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Shi quianli, Gesine Wächter

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Shi quianli, Gesine Wächter"—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Shi quianli, Gesine Wächter
Flavouring Particles Shi quianli, Gesine Wächter SLS Advanced Translation, 22/1/2013

2 Ich habe einfach keine Zeit. Du spielst gut.
Ich habe keine Zeit. Ich habe einfach keine Zeit. Du spielst gut. Du spielst aber gut! ====>> Gib mir bitte die Karte! Gib mir bitte mal die Karte! first example: uncompromising (person really does not have time) second ex.: ironical (person is losing) - flavouring particles can change the tone of what is said on the one hand, and on the other hand, they make utterances sound more friendly in addition, they are a sign of profound language awareness

3 outline Definition Function Differences German - English
List of Flavouring Particles Examples Sources

4 1 Definition Flavouring (modal) particles (Abtönungs-, Modalpartikel)
are words which express the speaker‘s attitude to what is being said, e.g.: aber, doch, ja, mal, schon alter the tone of what is being said, cannot always be translated word by word into English difficulty: each particle can have several functions and meanings in German, thus needs to be translated in different ways into English when translating modal (flavouring) particles, one has to make sure that the speaker‘s intentions and attitudes are CLEARLY understood!

5 1 Defintion no full agreement as to which words can be classified as flavouring particles similar function as adverbs of attitude, e.g. (un-) fortunately, (un-) luckily, obviously can‘t be negated, are less independent can‘t occur in first position of a main clause, before the main verb usually relate to clause or sentence as a whole

6 2 Function Flavouring particles can: appeal for agreement
express surprise or annoyance tone down a blunt question or statement sound reassuring make the speaker (foreign language learners) sound more natural

7 3 Differences German - English
far richer repertoire of flavouring particles much more extensive use of downtoners English: other ways of expressing speaker‘s attitude such as question tags, adverbs, intonation, and cleft sentences

8 Little Exercise

9 4 List of Flavouring particles
aber, allerdings, also, auch, bloß, denn, doch eben, eh, eigentlich, einfach, erst, etwa freilich, gar, gleich, halt, immerhin, ja, jedenfalls lediglich, mal, man, noch, nun, nur, ohnehin ruhig, schließlich, schon, sowieso überhaupt, übrigens, vielleicht, wohl, zwar

10 5 Examples

11 5.1 aber In statements, „aber“ expresses a surprised reaction:
Das war aber eine Reise! That was quite a journey, wasn’t it? Der Kaffee ist aber heiß! Oh! The coffee is hot! „Ja“ is also used to express surprise, but in a different way: Der Kaffee ist aber heiß! (hotter than you had expected) Der Kaffee ist ja heiß! (you had expected cold coffee)

12 5.1 aber When used initially in exclamations, „aber“ stresses the speaker’s opinion. „Aber“ can sound scolding or reassuring, depending on the context: Hast du was dagegen? – Aber nein! Have you any objection? – Of course not! Aber Kinder! Was habt ihr schon wieder angestellt? Now, now, Children! What have you been doing?

13 5.2 auch It can be used to correct a false impression, often used with „ja“: John sieht heute schlecht aus. John is not looking well today. Er ist ja auch lange krank gewesen. Well, he‘s been ill for a long time.

14 5.2 auch In yes/ no questions, „auch“ asks for confirmation of something which the speaker thinks should be taken for granted; English equivalent often tag question: Kann ich mich auch drauf verlassen? I can rely on that, can‘t I?

15 5.3 doch In statements, „doch“ indicates disagreement with what has been said: Gestern hat es doch geschneit. All the same, it did snow yesterday. If it is unstressed, it appeals politely for agreement or confirmation: Du hast doch gesagt, dass du kommst. You did say you were coming, didn’t you?

16 5.3 doch In commands, the force of „doch“ depends a lot on the context: Mach doch nicht (immer) so ein Gesicht! Don’t keep making faces like that! Lassen Sie mich doch (mal) das Foto sehen! Why don’t you just let me see the photograph?

17 5.3 doch In w-questions, „doch“ asks for confirmation of an answer or the repetition of information: Wie heißt doch euer Hund? What did you say your dog is called? Wer war das doch? Who was that again?

18 5.3 doch In exclamations, „doch“ emphasizes the speaker’s surprise:
Wie winzig doch alles von hier oben aussieht! But how tiny everything looks from up here! Du bist doch kein kleines Kind mehr! You are not a baby any more, you know!

19 5.3 doch In wishes expressed with Konjunktiv Ⅱ, „doch“ emphasizes the urgency of the wish: Wäre ich doch zu Hause geblieben! If only I‘d just stayed at home! Wenn er doch jetzt käme! If only he would come now!

20 5.4 eh (sowieso, ohnehin) Equivalent to English “anyway“ or “in any case:“ Er ist eh ein schlauer Kerl. He‘s a smart guy anyway. Wenn ich arbeite, brauche ich eh immer mehr zum Essen. When I‘m working, I need more to eat anyway. Ich habe eh gesagt, dass ich die Idee nicht mochte. I told you that I did not like the idea in the first place.

21 5.5 halt/ eben As a modal particle, „eben“ typically expresses a confirmation that something is the case. In statements, it emphasizes an inescapable conclusion: Das ist eben so. That’s how it is. Ich kann ihn nicht überreden. Er ist eben hartnäckig. I can’t convince him. He’s just obstinate.

22 5.5 halt/ eben In commands, „eben“ emphasizes that there is no real alternative: (Dann) bleib eben im Zug sitzen! Well, just stay in the train then!

23 5.5 halt/ eben „Halt“ is an alternative to „eben“ in some senses. It was originally characteristic of south German speech, but its use has recently become more widespread. Da kann man halt nichts machen. There’s just nothing to be done.

24 5.6 ja By using „ja,“ the speaker insists that what s/he is saying is correct; “do-“ form or cleft sentence: Wir haben ja gestern davon gesprochen. We did talk about that yesterday (you know). Hier im Gebirge ist es ja im Frühjahr am schönsten. It‘s in spring when it‘s nicest here in the mountains.

25 5.6 ja When used to appeal for agreement, „ja“ presupposes that speaker and listener are agreed („doch“ - speaker and listener with different opinions): Er kann unmöglich kommen - He can‘t possibly come er ist ja krank he‘s ill, as you know. er ist doch krank he‘s ill, don‘t you know.

26 5.6 ja It can express surprise in exclamations: Heute ist es ja kalt!
Oh, it is cold today! Das ist ja unerhört! That really is the limit! Da kommt ja der Arzt! Oh (good), there comes the doctor!

27 5.6 ja It is used to intensify a command (implied warning or threat, especially if „ja“ is stressed): Bleib ja hier! Be sure to stay here! Er soll ja nichts sagen! He really must not say anything (or else)!

28 5.7 mal „Mal“ moderates the tone of a sentence, makes it sound less blunt; frequent in commands, requests, and questions; can correspond to English “just.“ Lies den Brief mal durch! Just read the letter through. Das sollst du mal probieren. You just ought to try that. Würden Sie mir bitte mal helfen? Could you just help me, please?

29 5.7 mal „Mal“ is almost automatically added to a command in colloquial speech, especially if there is nothing else in the sentence apart from the verb. Sag mal, wann fliegst du? Say (tell me), when does your flight leave? Mal gucken! We‘ll see!

30 5.8 schon In statements generally, it expresses agreement or confirmation in principle, but with slight reservations: Ja, ich glaube schon (aber...) Well, I think so (but...) Das ist schon möglich, (aber)... That‘s quite possible, (but) ... has the widest range of meaning in German

31 5.8 schon In a response, it corrects what has just been said and indicates why it was wrong: Niemand fährt über Ostern weg. - Mutter schon! Nobody‘s going away over Easter. - But mum is! Er hat da ein sehr schönes Haus gekauft. - Das schon, aber... He‘s bought himself a nice house there. - Well yes, but...

32 5.8 schon In statements referring to the future, it emphasises the speaker‘s confidence that something will happen (usually reassuring, but can be threatening): Es wird schon gehen. It‘ll be alright, don‘t worry. Er wird uns schon helfen. He‘ll help us, all right.

33 5.8 schon gives persuasive force to a w-question which expects a negative answer or where the speaker has a negative attitude: Wer kann diesem Angebot schon widerstehen? Who can refuse this offer? (i.e. nobody) Warum kommt der schon wieder? What‘s he coming again for? (he‘s up to no good) Na, und wenn schon? So, what?

34 5.8 schon emphasises condition in conditional sentences:
Wenn ich das schon mache, muss ich über alle Probleme informiert sein. If I am going to do it, I‘ll need to be told about all the problems.

35 5.8 schon adds an insistent note in commands:
(Nun,) beeile dich schon! Do hurry up (then)! Fang schon an! Do make a start!

36 6 Sources Durrell, Martin. Hammer's German Grammar and Usage. New York: McGraw- Hill, 2002. Liu, Fang. Die deutschen Modalpartikeln. Beijing: FLTRP, 1986. Dudenredaktion. Der DUDEN 4: Grammatik der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. Mannheim: Dudenverlag, 1966/1973/1995. Shao, Ming. A Contrastive Analysis between German and Chinese Modal Particle. Journal of PLA University of Foreign Languages, (33). Bross, Fabian. German modal particles and the common ground. In: Helikon. A Multidisciplinary Online Journal,

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