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The Influence of the Direct Teaching of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on the Pupils’ Strategy Use and Performance Susanne Steguweit B.A.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "The Influence of the Direct Teaching of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on the Pupils’ Strategy Use and Performance Susanne Steguweit B.A."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 The Influence of the Direct Teaching of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on the Pupils’ Strategy Use and Performance Susanne Steguweit B.A.

2 Structure Background to the Study 1) Vocabulary learning strategies
Rote learning Building word networks Imagery The Keyword Method 2) Direct vs. embedded strategy training The Study 3) Research questions 4) Participants 5) Method 6) Results

3 Vocabulary learning strategies
Strategies are “specific ‘attacks’ that we make on a given problem, and that vary considerably within an individual” (Brown 2007: 132) vocabulary learning strategies are “specific strategies utilized in the isolated task of learning vocabulary in the target language” (Takac 2008: 52) Many vocabulary learning strategies have been identified (58 in a taxonomy compiled by Schmitt)

4 Rote Learning Mechanical way of learning Includes various strategies
Repetition of target language items silently or aloud Writing down the items Lists Cover one side of the list and use the other side as prompts Common strategies Success is debateable  Useful strategy if not uses as the single, exclusive strategy

5 Building word networks
Also called “semantic mapping” (e.g. by Schmitt and Oxford) TL word is written down and connected to other key concepts and words  mind-map

6 Imagery An image of a word’s meaning is created and memorized
Drawing the images can be very helpful  they become more concrete and easier to remember

7 The Keyword Method Relies on visual and verbal cues
Two steps: 1. a word in the L1 that sounds like the TL word is identified 2. an image combining the L1 and the TL word in some way is created  abstract images Seldom used by learners unless they learned it via instruction (cf. Takac 2008: 62)  success is debatable

8 Direct vs. Embedded strategy training
Direct or explicit training: “learning strategies are the primary topic and students are taught to monitor their own use of the strategy” (Oxford 1986: 7)  students are told why the engage in strategy training and talk about the value of the strategies Embedded training: “students are presented with activities and materials structured to elicit the use of the strategies [...]” (O’Malley and Chamot 1990: 153)  strategies not explicitly named  usefulness not explained or discussed

9 Research questions 1. Will the direct teaching of the three vocabulary learning strategies lead to an increases usage of these strategies? 2. Will the usage of these vocabulary learning strategies lead to an increased performance in vocabulary tests? 3. Will the three taught vocabulary learning strategies be considered as being helpful by the pupils, i.e. will they personally profit from learning about them?

10 Participants 18 pupils (10 girls, 8 boys) Grade 6, Realschule
Instruction in English for 4 years “PowerEnglish” course  courses offered in all three main subjects  courses for the pupils who are good in this subject and like to go beyond the challenges of their usual classroom  1 lesson per week

11 Method Week 1: pre-test (classifying pupils’ strategies and success in vocabulary test) Week 2: awareness raising and teaching word networks Week 3: teaching imagery Week 4: teaching Keyword Method Week 5: Repetition and evaluation of the strategies (14 days break) Week 6: post-test (classifying pupils’ strategies and success in vocabulary test)

12 Method – Teaching Units
1. Warm up Idea of what the strategy was and/ or why it could be useful 2. Introduction to the strategy Modelling the strategy (either teacher or students) 3. Explanation of the strategy Explicitly naming and explaining the strategy (teacher and students) practice phases (including pair/ group work) Adapted to complexity of strategy 5. Short evaluation Basis: Chamot et al. 1990: 80-81

13 Method- Evaluation Reflektion zu den Lernstrategien für Vokabeln
Dieses Blatt soll dir helfen einmal über die verschiedenen Wege des Wörter-Lernens, die wir uns angeschaut haben, nachzudenken. Es soll dir helfen zu überlegen ob du mit diesen Methoden gut Wörter lernen kannst und ob du diese Methoden später noch einmal benutzen würdest. Bitte lies dir die Fragen genau durch, und schreibe dann die für dich passenden Antworten darunter auf. 1. Wir haben uns 3 verschiedene Methoden zum Lernen von Wörtern angesehen. Wie heißen die?  2. a) Welche der drei Methoden hat dir am wenigsten gefallen? b) Warum hat dir gerade diese Methode nicht so gut gefallen? 3. a) Welche der drei Methoden hat dir am besten gefallen? b) Warum har dir gerade diese Methode besonders gut gefallen? 4. Bitte überlege dir ob du eine oder mehrere der Methoden zum Wörter Lernen noch einmal anwenden würdest. Bitte begründe warum du die Methoden wieder benutzen würdest um Wörter zu lernen oder warum du sie lieber nicht mehr benutzt. 5. Fandest du es interessant einmal etwas über verschiedene Möglichkeiten zu erfahren, wie man Wörter lernen kann? Bitte begründe wieso du es interessant gefunden hast oder wieso nicht.

14 Results

15 Results

16 Results

17 Results

18 Results In the post-test 33.3% of the pupils utilized at least one of the taught strategies  building word networks was the only strategy that was not used at all No significant relationship between using a specific vocabulary learning strategy and success in vocabulary tests could be found Building word networks the least liked strategy  too time consuming  too difficult to find related words 72.2 % of the pupils claimed that it was interesting to learn about the vocabulary learning strategies  it was helpful to hear about and try out new methods

19 Pedagogical implications
Imagery and the Keyword Method are teachable with explicit strategy training It might be better to introduce word networks in a higher great, i.e. when the pupils are cognitively more mature and more proficient Focus on specific vocabulary learning strategies at different point in the year rather then teach them in a row  motivation “integrate strategies practice into the regular course work” (Chamot et al. 1999: 99)  awareness of strategies and own learning Introduce strategies as early as possible

20 Bibliography Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (5th ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Longman. Chamot, A. U., Barnhardt, S., & El-Dinary, P. B. and J. Robins (1999). The Learning Strategies Handbook. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education. O'Malley, J. M. and A. U. Chamot (1990). Learning Strategies is Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Oxford, R. L. (1986). Second Language Learning Strategies: Current Reasearch and Implications for Practice. Schmitt, N. (1997). Vocabulary learning strategies. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Descritption, Acquisition and Pedagogy (pp. 199–227). Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Takac, V. P. (2008). Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Foreign Language Acquisition. Clevedon, Tonawanda NY, North York: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

21 THANK YOU! Any questions?

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