Die Präsentation wird geladen. Bitte warten

Die Präsentation wird geladen. Bitte warten

Anhang: - Konstanten, Einheiten - Literatur

Ähnliche Präsentationen


Präsentation zum Thema: "Anhang: - Konstanten, Einheiten - Literatur"—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Anhang: - Konstanten, Einheiten - Literatur

2 Konstanten Konstanten: durchschnittlicher Erdradius a = 6.37·106 m
Erdbeschleunigung g = m s-2 Avogardozahl NA = ·1023 molec./mol universelle Gaskonstante R* = J K-1 mol-1 Boltzmann-Konstante (=R/NA) k = ·10-23 J K-1 (benötigt?) Lichtgeschwindigkeit in Vakuum c = ·108 m/s Planck Konstante h = ·10-34 J s M für 1013 hPa und 273K ergibt sich aus rho*NA, dabei muss R=8314 J K-1 mol-1 benuzt werden.

3 Eigenschaften von Luft und Spurengasen
spezifische Wärme von Luft cp = 1004 J kg-1 K-1, cv = 717 J kg-1 K-1 Gaskonstante von Luft R = cp - cv = J K-1 kg-1 „Kappa“  = R/cp = 0.400 Latente Wärme von Wasser (0°C) L = 2.5·106 J kg-1 Masse der Erdatmosphäre M = 5.1·1018 kg Molekulargewichte: (trockene) Luft mair = kg mol-1 N2=28.013, O2=31.999, Ar=39.948, CO2=44.01, Wasser= kg mol-1 Loschmidt-Zahl N/V = 2.69 ·1019 molec. M für 1013 hPa und 273K ergibt sich aus rho*NA, dabei muss R=8314 J K-1 mol-1 benuzt werden.

4 Einheiten für Mischungsverhältnisse/Konzentrationen
Volumenmischungsverhältnis: 1 ppmv = 1 mol/mol = 10-6 mol/mol „parts per million“ 1 ppbv = 1 nmol/mol = 10-9 mol/mol „parts per billion“ 1 pptv = 1 pmol/mol = mol/mol „parts per trillion“ M für 1013 hPa und 273K ergibt sich aus rho*NA, dabei muss R=8314 J K-1 mol-1 benuzt werden.

5 Bibliographie - Allgemeine Lit.
Finnlayson-Pitts, B., and Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques, Wiley, New York, …, 1986. Hartmann, D.L., Global Physical Climatology, Academic Press, San Diego, ..., 1994. Jacob, D., Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry, Princeton University Press, 1999. Jacobson, M.Z., Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling, Cambridge University Press, 1999. Seinfeld, J., and Pandis, S., Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, Wiley, New York, …, 1998. Warneck, P., Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere, International Geophysics Series, Academic Press, 1988.

6 Bibliographie Compilations of Rate constants:
Finnlayson-Pitts & Pitts, 1986. Sander, S. P., J. Abbatt, J. R. Barker, J. B. Burkholder, R. R. Friedl, D. M. Golden, R. E. Huie, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Kurylo, G.K. Moortgat, V. L. Orkin and P. H. Wine "Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies, Evaluation No. 17," JPL Publication 10-6, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, 2011 Other literature: Engelke, F., Aufbau der Materie, Teubner Studienbücher Chemie, Stuttgart, 1992. Herzberg, G. (Huber, K.P., and G. Herzberg), Molecular Spectra and molecular structure, Van Nostrand, New York, 1950 (1979).

7 Bibliography A few key papers (incomplete listing):
Haagen-Smit, A.J., Chemistry and physiology of Los Angeles Smog, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 44(6), 1952. Chameides, W., and Walker, J.C.G., A photochemical theory of tropospheric ozone, J. Geophys. Res., 78(36), 1973. Chatfield, R.B., Anomalous HNO3/NOx ratio of rmote tropospheric air, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(24), 1994. Crutzen, P.J., The role of NO and NO2 in the chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 1979. Dentener, F.J., and Crutzen, P.J., Reaction of N2O5 on tropospheric aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D4), 1993. Fishman, J., and Crutzen, P.J., The origin of ozone in the troposphere, Nature, 274(31), 1978. Lin, X., Trainer, M., and Liu, S.C., On the nonlinearity of the tropospheric ozone production, J. Geophys. Res., 93(D12), 1988.

8 Bibliography (2) Logan, J.A., Prather, M.J., Wofsy, S.C., and McElroy, M.B., Tropospheric chemistry: A global perspective, J. Geophys. Res., 86(C8), 1981. Logan, J.A., Nitrogen oxides in the troposphere: Global and regional budgets, J. Geophys. Res., 88(C15), 1983. Prather, M.J., and Jacob, D.J., A persistent imbalance in HOx and NOx photochemistry of the upper troposphere driven by deep tropical convection, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24(24), 1997. See also the books from Seinfeld&Pandis, Warneck, and Finnalyson-Pitts&Pitts as well as: Brasseur, G.P:, Orlando, J.J., and Tyndall, G.S. (eds.), Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 1999.

9 Bibliography (3) Wesely, M.L., B.B. Hicks, A review of the current status of knowledge on dry deposition, Atmos. Env., 34 (2000), Tuovinen, J.P., M. Aurela, T. Laurila, Resistances to ozone deposition to a flark fen in the northern aapa mire zone, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D14), 16,953-16,966, 1998. Stull, R. B. An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer, Boston, 1988. Toya, T., M. Mikami, and N. Yasuda, A Determination of the Dalton and Stanton numbers over a saturated barley field, Boundary Layer Meteorology, 52, , 1990.

10 Reaction rate compilations
Sander, S. P., et al. "Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies, Evaluation No. 17," JPL Publication 10-6, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, 2011 IUPAC recommendations (Atkinson et al., 1997) [for details on hydrocarbon reactions] These compilations involve laboratory kineticists from around the world and are generally considered the state-of-the-art description of atmospheric chemical reactions. Rate constants for a number of reaction rates are still very uncertain (e.g. HO2+CH3O2  CH3OOH+O2), and there is no guarantee for completeness. Nevertheless, data from these sources form the basis of all chemical models.


Herunterladen ppt "Anhang: - Konstanten, Einheiten - Literatur"

Ähnliche Präsentationen


Google-Anzeigen