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Reading literary and other challenging texts: Accessing meaning, appreciation and exploitation Caroline Wilton and Suzanne Graham (with thanks too to Robert.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Reading literary and other challenging texts: Accessing meaning, appreciation and exploitation Caroline Wilton and Suzanne Graham (with thanks too to Robert."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Reading literary and other challenging texts: Accessing meaning, appreciation and exploitation Caroline Wilton and Suzanne Graham (with thanks too to Robert Woore)

2 What are the issues with reading? Learners do not use strategies very effectively for dealing with comprehension – be it target language input (Macaro, 2011), written texts (Ofsted, 2011), spoken recordings – even by Year 12 (Graham et al., 2008, 2011). They do not automatically transfer the strategies they use in their native language to reading in the foreign language Unmotivating, simplistic texts Learning to read…..and reading to learn 2

3 Current practice and materials Little current emphasis, in practice, on explicit teaching of reading/ decoding strategies (Ofsted, 2011; Woore, 2011) ‘Doing’ reading tasks rather than ‘teaching’ reading as a skill Reading tasks that are not best suited to maximising vocabulary learning or acquisition of grammar

4 4 Principle 5: Reading/listening Principle 6: Self-efficacy Principle 5 Learners need to be taught how to access a greater range of more challenging spoken and written texts, through explicit instruction in comprehension strategies and in the relationship between the written and spoken forms Principle 6 Learners need to develop their self- confidence and see the link between the strategies they use and how successful they are on a task.

5 What learners and teachers say They loved it. And it was interesting to see their change in attitude from ‘we don’t know what any of these words mean’ to, for example, ‘Ohhhh…. so goutte must mean drop. Does goutte mean drop?’ etc. The main thing that came out for me is that they’re understanding that they can do more than they thought they could. It gives them more confidence. 5

6 What are some ways of accessing meaning? Read the passage in your handout Try to identify all the strategies you are using to work out what it means – make a note of these These are strategies we can teach learners to use 6

7 7 “Highly scaffolded” strategy interventions Raising awareness; feedback and discussion Tick lists of strategies with the tasks/texts; individualised feedback; teacher prompting Modelling strategies Removing the scaffolding Monitoring

8 Reading – Macaro & Erler, 2008 “Raising the achievement of young-beginner readers of French through strategy instruction”, Applied Linguistics, 29, learners of French in Years 7 & 8 Half the learners received instruction in using reading strategies, such as: 1.Guess from words around problem word 2.Think hard about words I might know (i.e. don’t give up easily) 3.Use a process of deduction (“it can’t be that because…..”) 4.Sound out the word or phrase 5.Use common sense (prior knowledge) 6.Remember to read the whole sentence to see if it makes sense 8

9 Outcome Strategy group showed significant improvement in reading compared with the non-strategy group They were also more positive about reading and about learning French in general. 9

10 10 “Hiding Out” par Elizabeth Laird It was cool in the cave. Peter Castle stood just inside the entrance and peered in. He could still feel le soleil beating down, uncomfortably on his back, while wafts of fresh, earth-smelling air washed over his face from le silence and darkness within. He looked over his épaule to check that the others had not seen him. Sa soeur Rachel was paddling dans la rivière, the other side of a narrow field. Julian et Sophie Fletcher were squabbling over the early blackberries that dotted the hedgerow. Les adultes were still lolling about dans the long grass. The heat seemed to have made them sleepy. They were no longer bothering to beat at les mouches and the wasps that clustered round the peach stones and melon rinds and the abandoned plates. Everyone had gathered round the mouth of la caverne when they had first arrivés in their cars. Peter had wanted to go in and look round there and then, mais Papa had pointed to a notice half hidden sous a tangle of brambles: Interdit au Public. Danger! Awareness-raising and modelling © Macaro 2004

11 Lotticks and Izzids can also be used (www.pdcinmfl.com/listening/) I’ve just come back from holiday that cost me a fortune. I went to Florida and had booked a supposedly furbustuous hotel there. It’s the first time I’ve had to deal with lotticks and izzids when on holiday! We’d paid a lot of money to the travel company.Their brochure promised a furbustuous hotel, free happaps from the airport, free use of the hotel’s gabonmang and lovely beaches. But when we landed, there was no one to meet us so we had to pay for a taxi to the hotel, the hotel room was infested with lotticks and izzids, and the gabonmang was completely flooded, from the ninth hole onwards…… (continues)

12 Guided practice See materials at (reading tab)www.pdcinmfl.com Progress to using L2 texts Select engaging texts, and those that practise different strategies (e.g. Le Dragon Toxique; Uggie, le chien acteur – available at Share the objectives of the reading segment (i.e. to develop strategies for comprehending texts); reassure them that you do not expect them to understand everything straight away 12

13 Guided practice Look at the title and picture only; predict what the text is likely to be about - activate relevant world knowledge (whole-class or in pairs / groups first before feeding back to the group) Now show the text. Work on the pronunciation of the words first –so any inferred meanings can be linked to a correct pronunciation 13

14 Guided practice Using an initial paragraph or short section, guide the class in using strategies to understand it For example, do they have any ideas about the meaning of certain parts; ask them why they think this; discuss the effectiveness of the strategies and knowledge bases they use. 14

15 Guided practice – Which words do they already know? – Which words can they work out, either from the context, co-text or from the shape of the word? For example, empoisonneur contains the word poison. – Do the meanings they suggest fit with the context/co-text – i.e. with the picture and title, and with other words / phrases? For example, in the dragon text, the word singes looks like an English verb – but would it fit after ‘son menu préféré’? What is the correct pronunciation? – Optional (depending on availability of dictionaries): If there are some bits that they cannot work out, which would be the most important words to look up? 15

16 Guided practice As you progress through the paragraph, keep asking them: does this interpretation fit with what went before? If not, do we need to revise our understanding of either the current bit, or the preceding bits? Emphasise combinations of strategies and being open to changing their interpretations 16

17 Feedback Check interpretations using related video or audio content. They identify five key points from the text; they then check whether these are verified in the video Feedback on strategy use and allow them to make plans for how to improve strategy use – tick-sheets 17

18 Feedback in reading – on strategy record sheets Example of feedback on a learner’s reported strategy use on a reading task in Macaro and Erler (2008): Well done for following the instructions so carefully. It now really shows me what words you had trouble with. So you can use more strategies to help you solve the riddles of guessing. For example “le dernier film de Batman” what could “dernier” possibly mean? What would make sense? What about: “mais” in “mais je vais au cinéma..”??? Keep going. You’ll get there!

19 How could this work in practice? See videos at After initial discussion of strategies used, further modelling and reinforcement by the teacher can be done in the target language Tick sheets to prompt strategy use – again, target language versions possible 19

20 Examples from Caroline Watch Iris clip “Reflection 4” https://europe.irisconnect.com/reflections/ https://europe.irisconnect.com/reflections/ Watch Iris clip “Reflection 6” https://europe.irisconnect.com/reflections/ https://europe.irisconnect.com/reflections/

21 Exploiting texts Transfer texts to a different genre, e.g. Dragon text - students create a voice-over for the video in French (as if they were narrating for the French audience). A poem to a news report (e.g. Déjeuner du matin) A performance of a story, play, poem Turn a narrative into a dialogue – use spontaneous speech strategies! A letter home from the trenches – war poetry 21

22 Exploiting texts Extend, adapt, personalise, e.g. punto.com/gratitud/http://www.n- punto.com/gratitud/ Dans Paris (Paul Eluard) War poetry resistance/accueil.htmlhttp://www.cndp.fr/poetes-en- resistance/accueil.html Give their opinion on/personal response to a text – again, spontaneous speech strategies Narratives - predict what will happen next/what came before; retell the story in their own words Lots more ideas at for many languages, with texts in a range of languageshttp://ALL-Literature.wikidot.com 22

23 ‘Involvement load’ Accompanying tasks have to require learners to engage mentally with the language that you want them to learn Post-reading activities should be relevant to the ‘target words’ Avoid comprehension questions that can be answered without processing the aspect of language you want students to learn (not always just nouns!) 23

24 Series of about 6 lessons Classwork where we explored Rilke’s der Panther in a variety of ways. – Pre-activating knowledge of text forms (letter, poem etc) – Pre-activating vocabulary and topic knowledge by watching performance of poem with music. – Target language discussion. Wie ist die Atmosphäre? Wie ist der Rhythmus? If this poem were about an animal, what kind of animal could it be? Why? – Focussing on decoding of key sounds in the poem. The poem form fitted really well with this for example the assonance used in the poem, really focussed on the tricky ä sound and listening to the performance really highlighted that sound. – Reading with reading strategies and using the knowledge they have already gained to pick out key words / phrases they understand. – Supporting with google translate, or rough translations. – Showing the difficulties of using google, but also the skills needed to work with google effectively (and the art of translation). Then we practised the same techniques on the war time song ‘Lili Marleen’ exploiting a historical and inter-cultural angle (evoking empathy, thinking about different times). Then finally students applied the techniques independently with a third poem Der Pflaumenbaum by Berthold Brecht.

25 Ich finde das Gedicht…. I find the poem…. Das Gedicht handelt von…. The poem is about…. Die Stimmung/Atmosphäre ist…. The mood/atmosphere of the poem is…. Ein wichtiges Wort im Gedicht ist…. weil….. An important word in the poem is….because… Ein wichtiger Satz im Gedicht ist…. weil… An important line in the poem is….because… Ich denke der Dichter möchte sagen, dass….. I think the poet would like to say that…. Meine Lieblingsinterpretation ist….weil My favourite interpretation of the poem is… because…. stimmungsvolltraurig stolz frustriert effektivder Käfig einsamer langweilt sichverschwendetes Potential eingeschränktdie Kraftmüderhythmisch langsam Beindruckendder Ton

26 InstrumenteRhythmusTon / Atmosphäre FarbenLichtSonstiges (other)

27 Ä Käse Atmosphäre St/sp Stop sport Z Zoo Ei Kein mein ie Spielen wie V vier

28 Finde die Gegensätze: Zum Beispiel:Warm – Kalt traurig laut langsam romantisch modern nachdenklich froh kühl ruhig schnell altmodisch krass

29 For this reading exercise I…. 1. looked at any pictures, read any titles or instructions, identified type of text e.g. /poem etc. 2.thought of any words or phrases I might read 3.looked for words I already know 4.tried to pick out cognates or near cognates 5.tried to work out a word by using the words around it i.e. using the context 6.asked myself if the meaning of the word ‘fits’ in the context. 7.Looked for words which have something in common with the point of the text. 8.looked at longer words to see if I could break them down to work out their meaning 9.used my general knowledge to think about what the unknown word might logically mean 10.used what I know about sentence structure to work out what kind of a word it is (noun/adjective/verb)

30 His view is from the going past of bars so tired become, that it nothing more holds. it is, as if there were thousand bars and behind thousand bars no world. The soft pace smooth strong steps which itself in smallest circle turns, is like a dance of strength around a middle, in which numbed a big will stands. Only sometimes pushes the curtain of the pupil itself silently open – then goes a picture in goes through the limbs tense stillness and stops to be in the heart. Watch clip “reflection 2” https://europe.iriscon nect.com/reflections/ https://europe.iriscon nect.com/reflections/ 22314

31 Exploring Lili Marlen song in similar ways but also applying a historical context. Was hast du im Video gesehen? War es ein gutes Video? Warum? Was fehtle im Video? What would you add or change?

32

33 Finally students had an ‘assessment’ lesson where they applied the skills independently to a third poem, der Pflaumenbaum, by Brecht.

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35 Hausaufgaben für Mittwoch 26. November Wähle eine Aufgabe: Choose a task and complete for homework. 1) Research the poet Rainer Maria Rilke and find out what he was famous for. Bring in your notes (no copying and pasteting). Can be in English. 2) Record yourself saying the poem paying attention to tone and pronunciation. Use the sound banks to help you. it to: 3) Write out a neat version of Der Panther by hand (for display) and illustrate it to match the mood and message of the poem. 4) Create your own German poem about an animal of your choice. German words rhyme quite easily but you could use to help. 2) Find a poem about an animal (can be any language) and compare it to ‘der Panther’. Which do you prefer (in German)? Ich finde der Panther besser/nicht so gut, weil….. Der Panther ist… während (name of other poem) …… ist. Der Panther is …. whereas….. is….

36 36

37 Competitions See langs.ox.ac.uk/film_comphttp://www.mod- langs.ox.ac.uk/film_comp olympiad olympiad titions 37

38 Cette nouvelle devrait ravir les Directionners ! Le groupe vient d'annoncer sur son compte Twitter la sortie de son nouvel album, intitulé "Four", le 17 novembre prochain. Et pour faire patienter les fans, les cinq garçons proposent d'écouter le premier titre, "Fireproof". Tu peux le télécharger gratuitement sur le site officiel du groupe. Attention, il ne sera disponible que pendant 24 h ! vendredi ………………. septemb_ _ CHECK-UP Can you…. 1.Say hello and goodbye?? 2.Ask someone’s name and how he/she is? 3.Name 6 things in your school bag?? 4.Say the alphabet?? 5.Spell your name?? 6.Ask someone to spell a word?? 7.Count up to 20 and read up to 31?? 8.Say how old you are?? 1.What are the ‘one direction’ fans called in France? 2.What is the French for ‘new’ album? 3.Can you write the release date in French? 4.How long can you download for free the ‘Fireproof’ track? ?v=4-PD9mh-c5w

39 Held in der Not: Hund will Fisch retten Hundefans haben es schon immer gewusst: Hunde haben ein großes Herz und einen starken Willen, anderen zu helfen. Gepostet hat das Video ein gewisser 崔雪 雲 auf Facebook. Dass er in Asien lebt, studiert hat und verheiratet ist, erfährt man auf seiner Facebook-Seite, mehr Infos findet man nicht. 崔雪 雲 Obwohl das Video erst zwei Tage im Netz ist, wurde es fast schon 2 Millionen Mal geteilt. Bei Facebook hat es schon fast Likes. What do you think the dog will do to the fish? According to the text, what have dog fans always known? What do we know about the guy who posted the video on facebook? How long has the video been on the internet? How many times has it been shared? How many likes does it have? shttp://youtu.be/Mx_X6hmhwr s Taken from Netzteil der Woche - Jugendmagazin YAEZ.deNetzteil der Woche - Jugendmagazin YAEZ.de

40 Tomáš Moravec aus Bratislava ist ab jetzt der König des Nahverkehrs: Er skatet mit einer Europalette auf Straßenbahnschienen. Die genialste Idee des Jahres hatte Tomáš Moravec aus Bratislava. Er schnappte sich eine Europalette, schraubte vier Rollen daran und setzte die Konstruktion auf die Straßenbahnschienen. Der Mann muss wohl nie wieder Geld für ein Ticket ausgeben, mit ein paar Skate- Pushes gleitet die Palette mühelos über die Schienen. Geniale Konstruktion und eindeutig das Netzteil der Woche. Viel Spaß damit! Where does Tomáš Moravec come from? What is this new mode of transport? Why does the journalist think he is really lucky?

41 Erst sind es nur zwei, drei Frösche, die es sich vor der Mattscheibe bequem machen. Zu sehen gibt es einen Wurm-Film. Als die Spannung steigt, tummeln sich immer mehr Tiere um das Handy. Es wird gedrängelt, gesprungen und nach den Hauptdarstellern – zwei Regenwürmern – geschnappt. Diese lustige Szene haben wir YouTube-Nutzer Joe Myers zu verdanken. Der hat sein Handy auf den Boden gestellt, ein Video mit Regenwürmern abgespielt und die Reaktion der Frösche gefilmt. Diese fanden den Anblick lecker, waren aber von dem harten Display-Glas irritiert. Smartphones sind nichts für Frösche? Quatsch! Auch Tiere sind von der modernen Technik fasziniert. Check es aus! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHfD3QYDUAI 1.According to the text, how do animals react to new technology? 2.Can you find the German words for ‘Frogs’? 3.What can the frogs see on the mobile phone screen? 4.What is the German word for mobile phone? 5.Who put the video on Youtube? 6.What annoyed the frogs?

42 Ein Leben ohne mobile Medien ist unvorstellbar? Der Band "Brunettes Shoot Blondes" geht es ähnlich. Für "Knock Knock" erschaffen sie eine Welt aus Mobile Devices. Im Video zum brandneuen Song "Knock Knock" übernehmen keine Schauspieler, sondern zwei schwarze Figürchen die Hauptrollen. Die beiden flitzen fröhlich über verschiedene Handys, Tablets und Bildschirme. Gedreht wurde das Filmchen übrigens als One-Shot. Das bedeutet, eine einzige Kamera nimmt das Geschehen in einer einzigen Aufnahme auf. Keine Schnitte, kein "den Teil drehen wir noch einmal". Passiert ein Fehler, geht’s von vorne los. Wie viele Versuche die Jungs gebraucht haben, wissen wir nicht. What is the name of the band being talked about? What is the name of the song? What features in their music video? Who play the main roles in the video? How did they film the video? 14 Devices, eine Story

43 Vokabeln lernen leicht gemacht. Der rappende Youtube-Lehrer "Fluency MC" motiviert seine Schüler auf eine ganz besondere Art. Gerappt: Der coolste Lehrer des Internets Wenn man sich manchmal schon die einfachsten Vokabeln nicht merken kann, wie soll man da nur alle unregelmäßigen englischen Verben in den Kopf bekommen? Diese Frage stellte sich auch ein New Yorker Lehrer und machte aus ihnen einen Song mit Ohrwurmpotential. Sein Rap kommt gut an und macht "Fluency MC" zum coolsten Lehrer im Internet. Auf seinem Kanal gibt es noch mehr hilfreiche Videos. Zwar sind nicht alle gesungen, aber immer einleuchtend erklärt.Kanal What is this week’s video highlight about? What specifically does he help with? What does it mean if a song is an ‘Ohrwurm’? What else can you find on his channel? Are they all raps? https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=gNaDvAYC0Jw


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