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Deutsch 2 GENDER OF NOUNS. NOUNS All German nouns are capitalized. All German nouns have a grammatical gender. The noun is either masculine, feminine,

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Deutsch 2 GENDER OF NOUNS. NOUNS All German nouns are capitalized. All German nouns have a grammatical gender. The noun is either masculine, feminine,"—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Deutsch 2 GENDER OF NOUNS

2 NOUNS All German nouns are capitalized. All German nouns have a grammatical gender. The noun is either masculine, feminine, or neuter. The definite article der (the) accompanies a masculine noun, die accompanies a feminine noun, and das a neuter noun.

3 NOUN GROUPS

4 GENERAL RULES Nouns that refer specifically to male beings, such as father, uncle, etc., are usually masculine. Nouns that refer to female beings, such as mother, daughter, etc., are usually feminine. Nouns referring to young people and young animals are usually neuter. All diminuatives ending in –chen and –lein are neuter. das Mädchendas Kind das Fräuleindas Kalb das Kätzchendas Küken HOWEVER, nouns referring to things are NOT always neuter but can have a masculine or feminine gender. For this reason the gender of each noun should be memorized.

5 MASCULINE NOUNS - GROUPS Names of ALL calendar days Names of ALL calendar months Names of ALL seasons Names of ALL cardinal directions der Süden der Norden der Westen der Osten

6 FEMININE NOUNS - GROUPS Names of MOST trees die Tanne die Eiche Names of MOST fruits die Banane die Pflaume EXCEPTION: der Apfel Names of MOST flowers die Orchidee die Lilie

7 NEUTER NOUN - GROUPS Names of MOST cities das historische München das übervölkerte Hongkong Names of MOST countries das neutrale Schweden das moderne Deutschland NOTE: The neuter article for MOST cities and countries is used only if the noun is modified. Without a modifier, one simply uses München, Berlin, Italien, etc.

8 EXCEPTIONS Feminine countries: die Schweiz die Türkei die Tschechische Republik Masculine countries: der Iran der Irak Countries that are ONLY used in the plural. die Niederlande die Vereinigten Staaten NOTE: These exceptions are ALWAYS used with their articles, whether they are modified or not. Wir besuchen die Schweiz.

9 NEUTER NOUN - GROUPS Names of MOST metals and chemical elements das Gold das Kupfer das Helium EXCEPTION: der Stahl

10 NOUN ENDINGS

11 MASCULINE WORD ENDINGS Nouns ending in –el, -en, -er, -ig, -ich, and –ling are USUALLY masculine. der Schlüsselder Zucker der Löffelder Honig der Wagender Pfennig der Bodender Teppich der Tellerder Lehrling EXCEPTIONS: die Butterdas Messerdas Wetterdie Gabel die Mutterdas Zimmerdas Leder die Tochterdas Fensterdas Kissen

12 FEMININE WORD ENDINGS Nouns ending in –age, -ei, -heit, -keit, -schaft, -ie, -ik, -in, -ion, -tät, -ung, -ur are ALMOST ALWAYS feminine. Nouns ending in –e are USUALLY feminine. die Couragedie Musik die Liebedie Fabrik die Politikdie Köchin die Krankheitdie Nation die Schönheitdie Universität die Freundlichkeitdie Wohnung die Freundschaftdie Rechnung die Melodiedie Diktatur die Familiedie Literatur

13 NEUTER WORD ENDINGS Nouns ending in –tum, -ment, -ium, -um are USUALLY neuter. das Christentum das Instrument das Gymnasium das Museum das Datum Infinitives used as nouns are ALWAYS neuter. das Hören das Sehen

14 NOUNS WITH DIFFERENT MEANINGS The following pairs of words have different meanings for masculine feminine and neuter forms. der Golf gulf das Golf golf der Junge boy das Junge young animal der Leiter leader, manager die Leiter ladder der See lake (inland) die See sea (ocean) der Tor fool das Tor gate, goal (in soccer)

15 COMPOUND NOUNS Compound nouns are formed by combining two or more nouns. The gender of the compound noun matches the gender of the last noun. der Motor, das Bootdas Motorboot der Zahn, die Bürstedie Zahnbürste das Wasser, die Farbedie Wasserfarbe die Tannen ( pl ), der Baumder Tannenbaum die Kranken ( pl ), der Wagender Krankenwagen die Tage ( pl ), das Buchdas Tagebuch

16 MORE COMPOUND NOUNS Some compound nouns are formed by two singular nouns connected by an –s. der Staat, das Examendas Staatsexmen der Sport, der Mannder Sportsmann der Geburtstag, der Kuchender Geburtstagskuchen das Mitglied, die Kartedie Mitgliedskarte der Liebling, die Melodiedie Lieblingsmelodie die Universität, der Professorder Universitätsprofessor

17 NOUNS USED ONLY IN THE SINGULAR die Liebedie Musik der Schmuckdas Leder das Viehder Wein die Milchdas Fleisch die Butterder Honig das Gold

18 PLURAL NOUNS No gender is given to plural nouns. ALL plural nouns have the same definite and indefinite articles. Unlike English plural nouns, in German, nouns rarely form their plural forms by adding –s. More about plural nouns later.

19 RESOURCES Gschossmann-Hendershot, E.F. (). Schaums Outline of German Grammar : Second Edition.


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