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Kapitel 1 Prähistorische Kunst in Europa. Outline of Prehistoric Period Paleolithic –Lower –Middle –Upper Neolithic.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Kapitel 1 Prähistorische Kunst in Europa. Outline of Prehistoric Period Paleolithic –Lower –Middle –Upper Neolithic."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Kapitel 1 Prähistorische Kunst in Europa

2 Outline of Prehistoric Period Paleolithic –Lower –Middle –Upper Neolithic

3 Paleolithic Age “Old Stone Age” - 2,500,000 – 10,000 BC –Technological advancement from spear to bow/arrow = better hunting Appearance of Homo sapiens sapiens (-120,000) Cro-Magnon Man –Europe –Stone Ax = chop down trees & make boats –Hunting large animals required 4-5 “bands” of people working together Chief status for leader –Cave Paintings

4 Der homo sapiens sapiens

5 Schutzbau oder Architektur?

6 Fundstätte einer Mammut-Knochen- Hütte Aus der Ukraine ca v. Chr. Wohnstätten der Eiszeitjäger

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8 Werkzeug oder Kunsthandwerk?

9 Der Löwen-Mensch von Hohlenstein-Stadel, Deutschland ca. 30,000-26,000 v.Chr. Aus einem Mammutzahn geschnitzt 11 3/8 inch. hoch

10 Prähistorische Skulpturen Älteste menschliche Kunstwerke: aus Stein, Elfenbein, Geweih, Knochen Kultobjekt ? Löwenartiger Mensch als Motiv Teil einer Jagdwaffe ? geschnitzt und in dreidimensionaler Darstellung: also schon geistig hochstehende Gedanken-Kultur.

11 Weibliche Figuren (Venus)

12 Venus von Willendorf Oesterreich ca v.Chr. limestone 4 1/4 inch. hoch

13 “Venus” von Willendorf

14 Frau von Lespugue Aus einer Höhle in Les Rideaux, France ca. 20,000 v. Chr. Mammut-Elfenbein 5 3/4 inch hoch Weitere weibliche Schönheiten

15 Verschiedene Venus-Statuetten aus der Urzeit

16 Moderne Formen der Uebertreibungen

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18 Die Bedeutung der Höhlenmalereien Die ersten Gemälde entstanden etwa vor Jahren Ur-Bilder von: Bison, Hirsch, Pferd, Kühen, Mammuts und Wildschweinen sind die Hauptmotive. Rituelle oder religiöse Geisteshaltung zur Steigerung des Jagderfolgs oder der Fruchtbarkeit.

19 Die Bedeutung der Höhlenmalereien Archeologists speculate the animal images were meant to guarantee a successful hunt –Drawing a picture of it gave you power over it? –Sympathetic magic Artwork has been depicted with realistic features that enables scholars to identify animals

20 Höhlenmalereien von Chauvet Vallon-Pont-d’Arc, Ardèche, France ca v.Chr. Pigmentfarben aus Fels

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22 Höhlenmalereien aus Pech-Merle Lot, France ca v.Chr. Pigmentfarbe auf Stein Nicht für ewig gemalt? Hände als Fingerprint im modernen Sinne ?

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24 Höhlenmalerein von Lascaux Lascaux, Dordogne, France ca v. Chr. Pigmentfarbe aus Stein

25 Twisted Perspective – horns, eyes & hooves are shown as seen from the front, yet heads & bodies are rendered in profile

26 Prehistoric Art Tools Cave artists used charcoal to outline the walls; sometimes they incised the wall with sharp stones or charcoal sticks The “paints” used were ground minerals like red & yellow ochre The minerals were applied directly on the damp limestone walls

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28 Altamira Cave paintings Santander, Spain ca. 12,000-11,000 B.C.E. pigment on stone

29 Bison Ceiling Artists used the irregularities of the cave to create sculptural effects by painting over them

30 Neolithic Revolution End of Ice Age (100,000 – 8000 BCE) brought ability to search for new food Systemic Agriculture – Making the conscious decision to plant & grow food Domestication – Raising goats, sheep, pigs & cattle Development of permanent, year-round settlements (and eventually, civilization)

31 Skara Brae Architecture Neolithic settlement in northern Scotland 3100 and 2600 BCE Corbeling – layers of stones are piled on top of each other to form walls without mortar

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33 Megalithic Architecture “Large stone” (mega + lithos) Powerful religious or political figures and beliefs was the impetus for these massive building projects 2 types: –Dolmen – large, vertical stones with a covering slab like a giant table (mounded over with dirt to form a cairn) –Menhir – single stone set on its end Positioned: –Henge – circular arrangement of stones –Alignment – in rows

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35 Stonehenge Salisury Plain, Wiltshire, England ca. 2,550-1,600 B.C.E. sarsen and bluestone

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37 Stonehenge: England’s First Rock Group Series of concentric circles & circular shapes Outer circle of 13 foot high gray sandstones, called sarsen stones, topped by a continuous lintel –They weigh up to 26 tons each!

38 Built it and They Will Come?

39 How Did They Do That?! Lacked bronze or iron tools and, possibly, the wheel Transported the stones by barge or sled –Heel stone standing upright, weighs 35 tons and was brought in from 23 miles away Raising of the stones was done in stages by prying the ends up and inserting timber beneath –Added layer after layer and then removed the elevated scaffolding

40 Banksy Stonehenge Port-A-Potties Glastonbury, England 2008 metal and plastic Jim Reinders Carhenge Alliance, Nebraska 1987 metal

41 Could Coral Castle Provide an Answer?

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43 Menhir alignments at Ménec, Carnac, France ca. 4,250-3,750 B.C.E.

44 various Menhirs Ireland, Scotland, England, France

45 Dolmens Ireland, Scotland, England, France

46 Essential Questions What is prehistory? What are the problems and challenges of making meaning of prehistoric art? How is prehistoric art useful in understanding the human condition?


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