Präsentation zum Thema: "Einführung in die jüdische Literatur und Kultur Treffen VIII 23.06.11."— Präsentation transkript:
Einführung in die jüdische Literatur und Kultur Treffen VIII
Der Rest des Semesters 1)24.06 (Morgen) 8 Uhr SR 221 Alten (Frauenklinik, Wollweberstrasse 1) 2)27.06 (Montag), 20 Uhr ESG Lutherhof (Martin-Luther-Str. 8) 3)30.06 (Donnerstag), KEIN TREFFEN 4)07.07 (Donnerstag), Normal 5)14.07 (Donnerstag), Normal 6)15.07 (Freitag), Ort TBA
Bischof RÜDIGER von SPEYER (13 September 1084) Ich, Rüdiger…Bischof von Speyer. Als ich den Weiler Speyer in eine Stadt verwandelte, glaubte ich die Ehre unseres Ortes noch zu vergößern, wenn ich die Juden vereinigte. Ich brachte sie darauf außerhalb der Gemeinschaft und des Zusammenwohnens mit den übrigen Bürgern, und damit sie durch den Übermut des Pöbels nicht beunruhigt würden, umgab ich sie mit einer Mauer. Innerhalb ihres Wohnplatzes und außerhalb bis zum Schiffshafen und in dem Schiffshafen selbst gab ich ihnen das Recht, Gold und Silber frei zu verkaufen, und eben dieselbe Freiheit gab ich ihnen durch die ganze Stadt. Wie der Stadtvogt unter den Bürgern, ihr Erzsynagog (Archisynagogus = Synagogenvorsteher) Klagen, die zwischen oder gegen Juden erhoben warden, zu entscheiden habe. Ist dieser aber den Streit beizulegen nicht imstande, so soll die Sache vor den Bischof oder seinen Kämmerer gebracht werden. Ammen und Knechte auf Miete können sie von den Unsrigen haben. Endlich als Gipfel meines Wohlwollens habe ich ihnen Gesetze verliehen, die besser sind, als sie das jüdische Volk in irgendeiner Stadt des deutschen Reiches besitzt.
Bischopf Agobard of Lyons ( ) True Christians…should separate themselves from the company of infidels…especially Jews, who are quite well settled in this city. For it seems to be most unworthy and improper for our faith that the sons of light be led into obscurity by associating themselves with the sons of darkness, and that the Church of Christ, which must be fittingly prepared without stain or blotch for the embraces of her celestial spouse should be discolored through contact with the repudiated and reddled synagogue. Yet, we see this evil (of comradeship, dining in common, and even sexual debauchery through which the faith is endangered) growing and increasing daily.
Pope Calixtus II ( ), Sicut Judaeis although in many ways the disbelief of the Jews must be condemned…they must not be oppressed greviously by the faithful
Servi Camerae Regis Servants of the royal chamber Kammerknechtschaft in dem Heiligen Römischen Reich Phrase from 13 th Century, reflects earlier situation Jews as collective property of Ruler (i.e. not citizens) Vorteile und Nachteile: – Protected, special conditions, higher status than many – At whim of ruler, resented by general populace
Servi Camerae Regis "Laws of Edward the Confessor" (England, 12 th Century) All Jews, wherever in the realm they are, must be under the king's liege protection and guardianship, nor can any of them put himself under the protection of any powerful person without the king's license, because the Jews themselves and all their chattels are the king's. If, therefore, anyone detain them or their money, the king may claim them, if he so desire and if he is able, as his own.
Kreuzzüge 1095 Papst Urban II aufruft zur Befreiung der Heiligen Stätten bei einem Konzil in Clermont, Frankreich Clermont unter den Juden: Har Afel (Dunkelberg); Kreuzfahrer: to´im from ta´ah (umherirren, taumeln, irre gehen) Gewalt gegen Juden in Rheingebiet bei ersten drei Kreuzzügen: 1096-, 1145-, Speyer z.B.: 1084, 1090 Charters; 1096 Gewalt
Kreuzzüge Wir wollen die Feinde Gottes im Osten bekämpfen, wofür wir große Entfernungen überwinden müssen. Das ist eine verfehlte Mühe, da wir schon hier vor unseren Augen die Juden haben, die doch die ärgsten Feinde Gottes sind. (aus Guibert de Nogent, Geschichte seines Lebens)
Kreuzzüge The Crusader Emico (the one who surrounded Mainz) and the rest of his band held a council and, after sunrise, attacked the Jews in the hall with arrows and lances. Breaking the bolts and doors, they killed the Jews, about 700 in number, who in vain resisted the force and attack of so many thousands. They killed the women, also, and with their swords pierced tender children of whatever age and sex. The Jews seeing that their Christian enemies were attacking them and their children, and that they were sparing no age, likewise fell upon one another, brother, children, wives, and sisters, and thus they perished at each other´s hands. Horrible to say, mothers cut the throats of nursing children with knives and stabbed others, preferring them to perish thus by their own hands rather than to be killed by the weapons of the uncircumcised. (aus Albert of Aix)
Kreuzzüge Aus der Chronik (um 1140) von Solomon bar Samson von Speyer: Inquire now and look about, was there ever such an abundant sacrifice as this since the days of the primeval Adam? Were there ever eleven hundred offerings on one day, each one of them like the sacrifice of Isaac, the son of Abraham? Hearing of Crusader intentions, the [Jews] resorted to the custom of our ancestors, repentance, prayer, and charity…But their Father did not answer them; He obstructed their prayers, concealing Himself in a cloud through which their prayers could not pass, and He abhorred their tent, and He removed them out of His sight…this was the generation that had been chosen by Him to be His portion, for they had the strength and the fortitude to stand in his Sanctuary, and fulfill His word, and sanctify His Great Name in His world.
Kreuzzüge Fathers fell upon their sons, being slaughtered upon one another, and they slew one anothereach man his kin, his wife, his children; bridegrooms slew their betrothed, and merciful women their only children. They all accepted the divine decree wholeheartedly and, as they yielded up their souls to the Creator, cried out: Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One. God, the maker of peace, turned aside and averted His eyes from His people, and consigned them to the sword. No prophet, seer, or man of wise heart was able to comprehend how the sin of the people infinite in number was deemed so great as to cause the destruction of so many lives in the various Jewish communities. The martyrs endured the extreme penalty normally inflicted only upon one guilty of murder. Yet, it must be stated with certainty that God is a righteous judge and we are to blame.
Kreuzzüge For since the day on which the Second Temple was destroyed, their like had not arisen, nor shall there be their like againfor they sanctified and bore witness to the Oneness of God´s Name with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their might. Happy are they and happy is their lot, for all of them are destined for eternal life in the World-to-Comeand may my place be amongst them.
Martyrdom Kiddush ha-Shem (Sanctification of God´s Name: in cases of idolatry, murder, adultery) A widespread ideal, but also qualified, for example by Maimonides and R. Meir of Rothenberg ( ): although a Jew is required to choose death rather than be forced to worship idols, should he violate this law, he would not become disqualified as a witness, though he would be guilty of having committed a sin
Fourth Lateran Council (1215) Restricted interest rates in moneylending [key Jewish occupation in world where Christian forbidden to charge one another interest] Prohibited conversion back to Judaism, Jewish holding of public office, required specific Jewish garb (this borrowed from Islamic context), restricted contact between Jews and Christians In several provinces, a difference in vestment distinguishes the Jews or the Saracens from the Christians; but in others, the confusion has reached such proportions that a difference can no longer be perceived. Hence, at times it has occurred that Christians have had sexual intercourse in error with Jewish or Saracen women and Jews or Saracens with Christian women. That the crime of such a sinful mixture shall no longer find evasion or cover under the pretext of error, we order that they [Jews and Saracens] of both sexes, in all Christian lands and at all times, shall be publicly differentiated from the rest of the population by the quality of their garment, especially since that is ordained by Moses…
Toldot Yeshu (Das Leben Jesus) Yeshu: may his name and memory be erased One day Yeshu walked in front of the Sages with his head uncovered, showing shameful disrespect. At this, the discussion arose as to whether this behavior did not truly indicate that Yeshu was an illegitimate child and the son of a niddah (menstruant). Moreover, the story tells that while the rabbis were discussing the Talmudic Tractate on Damages, he gave his own impudent interpretation of the law and in an ensuing debate he held that Moses could not be the greatest of the prophets if he had to receive counsel from Jethro. This led to further inquiry as to the antecedents of Yeshu, and it was discovered…that he was the illegitimate son of Joseph Pandera. Miriam admitted it. After this became known, it was necessary for Yesu to flee to upper Galilee.