies. The key there is, to closely link the customers IT Infrastructure to their Business needs. HP has announced a three operating system strategy. We view Windows, Linux, and HP/UX as HP’s three strategic operating systems. IDC forecasts that servers running Windows, Linux, and UNIX operating systems will represent the largest revenue generators by IDC also forecasts these as being the only three platforms to grow in revenue over the period of Customer environments are heterogenous. Many customers have deployed all three server operating systems in their environments. Each operating system has a fit in the enterprise. Thus, HP is fully committed to enterprise-enabling all three operating systems with common enterprise management tools and with robust services and support. This strategy is a customer-focused strategy. Customers tend to know which operating system they need and why. Their decisions are usually based on their skillsets, application requirements, and how mission-critical a particular deployment is. Linux, together with Windows and HP-UX are the three strategic operating environment that we at HP call strategic and handle as tier 1 operating systems across our product range. Tier one means broad support not only on a few platforms like most of our competitors but much rather across our server product range. With that said it is important to understand that this is all about customer choice. Most of our customers have heterogenious enviroments running all three operating enviroments in parallel – what they ask us to do is to enable their adaptive infrastructure with servers, storage, services and solutions once again for all three operating systems. With that said let there be no question about the fact that Linux is a key elements of HPs adaptive Infrastructure As a matter of fact, HP is the only Enterprise Server Vendor with a truly balanced Operating System Strategy across Windows, HP-UX and Linux responding to customer needs for a heterogeneous Server environment! HP ist der einzige Enterprise-Server-Hersteller mit einer ausgewogenen Betriebssystemstrategie bezüglich Windows, HP-UX und Linux und reagiert damit auf die heterogene Umgebung des Kunden.

53 HPs Beitrag zu „Open-Source“
Eigene Linux-Entwicklungslabors Führerschaft beim Linux-Standard-Base [LSB] Debian-Projektunterstützung Entwicklung des Linux-Kernel für Itanium Druckertreiber mit SourceForge Beiträge zu (zum Teil Gründungsmitglied): OSDL SAMBA Apache Gnome und KDE Open SSI Cluster Lustre Xfree86

54 Linux bei HP Over 3200 systems and growing …
All external is routed through Linux rim servers on HP's firewalls - to the tune of >3TB/year DNS infrastructure is rolling out on Linux (~100 systems at present) Enterprise Directory service hosted on Linux clusters Client DHCP service delivery hosted on Linux Network time is provided by Linux rim servers - NTP is a critical element to keeping our routers and network in sync HP's internal and secure instant messaging network (Jabber) is implemented on Linux servers Linux clients and servers in use for electronic design automation [Synopsys] Utility Data Center deployment including 36 node Itanium Linux cluster used for HP Labs research computing Oracle 9iRAC application testing and validation for production deployment

55 Was wird unterstützt? LINUX Core Network Services Graphics Language
Applications Installation/ Configuration HW- Support Kernel Commands Filesystem LVM Printing Driver ServiceGuard Installation/ Configuration ARPA/Berkley NFS, NIS, DNS LDAP S/N-Security IPX, IP-Filter Firewall Fileservice – Samba Installation/ Configuration 3D Visualize 2D Graphics Charaktersets X-Server Fonts Desktops – KDE, GNOME Adapter/Driver Compiler Linker Shell Programming Java Core-Dump Analyses Installation and Configuration

56 Linux-Lösungen HP und Partner
SUSE Redhat Oracle SAP BEA VMware High Availability Clustering ServiceGuard, Lifekeeper High-Performance-Computing ProLiant Security Server - Check Point Model Sendmail – Mail & Messaging Covalent – Web Serving Ensim – Web hosting

57 HP und RedHat HP und SuSE
CTO Executive und Marketing relationship HP ist OEM für Red Hat Linux Global Services Agreement TAM Agreement für Alpha und ProLiant-Server HP Ingenieure bei Redhat Über 1000 Mannstunden Server-Tests TPC-Benchmark-Test: Oracle/Red Hat/HP Erstes Oracle-TPC-Benchmark unter Linux! CTO Executive und Marketing relationship HP ist OEM für SuSE Linux Global Services Agreement TAM Agreement für Alpha und ProLiant-Server Benchmark-Test: Oracle/SuSE/HP

58 Linux von HP Die Linux-Distributionen von Redhat und SUSE sind demnächst über HP beziehbar. Einschließlich Maintenance und Support.

59 Hochverfügbarkeit mit Linux
Steeleye LifeKeeper active/active Linux und Windows ServiceGuard active/active Linux und HP-UX Single System Image Open Source Cluster wirkt wie ein System Entwicklung läuft

60 ProLiant & Linux burns Sun
Proliant DL380 G3 Sun Fire 280R cost performance $16,490 $6,463 performance cost 19 messages / second 30 messages / second

61 Overview of available products – ia32
SuSE SLES 8 RH 2.1 RH 3 DB + RAC is covering either 9i and 10g release. Oracle 10g RAC for RH 3 is plan for Early April. 10g RAC for Suse SLES 8 still projected E.business suite is with 9.2 rdbms Application server is 10g (9.0.4) with server 9.2 OCS is supported only supported on RH 3 with the release Oracle DB + RAC Oracle e.business suite Oracle Application server Oracle Collaboration Suite

62 Overview of available products – ia64
SuSE SLES 8 RH 2.1 RH 3 10g RAC on Itanium RH 3 should be available soon. There is no date available for Suse 8. Only 9iRAC is available on Suse Sles 8. 10g still projected. Split configuration means only the db is on itanium server. Apps server stil hosted by an ia32 machine. Only the Oracle container 4 J2ee (part of 9iAS) is supported on Linux itanium. Full support of the future Oracle Application Server 10g Release 2 (10.0.2) is plan by the end of the year (subject to change). Oracle DB + RAC Oracle e.business suite (Split Configuration) Oracle Application server (OC4J) Oracle Collaboration Suite

63 Oracle mit HP Bestandsaufnahme Analyse Beratung Implementation

64 HP Achieves First Linux Clustered Oracle Applications Standard Benchmark
New benchmark demonstrates highest performance for mission critical databases and applications running Linux PALO ALTO, CALIF., MAY 22, 2003 – HP (NYSE:HPQ) announced today that industry-standard HP ProLiant servers running SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 8 have achieved the industry’s first clustered Oracle® Applications Standard Benchmark (OASB) (1) on Linux. The benchmark further showcases HP’s leadership in delivering highly available and scalable Oracle9i Database with Real Application Clusters based solutions in Linux environments, demonstrating the advantage of running mission-critical applications on HP ProLiant servers with Linux. “Enterprise customers look to HP ProLiant servers running SuSE Linux Enterprise Server as the optimal platform to achieve unparalleled scalability and performance for Oracle E-Business Suite at a much lower price point,” said Martin Fink, vice president of Linux, HP. “Unlike competitors, HP offers customers complete solutions based on industry-standard open systems, including HP OpenView and HP StorageWorks, all of which reduce total cost of ownership and offer a robust, secure and scalable environment to support mission-critical applications.” Testing for the first clustered Linux OASB benchmark was conducted on Oracle E-Business Suite version and Oracle 9i Database with Real Application Clusters v , achieving the highest performance results of 6,832 concurrent users and an average response time of 1.24 seconds, while running on a 2-node second-generation HP ProLiant DL580 cluster running SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 8, powered by UnitedLinux. “Oracle’s ongoing commitment to Linux is further demonstrated by the tightly integrated engineering work with HP and SuSE on the world's first clustered Linux OASB,” said Dave Dargo, vice president, System Platforms Division, Oracle. “This benchmark demonstrates a combined solution than can provide enterprise customers high availability and scalability in their Linux deployments of Oracle database and application solutions.” “This benchmark could not have been achieved without the close working relationship and joint engineering efforts between HP, Oracle and SuSE Linux,” said Uwe Heine, Chief Alliance Officer, SuSE Linux. “Enterprise customers can now clearly see the performance and cost benefits of this HP, Oracle, and SuSE Linux solution.” HP offers Linux certified configurations from all leading Linux distributors, including SuSE Linux. More information about HP’s partner initiatives for Linux can be found at Full system configuration and software release information can be obtained at: HP has been working with Oracle closely since last June, when Oracle9i Real Application Clusters was announced… we support a range of Oracle Certified Configurations today, starting with this one based on 9iRAC! Compaq’s pre-installed Linux RAC solution is based on the ProLiant DL580 server and the Compaq RAID Array Fiber Channel Storage solution. As you can see, we offer a range of certified configurations, from 2-4 nodes in the cluster, (6 nodes with RHAS coming) and a range of cpus, memory and storage, as well SuSE Linux SLES 7 is supported today, with Red Hat Linux Advanced Server coming soon…

65 Oracle hat auf Linux umgestellt
Oracle, Marktführer bei den Unternehmens-Datenbanken, hat nach eigenen Angaben seine interne IT-Infrastruktur vollständig auf Linux umgestellt. Dieser Schritt war vor einem Jahr von Oracle-Chef Larry Ellison angekündigt worden. Indem das Unternehmen diese Ankündigung wahrmacht, erzielt es nicht nur erhebliche Einsparungen bei den Beschaffungs- und Betriebskosten, sondern zeigt auch seinen Kunden, daß sie das Gleiche erreichen können. Zugleich demonstriert Oracle auch seine Unterstützung für Linux. Quelle: 12. Aug 2003

66 LC: HP HPTC für ProLiants
HP High Performance Compute Cluster LC series certified solution suite of ProLiant DL380 G3 and ProLiant DL140, DL145 or DL360 G3 servers delivered as orderable 16, 32, 64 or 128 Node cluster configurations. Base Control Node configuration: ProLiant DL380 G3, one Xeon DP 3.06 GHz, 1 GB of memory Only one control node is required per configuration. The Control Node performs the basic job receipt dispatch and monitoring within the compute cluster. Base Compute Node configuration: LC1000: ProLiant DL140, one Xeon DP 3.06 GHz, 1 GB memory. LC2000: ProLiant DL360 G3, one Xeon DP 3.06 GHz, 512 MB memory. LC3000: ProLiant DL145, one Opteron 2.2 GHz, 2 GB memory. These nodes can be configured with additional processor, memory, disk and a choice of cluster interconnect: 10/100 Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and Myrinet XP, which is the de facto standard for high bandwidth low latency parallel cluster interconnect. Software: factory-installed and tested software. Additional services are also available. Customers have the option of having their own software installed and tested by HP or ordering selected software offerings from the HP Consulting and Integration Services for installation and testing by HP. Another critical component of HP’s Itanium strategy is our support for multiple operating systems across our product line. This strategy allows us to tie availability of the most pervasive operating system, Windows, with the Unix-like up-and-coming Linux operating system, and our high-value OS, HP-UX -- all on one platform. This strategy will help customers to transition to Itanium without having to make hardware and operating systems changes all at once. HP-UX is the only operating system that will run in both 32-bit and 64-bit execution environments on Itanium. Consequently, HP-UX users can transition to Itanium and bring all their existing applications with them and then decide at a later date whether they want to optimize on HP-UX or switch to Windows or Linux. Transitions are difficult and customers will value the ability to change one variable at a time in the process. Today, we plan to offer Itanium workstation products that can support Windows 64 Pro, Red Hat Linux, and HP-UX on the same system, although not at the same time. Our server strategy does not currently support all three operating systems on the same platform, but we are working towards that objective. Bis 887 GFLOPS clusters/linux_clusters.html

67 Current XC Offering HP XC6000 Cluster (17 to 256 nodes)
HP Integrity rx2600 servers with Itanium®2 processors (rx1600 in spring) Quadrics Elan3 (Elan4 in spring 2004) XC System software HP XC3000 Cluster (17 to 256 nodes) ProLiant servers with Xeon™ processors Myrinet XP (2XP in summer 2004) Full suite of support and service options XC System Software: Linux OS (compatible with Red Hat 2.1), Platform LSF, XC implementation of MPICH, MLIB, and XC cluster management software This is what is shipping today – note that we can go beyond 256 nodes – the 256 is standard configuration support. The XC6000 has support for the new Integrity systems – and in a couple of months the rx U systems. Elan4 will be available mid April XC3000 ships with Myrinet XP Opteron and DL145 will be offered in spring, with 32 bit implementation – full 64 bit later.

68 Configuration for1024 nodes
QsNet Configuration for1024 nodes Performance Overview Latency MPI send/receive 5 sec Shmem put/get 2 sec Pipelined put/get 1 sec Bandwidth MPI & Shmem 325 MB/sec Bidirectional 400 MB/sec Bandwidth degradation on large switches. Packet size is limited to 5 64-byte transactions. Bandwidth falls off when the network size and cable lengths cause the (overlapped) Ack to return after the last transaction has been sent rather than before. Check effect of cables.

69 end-to-end linux solutions
Oracle Application Server & 9i RAC Oracle E-Business – solution suite BEA Weblogic – application server SteelEye – high availability clustering Sendmail – mail & messaging Volution Messaging – smb mail & messaging InterScan/Immunix – security Covalent – web serving Ensim – web hosting VMware – server consolidation SAP R3 – ERP, CRM Mitel SMB/Enterprise – network infrastructure Veritas Foundation Suite – volume manger, file system Check Point edition – security “Beowulf” high performance technical computing (HPTC) hp hardware hp software 3rd party application hp service and support Bandwidth degradation on large switches. Packet size is limited to 5 64-byte transactions. Bandwidth falls off when the network size and cable lengths cause the (overlapped) Ack to return after the last transaction has been sent rather than before. Check effect of cables.

70 Beispiele aus der Praxis
Financial Services Media & Entertainment Public Sector Scientific Computing (government, education, manufacturing) Online Retail Telco and ISPs

71 DreamWorks Digital content creation Business drivers/needs Benefits
500 DL360G3 (1000 CPUs) Business drivers/needs Increase rendering capabilities Stabilize costs Maximum flexibility from hardware and OS Timely, responsive support Benefits 15-times interactive rendering performance increase Significantly enhanced time-to-market capability Dramatic IT TCO reduction enables a technology upgrade every 18 months vs. 5 years Benefits: Ability to migrate to more powerful systems, even in the midst of film production ““Our industry constantly demands improvements and innovations. With HP’s Linux solutions, we fulfill those needs while meeting our aggressive budgeting and scheduling goals.” — Ed Leonard Technology Director Leading entertainment company DreamWorks SKG teamed up with HP in January 2002, forging a three-year, multimillion-dollar technology alliance. The relationship had begun about a year earlier, when HP provided 40 HP IA32 1U servers to help DreamWorks put the finishing touches on Shrek, which went on to become one of the highest-grossing films of For this summer’s Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron, engineers from HP’s graphics lab helped enhance Linux software to power DreamWorks’ proprietary animation software. As DreamWorks lays the technological foundation for its next groundbreaking films, it’s collaborating even more closely with HP. Previous productions benefited from partial solutions from HP--servers for Shrek and software enhancements and some workstations for Spirit--but the upcoming Sinbad is being created entirely on HP Linux systems. According to Jeffrey Wike, DreamWorks’ Core Animation Software Lead, “On previous films, we had backup solutions in place in case we hit obstacles with Linux we couldn’t overcome--people still had SGI systems on their desktops, for example. But we’ve gained so much confidence in HP and Linux that now we’re working without a net.” Maintaining DreamWorks’ leadership of the visual effects industry requires perpetual innovation. “Everything DreamWorks produces has to be fresh and surprising,” says Ed Leonard, who heads DreamWorks Animation Technology from the company’s studios in Glendale, California. “That’s why our artists and storytellers are constantly demanding improvements and innovations. Our commitment to HP and Linux helps us fill those needs while meeting our aggressive budgeting and scheduling goals.” Wike says the demand for nonstop evolution is both a blessing and a burden. “Of course it’s exciting to use the very latest technology to make these films,” he says. “But it’s also a necessity--it’s the only way we can continue to hit our constantly advancing creative targets. Our artists always expect the newest tool, and once they get it, they’re already looking forward to the next step forward. The ability to efficiently handle enormous complexity lets them do their jobs better. For example, they can now show the director five versions of an explosion and let him pick one.” When it’s planning a film, DreamWorks often presumes the availability of tools that aren’t functional at the time, knowing they’ll be ready when needed. That kind of confidence requires maximum flexibility from hardware and operating systems, as well as timely, responsive support. HP and Linux continue to deliver on both fronts. As animated movies get more complex, they require increasingly powerful computing solutions. That means DreamWorks has to migrate to more powerful systems as soon as it’s feasible to do so, even in the midst of a film’s production. Shark Slayer, slated to begin full production in spring 2003, will introduce a dramatic new style that depends on massive lighting and rendering capabilities. Graphics for the film will start on 2-GHz dual-processor Pentium 4 systems, but with HP’s help, DreamWorks is exploring ways to complete Shark Slayer on a next-generation platform, possibly Intel’s 64-bit Itanium (Itanium). Two other DreamWorks projects in preproduction, Shrek 2 and Madagascar, are also candidates for Itanium. Any company can buy the latest equipment; industry leaders know how to squeeze the most performance out of it. HP contributes to DreamWorks’ exhaustive testing and optimization efforts. For example, a team from DreamWorks and HP recently took some of the code for DreamWorks’ proprietary 3D rendering software up to Intel in DuPont, Washington in an effort to optimize it for the Pentium 4. With Intel’s help, the team figured out how to change the architecture to improve P4 compiler performance by 30 percent. Such achievements never justify rest, however--HP engineers are now working on optimizing that same code for Itanium. Another ongoing challenge is coordinating different processes and hardware platforms. Movies aren’t made one scene at a time, and animated films are especially complicated, with animation, background, and effects work going on simultaneously in different departments. If there are any computational differences anywhere in the production pipeline, they’ll show up in the film. Certain monitors must be color-calibrated so that what they display perfectly matches what will ultimately show in the theater. DreamWorks counts on HP engineers to help harmonize all its different systems. “HP is our qualifier, systems integrator, and partner,” says Wike. “We rely on the HP guys to qualify graphics cards for Linux, for example. We doubt we’d get the kind of active engineering support we need from one of HP’s competitors. We couldn’t call and immediately get an industry-leading expert on the phone to help us fix a glitch.” In such a multifaceted environment, brute processing force isn’t enough to ensure perfection--getting all the details right often means working alongside HP to troubleshoot on site. Wike recalls one impressive example: “We use special high-resolution scanners to capture our artists’ hand-drawn images. When they weren’t working properly with Linux, HP sent in David Mossberger, the kernel guru. Within a couple hours he’d found the bug and fixed it.” Such challenges go with the Linux territory, but they’re becoming less formidable every day, and they’re a small price to pay for the enormous cost savings and flexibility Linux has brought. “Without Linux,” says Wike, “There’s no way we could evolve as quickly as we need to. The move to Intel-based hardware and commodity RAM has made our hardware costs so much lower that we’re free to upgrade our systems much more often. When we used SGI equipment, we used to recapitalize in about five years. Now we can afford to replace our render farm and desktops every 18 months. That’s in line with what’s going in high-end graphics hardware today--18 months after a new card appears, you can’t buy it.” Increasingly, other large-scale, high-end animation companies are following DreamWorks’ lead and switching to Linux. The HP-DreamWorks alliance has expanded beyond the studio walls. DreamWorks outsources some of its animation testing to companies in England and Canada, and has found that the best way to ensure accurate results is to ship preconfigured HP systems to those companies. Additionally, DreamWorks is turning to HP for other solutions. “DreamWorks’ whole IT area is moving to HP,” Wike says. “Data storage is also moving to HP. The partnership started with our core business, but now it’s blossoming into other opportunities.” Despite the industry’s glamour, DreamWorks’ bottom line is as real as any other company’s. Few businesses require the intense computing power and breakneck innovation DreamWorks does, but almost every company needs efficient, flexible, affordable systems and dedicated support. The results HP has helped DreamWorks achieve testify to both companies’ restless commitment to meaningful innovation.

72 Land Brandenburg Web Site www.brandenburg.de Business drivers/needs
Beseitigung der Performance- Engpässe der stark frequentierten WebSite Benefits Deutliche Effizienzsteigerung durch Einsatz einer Cluster-Lösung mit HP ProLiant Servern unter Linux Reduzierung der Unterhalts- kosten Das Bundesland Brandenburg hat mit einer Cluster-Lösung auf der Basis von HP ProLiant Servern mit Linux die Performance-Engpässe seiner stark frequentierten Website beseitigt. Im Zusammenspiel mit der hochverfügbaren HP ServiceGuard Cluster-Software ist das Bundesland bestens gerüstet, um die schnell wachsende Anzahl der Zugriffe zu bewältigen und darüber hinaus sein Angebot durch neue Anwendungen laufend zu erweitern. Neben einer deutlichen Effizienzsteigerung senkt die HP-Lösung auch die Unterhaltskosten erheblich. ______________________________________________________________ In order to overcome serious performance issues with its existing system in managing its heavily-trafficked Web site - many customers were unable to access Web services and slow response times were reported - the State of Brandenburg in Germany switched to a cluster of industry-standard HP ProLiant servers running Linux. The site, which hosts approximately HTML Web pages, now runs Red Hat Advanced Server 2.1 Linux in conjunction with HP ServiceGuard high-availability cluster software on HP ProLiant servers. The switch to an HP Linux-based solution solved growing system performance issues related to increasing numbers of users and the introduction of more power-hungry applications, ensuring that critical business applications are always available. Working with HP, Brandenburg-Online enhanced performance and scalability and achieved a substantial reduction in operating costs

73 Polizei Niedersachsen
NIVADIS Niedersächsische Vorgangs-bearbeitungs-, Analyse-, Dokumentations- und Informations-System Business drivers/needs Konsolidierung von Einzelanwendungen Benefits Kombination von Vorgangs-bearbeitung, Recherche, Fahndung und Analyse, Ablösung von 23 alten Einzel-anwendungen 27 HP Itanium-Server rx2600 für BEA und Oracle Software Lösungen

74 Stadt Trier Linux-basierte Storagelösung unter Red Hat Linux
Business drivers/needs jährliches Wachstum der Datenmenge von ca. 40% in Kommune Trier Anforderung: kostengünstige und zentraladministrierbare Storagelösung Sicherheit entscheidender Aspekt Benefits Lösung auf Standard Server Plattform (2 x HP ProLiant DL380 im Cluster) MSA-1000, MSL-5030 Tape Library zentrale Datenablage und -Sicherung skalierbares, hochverfügbares System geringere Gesamtsystemkosten

75 Gemeinde Isernhagen Linux-basierte Thin Client/Server Lösung unter SUSE Linux Business drivers/needs hohe Lizenzkosten für OS und Office- Anwendungen ( Euro/3 Jahre) 120 PC Arbeitsplätze mit hohem Administrationsaufwand Benefits Migration auf Thin Clients und HP Server Plattform (ProLiant ML350 und ML570) Migration auf OpenOffice Plattform Reduzierung der Kosten für Verteilung, Installation und Verwaltung durch zentrale SW-Pflege Reduzierung der HW-Kosten um 50%

76 Amazon.com Internet Commerce Business drivers/needs Benefits
Reduce computing costs while maintaining an “always-on” internet infrastructure Benefits >$17 million saved by moving to HP and Linux, based on SEC filing Proactive on-site support team ensures continued performance delivering always-on reliability and trouble free customer experience Data warehouse platform meets needs today and will scale for future requirements “We experienced a 100% increase in holiday traffic in HP’s systems never went down.” — Charlie Bell Vice President of IT

77 British Petroleum Americas
Oil Reservoir Simulation – HPC Business drivers/needs More processing power needed to apply new mathematical techniques for Seismic Analysis Lower total cost of compute resources Benefits Three times the performance of current RISC-based systems, while half the price of current RISC-based systems (SGI) Lowered cost of finding hydrocarbons Benefits: Increased probability of finding hydrocarbons “This high-end computing technology gives BP access to wider business opportunities. By taking full advantage of these, the company will benefit not only from the technology itself, but also from attracting a new generation of young technologists into our industry to expand the envelope of applications still further.” — Wolfgang Schollnberger BP Group Technology Vice President, BP Americas

78 Schering AG Chemische Simulation (FLExXTM) Business drivers/needs
Linux-Cluster für technische Anwendung im Molekularbereich Benefits Sehr hohe Leistungsfähigkeit und Zuverlässigkeit Schnelle Bereitstellung der Ergebnisse aus der Forschung für die Weiterverarbeitung Einsatz von HP IA-32 Prozessoren in (Standard Intel Server Plattform) mit mehr als 32 Knoten Chemische Simulation (FLEXX) redundant ausgelegt. 32x LP1000r, 64 CPUs PIII 15x DL360 G3, 30 CPUs Xeon

79 U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)
Computational science Business drivers/needs Supercomputer that allows researchers to apply computational science to address key scientific challenges Benefits Consisting of 1,400 of the next generation of Intel Itanium Family Processors with total peak performance of >8.3 teraflops Calculations that took a month to complete can be done in one day on the new system Powerful Computing HP to provide U.S. Department of Energy one of the world's fastest supercomputers Hewlett-Packard has announced that the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has ordered a $24.5 million (US) HP super-computer that will allow researchers to apply computational science to address key scientific challenges. Once fully operational in early 2003, the supercomputer will be one of the fastest and most powerful Linux-based super-computers in the world. Consisting of 1,400 of the next generation of Intel Itanium Family Processors, the new HP supercomputer will have an expected total peak performance of more than 8.3 teraflops — roughly 8,300 times faster than a current personal computer. Calculations that currently take a month to complete could be done in one day on the new system.

80 SUSE Linux AG mySAP™ Business Suite auf SUSE Linux
Business drivers/needs Einführung eines ERP-Systemes für unternehmenskritische Prozesse Kostenreduzierung Produktivitätssteigerung Benefits Implementierung von mySAPTM Business Suite auf Industriestandard-Servern von HP Niedrige Kosten für Anschaffung, Betrieb und Administration der IT- Umgebung Minimierung der TCO „In unseren Labs arbeiten seit Jahren SuSE Spezialisten sehr eng mit Mitarbeitern von SAP und HP zusammen, um die Produkte als Gesamtlösung zu optimieren und die entsprechenden Zertifizierungen durchzuführen.“ Ludwig Ehnes, SuSE Linux AG mySAP BS für: Produktion, Lagerhaltung, Angebote, Rechnungslegung von Dienstleistungen wie Training, Support und Consulting Mehr Effizienz in allen Betriebsabläufen Optimierung der unternehmensübergreifenden Zusammenarbeit

81 HP Linux - Zusammenfassung
Klare Aussage zu Open-Source, Linux und Industrie-Standards Produktvielfalt für Linux – Plattformen, Sicherheit, Management, HA, … Beste Linux-Partnerschaften Zusammenarbeit von Linux- und UNIX-Bereichen Viele Komplettpakete Großes Serviceangebot: Design, Implementierung, Optimierung und Support Führender und erfahrener Anbieter von End-to-End-Linux-Lösungen HP Linux 2002 wurden die Computersysteme großzügig erweitert. Heute arbeitet ein HP ProLiant DL580 mit vier Prozessoren und acht Gigabyte Hauptspeicher als Datenbank-Server. mySAP.com läuft in einer zweistufigen Architektur mit einem Test-/Entwicklungssystem und mit einem Produktivsystem. Hinzu kommen fünf Applikationsserver DL380 mit jeweils 2 CPUs und 4 GB RAM. Diese Landschaft wird ergänzt durch eine Datenbankmaschine und einen Applikations-Server HP ProLiant für das CRM/Mobile-Sales-Modell, durch HP ProLiant DL580-Systeme für SAP BW (Business Warehouse), und durch drei Server HP ProLiant DL380 für SAP APO (Advanced Planning Optimizer). Auch die Anbindung der dem SAP zugrunde liegenden Datenbank an die unter Linux lauffähigen Datenbanksysteme verlief unkompliziert. Bei der Daten-Migration wurden beispielsweise 183 Millionen Einzelteile ohne Fehler und Materialstammdatensätze mit nur 27 Fehlern transferiert. Dabei ließ sich mySAP.com unter dem SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server von den ursprünglich 190 aktiven Usern auf mehr als 500 User skalieren. Selbst die CRM-Funktionalität, die Anbindung der Außendienstmitarbeiter oder die Implementierung einer völlig neuartigen Objektverfolgung stellen kein Problem dar.

82 Linux: Überblick

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98 ENDE Fragen?

99 Quellen Tannenbaum, Andrew, Moderne Betriebssysteme
M. Weber, Foliensatz Universität Ulm Microsoft Whitepapers Novell Brainshare 2004 Novell Papers 2003 / 2004 Novell Tour 2004 Präsentation Oracle 2004 Präsentation Targosoft 2004 Präsentation Matsushita 2004


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