Präsentation zum Thema: "Morphology and Syntax More on sentence structure."— Präsentation transkript:
Morphology and Syntax More on sentence structure
The head of sentences Two unresolved questions: A. What is the head of a sentence? B. What is the position of modals and auxiliary verbs in the sentence structure? Maybe these questions are related.
In English, modals and auxiliaries do not occupy the same position as main verbs. They are further to the left: Sara does not watch that program. *Sara watches not that program. Sara will not watch that program. *Sara not will watch that program.
Idea: the auxiliary position is the head position of the sentence. general X-bar schema:XP specifier(s) X X complement(s) X complement(s) sentences: S (= AuxP) NP Aux NP Aux Aux VP Aux VP
Another special property of modal auxiliary verbs in English: they must be inflected for tense and agreement. *The carpenter hopes to can build the house. *She has could reading that book. So we relabel the Aux position in the sentence as the Infl position.
Full sentence structure CP CP C C S (= InflP) C S (= InflP) NP Infl NP Infl Infl VP Infl VP V V
What happens if there is no auxiliary to fill up the Infl position? In English: nothing, really. John will never read the paper in the afternoon. John never reads the paper in the afternoon.
What happens if there is no auxiliary to fill up the Infl position? In French: the main verb goes into the Infl position. Jean a souvent donné une pomme à Marie. John has often given an apple to Mary *Jean souvent donne une pomme à Marie. John often gives an apple to Mary John often gives an apple to Mary Jean donne souvent une pomme à Marie. John gives often an apple to Mary
CP C C S (= InflP) C S (= InflP) NP Infl NP Infl Infl VP souvent V V
Subject-verb inversion What has Geraldine read? *What Geraldine has read? Why would you do a thing like that? *Why you would do a thing a like that?
CP Wh-phraseC C S (= InflP) C S (= InflP) NP Infl NP Infl Infl VP V V
No subject-verb inversion in embedded questions: I wonder [if Frederick has ever heard that song]. *I wonder [if has Frederick ever heard that song]. Fronted auxiliaries and complementizers are in complementary distribution, because they both occupy the C position.
Generalized verb movement to C In English, verb movement to the C position is limited to (i)Interrogative sentences and (ii)Auxiliary verbs *Which string quartet heard George yesterday? Which string quartet did George hear yesterday?
In some other languages, verb movement to C can also apply to main verbs... Hvad koster en billet? what costs a ticket What does a ticket cost? *Hvad gør en billet koste? what does a ticket cost what does a ticket cost
... and verb movement to C also occurs in declarative sentences: Denne film har børnene set. this film have children seen The children have seen this film (rather than another one). *Denne film børnenehar set. this film childrenhave seen this film childrenhave seen *This film have the children seen. This film the children have seen.
CP NPC denne film C S (= InflP) C S (= InflP) har har NP Infl NP Infl børnene børnene Infl VP Infl VP e V V NP set e
German: OV or VO? Er glaubt [CP dass seine Vorfahren diese Philosophie begründeten]. he believes that his ancestors this philosophy established He believes that his ancestors established this philosophy. *Er glaubt [CP dass seine Vorfahren begründeten diese Philosophie]. he believes that his ancestors established this philosophy he believes that his ancestors established this philosophy Seine Vorfahren begründeten diese Philosophie. his ancestors established this philosophy His ancestors established this philosophy. *Seine Vorfahren diese Philosophie begründeten. his ancestors this philosophy established his ancestors this philosophy established
So is German OV in embedded clauses but VO in main clauses? Not really: Seine Vorfahren hatten diese Philosophie begründet. his ancestors had this philosophy established *Seine Vorfahren hatten begründet diese Philosophie. his ancestors had established this philosophy his ancestors had established this philosophy Seine Vorfahren würden diese Philosophie begründen. his ancestors would this philosophy establish *Seine Vorfahren würden begründen diese Philosophie. his ancestors would establish this philosophy his ancestors would establish this philosophy
Conclusion: German is really OV. So how come the finite verb ends up in the second position of main clauses? Because of generalized verb movement to C!
CP CPC C S (= InflP) C S (= InflP) dass dass NP Infl NP Infl seine Vorfahren seine Vorfahren Infl VP Infl VP V NP V diese Philosophie begründeten
CP NP C seine Vorfahren C S (= InflP) C S (= InflP)begründeten NP Infl NP Infl e Infl VP V NP V diese Philosophie e