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Kinds of Mitzvot Mishpatim (משפטים ordinances): commandments for which reasons can be given Hukim (חוקים statutes): commandments for which no reasons can.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Kinds of Mitzvot Mishpatim (משפטים ordinances): commandments for which reasons can be given Hukim (חוקים statutes): commandments for which no reasons can."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Kinds of Mitzvot Mishpatim (משפטים ordinances): commandments for which reasons can be given Hukim (חוקים statutes): commandments for which no reasons can be advanced [prohibition on Schweinfleisch; why? Prohibition on wear garment prepared with different kinds of cloth; why?]

2 Mitzvot and Time time-bound (מצוות שהזמן גרמא) vs. not time-bound mitzvot (מצוות שהזמן לא גרמא)

3 Mitzvot und Zeit [Zur Einhaltung] jedes Gebots, das eine bestimmte Zeit betrifft, sind Männer verpflichtet, aber Frauen befreit. Und [zur Einhaltung] jedes Gebots, das keine bestimmte Zeit betrifft, sind sowohl Männer als auch Frauen verpflichtet. Und [zur Einhaltung] jedes Verbots, ob an eine bestimmte Zeit oder an keine bestimmte Zeit gebunden, sind sowohl Männer als auch Frauen verpflichtet... mKidduschin I:7 (Verlobungen)

4 Torah and the Rabbis mitzvot drabbanan מצוות דרבנן vs. mitzvot doraita מצוות דאוריתא (commandments from the Rabbis vs. commandments from the Torah)

5 mitzvot drabbanan מצוות דרבנן 1.Gezeira (גזירה) 2. Takkanah (תקנה) 3. Minhag (מנהג)

6 yehareg veal yaavor "One should let himself be killed rather than violate it These are: murder, idolatry, and forbidden sexual relations

7 Cancelling the Law to Save It Psalm 114,126: Es ist Zeit, daß der HERR dazutue; sie haben dein Gesetz zerrissen. Resh Lakish and R. Johanan: Rather let a letter of the Torah be uprooted than the Torah should be forgotten in Israel (bTemura 14b)

8 The Law of God …the law is essentially a gift, and because of that fact it is situated within a history. Such a law is not hidden deep within things, whose profound structures it expresses. It is something that has not always existed but has come to pass. In this, the law is parallel to the way in which Israel conceives of the world into which it made its entry, not as a nature reposing on itself, but as a creation. Remi Brague, The Law of God: The Philosophical History of an Idea (Chicago, 2007), p. 65

9 Rut 1,16-17 Wo du hingehst, da will ich auch hingehen; wo du bleibst, da bleibe ich auch. Dein Volk ist mein Volk, und dein Gott ist mein Gott. Wo du stirbst, da sterbe ich auch, da will ich auch begraben werden. Der Herr tue mir dies und das, nur der Tod wird mich und dich scheiden.

10 Deuteronomium 33,4: Mose hat uns das Gesetz (Torah) geboten, das Erbe der Gemeinde Jakobs תּוֹרָה צִוָּה-לָנוּ, מֹשֶׁה: מוֹרָשָׁה, קְהִלַּת יַעֲקֹב.

11 Psalm 147,19-20 יט מַגִּיד דְּבָרָו לְיַעֲקֹב; חֻקָּיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו, לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. כ לֹא עָשָׂה כֵן, לְכָל-גּוֹי-- וּמִשְׁפָּטִים בַּל-יְדָעוּם: הַלְלוּ-יָהּ. 19 Er zeigt Jakob sein Wort, Israel seine Sitten und Rechte. 20 So tut er keinen Heiden, noch läßt er sie wissen seine Rechte. Halleluja!

12 Dead or High Priest? אמר ר' יוחנן, עובר כוכבים שעוסק בתורה חייב מיתה שנאמר "תורה צוה לנו משה מורשה" (דברים לג: ג), לנו מורשה ולא להם...רבי מאיר אומר מניין שאפילו עובד כוכבים ועוסק בתורה שהוא ככהן גדול, שנאמר "אשר יעשה אותם האדם וחי בהם" (ויקרא יח:ה), כהנים לוים וישראלים לא נאמר אלא האדם הא למדת שאפילו עובד כוכבים ועוסק בתורה הרי הוא ככהן גדול. התם בשבע מצות דידהו. R. Johanan said, a worshipper of the stars who engages in Torah deserves death, because it is written, Mose hat uns das Gesetz (Torah) geboten, das Erbe (Deut 33:4). For us an inheritance, and not for them…Rabbi Meir says, how do we do know that even a star-worshipper who engages in Torah is like the high priest, because it is said, Denn welcher Mensch dieselben tut, der wird dadurch leben (Leviticus 18:5). Priests, Levites, and Israelites are not mentioned here but [just] man. Behold this teaches that even a star-worshipper who engages in Torah is like the high priest. This refers to their seven commandments. (bSanhedrin 58b)

13 Zwei Toras Proselyte: How many Torot have you? Shammai: Two, the written Torah and the Oral Torah. (bShabbat 31a) Hillel: Just as you have accepted the one in faith so accept also the other in faith. (Avot de-Rabbi Nathan xv 31a )

14 Written and Oral Torah תורה שבכתב תורה שבעל פה Diogenes Laertius on Plato: There is a written and an unwritten law. The one by which we regulate our constitutions in our cities is the written law; that which arises from customs is the unwritten law. (Άγραφος νόμος = unwritten law)

15 Oral Law: More Perspectives R. Isaac and Resh Lakish: not only did all the Prophets receive their prophecy from Sinai, but also the Sages that have arisen in every generation received their respective teaching from Sinai (Exodus Rabba xxviii, 6) R. Joshua b. Levi: Bible, Mishna, Talmud, and Haggada, even what a senior disciple is due to teach in the presence of his master, was already stated to Moses at Sinai. (yPeah ii,6)

16 Oral Law: More Perspectives Oral (בפה, by mouth) laws have been proclaimed, and written laws have been proclaimed and we cannot tell which of these is more precious; but since it is written, For in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel, (Ex. 34,27), we may infer that the oral precepts are more precious (yPeah ii, 4)

17 Oral Law: More Perspectives R. Judah bar Shalom stated: When the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Moses Write down!, Moses asked for the Mishna to be in writing. But because the Holy One, blessed be He, foresaw that the Gentiles would translate the Torah and read it in Greek, and thereupon they would declare We are Israel, and so far the scales would be even, so the Holy One, blessed be He, said to the nations: You aver that you are My children? I cannot tell; only they who possess My arcana are My children. Which are these? The Mishna. (Midrash Tanhuma, Ki Tissa, § 34) Arcana = mistorin (מסטורין)

18 Der Zaun um die Tora (סיג לתורה) Mose empfing die Tora vom Sinai und überlieferten sie Josua, Josua den Ältesten und die Ältesten den Propheten. Und die Propheten überlieferten sie den Männern der großen Versammlung. Sie sagten drei Worte: Seid bedachtsam beim Richten, sorgt für viele Schüler und macht einen Zaun um die Tora. )mAvot I.1(

19 Der Zaun um die Tora (סיג לתורה) Rabbi Akiva sagt:…Die Überlieferung ist ein Zaun um die Tora (מסורת סיג לתורה), die Zehnten sind ein Zaun um Reichtum, Gelübde sind ein Zaun um Enthaltsamkeit, ein Zaun um Weisheit ist das Schweigen. (mAvot III.13)


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