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Einführung in die jüdische Literatur und Kultur Treffen V: Kabbalah 11.05.11 Wisse, daß wir das uns Verborgene Aus dem uns Offenbarten verstehen muüssen.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Einführung in die jüdische Literatur und Kultur Treffen V: Kabbalah 11.05.11 Wisse, daß wir das uns Verborgene Aus dem uns Offenbarten verstehen muüssen."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Einführung in die jüdische Literatur und Kultur Treffen V: Kabbalah Wisse, daß wir das uns Verborgene Aus dem uns Offenbarten verstehen muüssen Menachem ben Salomo Recanati ( )

2 Warum die mündliche Tora mündliche bleibt... R. Judah bar Shalom stated: When the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Moses Write down!, Moses asked for the Mishna to be in writing. But because the Holy One, blessed be He, foresaw that the Gentiles would translate the Torah and read it in Greek, and thereupon they would declare We are Israel, and so far the scales would be even, so the Holy One, blessed be He, said to the nations: You aver that you are My children? I cannot tell; only they who possess My arcana are My children. Which are these? The Mishna. (Midrash Tanhuma, Ki Tissa, § 34) Arcana = mistorin ( מסטורין )

3 Kabbalah Der Wurzel קבל = empfangen Kabbalah ( קבלה ) = das Empfangene (oder Überlieferung) Die Kabbalah ist auch bekannt als: Torat ha-Sod ( תורת הסוד ) Hochma Nistara ( חכמה נסתרה )

4 PaRDeS ( פרדס ) פשט, רמז, דרש, סוד Peshat: litteral, historical, grammatical Remez: hint, allusion; allegory, metaphor Derash: homiletical (Midrasch) Sod: esoteric, mystical

5 Von der Bibel bis zum Midrasch Genesis 1,3-4: 3 Und Gott sprach: Es werde Licht! und es ward Licht. 4 Und Gott sah, daß das Licht gut war. Da schied Gott das Licht von der Finsternis Midrasch: Und Gott sah, daß das Licht gut war. R. Yehudah son of Simon said, With the light created by God on the first day, Adam could gaze and see from one end of the world to the other. Since God foresaw human wickedness, He hid the light from the world. Where did He hide it? In the Garden of Eden for the righteous, as it is written, Dem Gerechten muß das Licht immer wieder aufgehen (Psalms 97,11) (Tanhuma, Shemini 9)

6 …bis zum Kabbalah (Sefer ha-Bahir) Before the world was created, an impulse arose in the divine mind to create a great shining light. A light so bright was created that no creature could control it. When God saw that no one could bear it, He took one-seventh and gave it to them in its place. The rest He hid away for the righteous in the time to come. He said, If they prove worthy of this seventh and guard it, I will give them the rest in the world to come. (Sefer Bahir 160)

7 …bis zum Kabbalah (Sefer ha-Zohar) Rabbi Yehudah said, If it (the light) were completely hidden, the world would not exist for even a moment! Rather, it is hidden and sown like a seed that gives birth to seeds and fruit. Thereby the world is sustained. Every single day, a ray of that light shines into the world and keeps everything alive, for with that ray God feeds the world. And everywhere that Torah is studied at night, one thread-thin ray appears from that hidden light and flows down upon those absorbed in her…Since the first day, it has never been fully revealed, but it plays a vital role in the world, renewing each day the act of Creation! (Sefer ha-Zohar 2:148-9b)

8 Das Buch der Schöpfung (Sefer Yetzira) 1.Auf zweiunddreißig Pfaden hat Wunderwerke der Weisheit eingegraben Jah, JHVH Yebaoth, der lebendige Gott, der Gott Israels, der allmächtige Gott, der Hohe und Erhabene, der in Ewigkeit Thronende, des Name Heiliger ist, und er hat seine Welt geschaffen in drei Formen: Zahl, Buchstabe und Rede. 2.Zehn überwesentliche Zahlen und zweiundzwanzig Buchstaben, deren Urgrund drei Mütter, sieben doppelte und zwölf einfache sind. 3.Zehn überwesentliche Zahlendie Zahl der zehn Finger, fünf gegenüber fünf, und der Bund der Einheit in der Mitte, bestellt durch das Verhältnis der Zunge und das Verhältnis der Blöße.

9 Unterhaltung in die Zohar Rabbi Shimon set out one time for Tiberias, and with him were R. Yose, R. Judah, and R. Hiyya. On the road coming toward them they met R. Phineas. All dismounted and sat down on the mountainside, under a tree. R. Phineas spoke: While we sit, I should like to hear some of those wondrous ideas which figure in your discourse daily. (Zohar I, 49b)

10 Woher Zehn Sefirot? mAvot 5,1: By ten divine sayings the world was created. Could it not have been created by one? What does this teach us? In order to emphasize the guilt of the wicked who destroy the world that was created with ten sayings and the merit of the righteous who preserve the world that was created with ten sayings. Sefer Yezirah 2: Zehn überwesentliche Zahlen und zweiundzwanzig Buchstaben, deren Urgrund drei Mütter, sieben doppelte und zwölf einfache sind. Sefer Bahir 96: What are the ten utterances? The first is supreme crown...the second: wisdom...

11 Torah als Kleidungsstück (Garment) R. Shimon said: Woe to the human being who says that Torah presents mere stories and ordinary words! If so, we could compose a Torah right now with ordinary words and better than all of them! To present matters of the world? Even rulers of the world possess words more sublime. If so, let us follow them and make a Torah out of them! Ah, but all the words of Torah are sublime words, sublime secrets!...

12 Torah als Kleidungsstück (Garment) …In descending to this world, if she (the Torah) did not put on the garments of this world the world could not endure… (The Torah) has a body: the commandments of Torah, called the embodiment of Torah.

13 Torah als Kleidungsstück (Garment) This body is clothed in garments: the stories of this world. Fools of the world look only at that garment, the story of Torah; the know nothing more. They do not look at what is under that garment. Those who know more do not look at the garment but rather at the body under that garment. The wise ones, servants of the King on high, those who stood at Mt. Sinai, look only at the soul, root of all, real Torah! In the time to come they are destined to look at the soul of the soul of Torah!

14 Emanation of Hokhmah When the King conceived ordaining He engraved engravings in the luster on high. A blinding spark flashed within the Concealed of the Concealed from the mystery of the Infinite, a cluster of vapor in formlessness, set in a ring, Not white, not black, not red, not green, no color at all. When a band spanned, it yielded radiant colors. Deep within the spark gushed a flow imbuing colors below, concealed within the concealed of the mystery of the Infinite. The flow broke through and did not break through its aura. It was not known at all until, under the impact of breaking through, one high and hidden point shone. Beyond that point, nothing is known. So it is called Beginning, the first command of all.

15 Von Hokhmah bis Bina Zohar, Concealed of the Concealed, struck its aura. The aura touched and did not touch this point. Then this Beginning emanated and made itself a palace for its glory and its praise. There it sowed the seed of holiness to give birth for the benefit of the universe. The secret is: Ein heiliger Same wird solcher Stamm sein. (Jes. 6,13) Zohar, sowing a seed for its glory like the seed of fine purple silk. The silkworm wraps itself within a makes itself a palace. This palace is its praise and a benefit to all.

16 Von Hokhmah bis Bina Gen 1,1: Am Anfang schuf Gott Himmel und Erde. With the Beginning the Concealed One who is not known created the palace. This palace is called Elohim. The secret is: With Beginning ______ created Elohim

17 Die Sünde von Adam 23 Da wies ihn Gott der HERR aus dem Garten Eden, daß er das Feld baute, davon er genommen ist, 24 und trieb Adam aus ( ויגרש את האדם ) und lagerte vor den Garten Eden die Cherubim mit dem bloßen, hauenden Schwert, zu bewahren den Weg zu dem Baum des Lebens.

18 Männlich und Weiblich 1 Dies ist das Buch von des Menschen Geschlecht. Da Gott den Menschen schuf, machte er ihn nach dem Bilde Gottes;? 2 und schuf sie einen Mann und ein Weib und segnete sie und hieß ihren Namen Mensch zur Zeit, da sie geschaffen wurden.

19 Männlich und Weiblich R. Shimon said: High mysteries are revealed in these two verses. `schuf sie einen Mann und ein Weib´ to make known the Glory on high, the mystery of faith. Out of this mystery, Adam was created…

20 Männlich und Weiblich Come and see: The Blessed Holy One does not place His abode in any place where male and female are not found together. Blessings are found only in a place where male and female are found, as it is written: ´segnete sie und hieß ihren Namen Mensch zur Zeit, da sie geschaffen wurden.´ It is not written: `He blessed him and called his name Adam.´ A human being is only called Adam when male and female are as one.

21 Die Sünde von Adam R. El´azar said We do not know who divorced whom, if the Blessed Holy One divorced Adam or not. But the word is transposed: He drove out et. Et, precisely! And who drove out Et? Adam. Adam drove out Et! Therefore it is written: Da wies ihn Gott der HERR aus dem Garten Eden. Why did he expel him? Because Adam drove out Et, as we have said.

22 Emanation of Hokhmah When the King conceived ordaining He engraved engravings in the luster on high. A blinding spark flashed within the Concealed of the Concealed from the mystery of the Infinite, a cluster of vapor in formlessness, set in a ring, Not white, not black, not red, not green, no color at all. When a band spanned, it yielded radiant colors. Deep within the spark gushed a flow imbuing colors below, concealed within the concealed of the mystery of the Infinite. The flow broke through and did not break through its aura. It was not known at all until, under the impact of breaking through, one high and hidden point shone. Beyond that point, nothing is known. So it is called Beginning, the first command of all.

23 Quellen für den Adam Kadmon Gen. 1,26: Und Gott sprach: Wir wollen Menschen machen nach unserm Bild uns ähnlich Hes. 1,26: Und über dem Himmelsgewölbe, das über ihren Häuptern war, sah es aus wie ein Saphirstein, wie die Gestalt eines Thrones. Auf dem Gebilde des Thrones aber saß eine Gestalt, anzusehen wie ein Mensch, oben darauf.


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