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Effects of Gender on Old Age Security - an Austrian Case Study Dr. Michaela Gstrein IAFFE 2009 Annual Conference Boston (USA), 26-28.6.2009.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Effects of Gender on Old Age Security - an Austrian Case Study Dr. Michaela Gstrein IAFFE 2009 Annual Conference Boston (USA), 26-28.6.2009."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Effects of Gender on Old Age Security - an Austrian Case Study Dr. Michaela Gstrein IAFFE 2009 Annual Conference Boston (USA),

2 Situation and Relevance In 2003, only 63 % of Austrian pension-age women were entitled to own benefits while most of the men were covered. Female pensions are as a rule much lower than male pensions, even after „state benefits“. Reasons: - persistence of modified breadwinner model (women with children mostly work part time) - long parental leaves (2-3 years; mothers) - gender gaps in employment and income Although attitudes are changing and female employment rises, old age security remains an issue.

3 How does the Austrian System work? The Austrian (Federal) Pension System is an obligatory but non-capitalized system. With a nearly non-existant second/third pension pillar, it is the main source of old age security for most Austrians. Pension entitlement and benefits are linked to labour market participation - thus offering men (with their continuous careers) a much better deal than women. Correctional factors account for labour market absence (e.g. military service, child bearing, etc.), Benefits: with minimum of 15 working years, % of your average total contributions, rise with years worked, with reductions for early pensions (quite common)

4 Pension Payments for Women in 2003 Of all Austrian women over 60 years 2 % of were still working 63 % received „own“ pension payments, but 24 % only € (below AGZLRS) and 6% received compensation (to meet threshold). 20 % received survivor‘s benefits, but 9 % of them below threshold and 7% received compensation (to meet threshold) 15 % had no pension 49 % received low „own“ or „survivor‘s benefits“

5 Pension Payments for Women in 2003

6 New Pensioners in 2007 Source: BMSK, Quartalsbericht II/6, 2.Quartal 2008, Tabelle 2.2 (Neuzugang)

7 Reasons for „Bad/Good Coverage“ change No/reduced participation => no/low„own“ entitlement Male Breadwinner => Modified Breadwinner and Dual Earner Models growing Security network within partnership -? number of separations (common) – women perceive need for own job Discontinuous female working carreers long childbreaks (2-3 years, mostly mothers, 4 % men) still very common, yet modernized values and role models in childcare Perception of mothers‘ duties/loyalties still persist, although changing attitudes; higher childcare participation rates (12% 0-2 year-olds); lower fertilities?, changed employer attitudes (slowly)

8 Modernized Earner Models Mothers/Fathers with Children in Austria Quelle: STATAT, Familien- und Haushaltsstatistik

9 International Benchmarking Quelle: Haas, Steiber, Familienbericht 2009, forthcoming WORKCARE BALANCE: Long Childcare Break and Part Time Employment as means to balance in Austria Effect of Part Time on Social Security: ambivalent

10 Employment Rates Quelle: IHS basierend auf STATAT

11 Child-induced Breaks Source: Kapella und Rille-Pfeiffer 2007, S. 23

12 M 1  Vereinbarung: z.B. Weiterbildung, Kinderbetreuung M 3  Soziale Sicherheit: Maßnahmen, die Frauen in Armut auffangen, Existenz sichern M 4  Gleichbehandlung: Maßnahmen gegen das "Strukturproblem": z.B. Quoten, Frauennetzwerke M 5a  Bildungsmaßnahmen Glass Ceiling despite Human Capital Growth MN? refers to situations where the advancement of a qualified person within the hierarchy of an organization is stopped at a lower level because of some form of discrimination

13 Glass Ceiling Quelle: EK, DG EMPL Datenbank (2008), Frauen und Männer in Entscheidungsprozessen, basierend auf Daten aus Eurostat, LFS; Anmerkungen: Führungspositionen beziehen sich hier auf ISCO (International Standard Classification of Occupations) 121 (DirektorInen und HauptgeschäftsführerInnen) und 13 (LeiterInnen kleiner Unternehmen); Gesamtbeschäftigung (100%). Women in Employment and Management (%), EU 27, 2008

14 Glass Ceiling Quelle: Daten 2001: EK (2008) Bericht zur Gleichstellung von Frauen und Männern; Daten : EK, DG EMPL Datenbank (2008), Frauen und Männer in Entscheidungsprozessen, basierend auf Eurostatdaten/ LFS; Anmk.: Führungspositionen laut ISCO: 121 (DirektorInnen & HauptgeschäftsführerInnen) und 13 (LeiterInnen kleiner Unternehmen). Women in Management Positions (%), EU 27 and Austria

15 nach Nancy Folbre, ** bei ausreichender Einkommensh ö he (GPG,Teilzeitbesch ä ftigung) M 1 und M 2  mehr Angebot an Kinderbetreuung, besseres Match mit Arbeitszeiten M 3  mehr Angebot an Pflege für Angehörige (insb. Alte) M 3 und M 4  Soziale Sicherheit, Verringerung des GPG M 5  mediale Unterstützung "Frauen sind am Arbeitsmarkt aktiv„, M 5c... Wohnen Lissabon Target und Care-Paradox MN?

16 M 1  Vereinbarung: z.B. Weiterbildung, Kinderbetreuung M 3  Soziale Sicherheit: Ma ß nahmen, die Frauen in Armut auffangen, Existenz sichern M 5a  Bildungsma ß nahmen M 5 e  Mobilit ä t zwischen ‚ M ä nner- ’ und ‚ Frauenberufen ’ oder zwischen unterschiedlichen Produktionseigenschaften (Vollzeit-Teilzeit, unbefristeten-befristeten Vertr ä gen, physische Mobilit ä t...) Horizontal Segregation: Education and Choice of Profession MN?

17 Gender Pay Gap in Hourly Wages Quelle: IHS basierend auf Eurostat (Zugriff: 01/2009); Anmk.: EU15, EE, IT, NL (2005); LV (1998); AT: Reihenunterbrechung im Jahr Definition: Das geschlechtsspezifische Verdienstgefälle ohne Anpassungen bezeichnet den Unterschied zwischen den durchschnittlichen Brutto-Stundenverdiensten der männlichen und der weiblichen Beschäftigten in % der durchschnittlichen Brutto-Stundenverdienste der männlichen Beschäftigten. Zielgruppe: Beschäftigte (16-64 Jahre), die 15+ Stunden pro Woche arbeiten. Datenquellen: ECHP, EU-SILC, nationale Quellen; Achtung: mögliche Definitionsunterschiede. EU 27 (1996/2001/2006), Austria ( )

18 Gender Gaps in Employment, Income and Parental Leave Uptake 2007 Source: IHS based on STATAT, AMS, HVSV, BMWA, BMGF (extracted 2/2009)

19 Demographic Developments and Crises EU promotes higher female labour market participation – good for women‘ „own social security“. Provide for domestic tasks when women work (old age care, childcare, services) - ? High consumption orientation in today‘s societies: Need for dual earner families Crises: hit mostly male „old fashioned“ jobs in Austria (structural problem). No strong effect on females

20 Thank you for your attention !


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