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17.07.2015 UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN Biodiversity and Environmental protection in highway planning and design Prof.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "17.07.2015 UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN Biodiversity and Environmental protection in highway planning and design Prof."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN Biodiversity and Environmental protection in highway planning and design Prof. Dr.-Ing. Alemayehu Gebissa Rostock University, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Germany Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, Rostock, Germany Phone: , Fax:

2 Contents of the presentation Protection of the so calld protection goods, § 2 para 1 sentence 2 of the EIA Act Wildlife protection Amphibian protection Noise protection UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN2

3 1. Protection of the so calld protection goods well into the landscape a conflicts between the desire of humans for mobility and the interests of the environment. the landscape-fair road planning must remain the goal of engineer. there is a need of participation ecology and landscape planning. The legal basis for the consideration the European Union to and taken over by Germany to be comprehensively determined, to be described, evaluated for the decisions over the validity of the project. an environmental compatibility test (UVP) is to be accomplished UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN3

4 UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN4 Fig. 1: Environmental compatibility test, W. Pietzsch, etl. 2000

5 1. Protection of the so calld protection goods the indirect and direct effects of the project on the protection goods described and evaluated: Humans, animals and plants - soil, water, air, climate, landscape - culture and other special goods in an appropriate way. The load effects (disadvantages) and the discharge effects of the project Discharge effects are avoidance -, decrease -, balance and spare measures Environmental compatibility studies includes (fig.2): sensitivity investigation Comparison of possible planning alternatives Comparison of the route variant white surface mapping (fig. 3) UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN5

6 1. Protection of the so calld protection goods UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN6 Fig. 2: white surface mapping, W. Pietzsch, etl. 2000

7 UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN7 Fig.3: Comparison of the route variant, W. Pietzsch, etl. 2000

8 2. Wildlife protection Roads-related effect on the habitats of animals are: Insurmountable barriers for animals Prevent the crossing Loss of animals Traffic accident, Loss of property and life Fragmentation of the landscape and wildlife Expulsion of animals Protection measures are: Creation of a bypass, fencing, underpasses,wild or green bridges which enable wildlife the crossing of highway Guide facilities which lead animals at a particular location and facilitate the crossing UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN8

9 File:Gruenbruecke_A14_Schwerin.jpg UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN9 Fig. 4: Wildbrücke über die A 14 bei SchwerinA 14Schwerin

10 File:Cerviduct.jpg UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN10 Fig. 5: Eine Grünbrücke über die A50 bei Woeste Hoeve in den NiederlandenA50Woeste Hoeve

11 © 2009 UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTLICHE FAKULTÄT Fig. 6: Wild protection WildwarnerWild protection fencesDriving behavior Quelle: Quelle: + Costs, year round - Protective effect unclear + Costs, year round - durability Quelle: + protective effect - often ignored

12 3. Amphibian protection UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN12 Fig. 7: Signs of amphibian migration, MAmS, 2000

13 3. Amphibian protection Amphibians fulfill important functions in the ecosystem. Almost all species are equally dependent on land and water habitats. For the reproduction and development of aquatic habitats and For feeding and overwintering the land habitats. There will be migrations between habitats, which are particularly intense during the main spawning season in early spring Amphibians react quickly to changes in habitat and thus may be important indicator species (bio-indicators) UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN13

14 Fig. 8: Typsche Lebensräume der heimischen Amphibienarten, MAmS, UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN14 Fire Salamander, Alpensalamandar, triton, newt, Fadanmolch, alpine newt, yellow-bellied, red- bellied toad, midwife toad, common toad, toad, toads, leaves Rosch, pond frog, Pool Frog, Marsh Frog, Frog, Moor Frog, Agile Frog

15 Fig. 9: Schematic diagram for vegetation poor waters, MAmS, UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN15

16 Fig. 10: Schematic diagram for vegetation rich waters, MAmS, UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN16

17 Fig. 11: Alignement of guide facility, MAms, UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN17

18 3. Amphibian protection Amphibians have declined in their inventory. Human intervention in nature and landscape, z. B. by draining of wetlands, but also the road, are the cause of this development. Negative effects on the biological balance is the result. Their absence or presence in habitats provides information on faults or the state of the landscape UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN18

19 3. Amphibian protection The hazards are many: Roads lead to the destruction, segregation or degradation of habitats. Road transport is responsible for significant losses of the migrating amphibians. Measures for the protection of amphibians are therefore necessary The prevention of adverse effects has priority, since the restoration of habitats has narrow limits. Crossing aids in the form of passageway systems are typical measures to avoid or minimize the adverse effects on amphibians UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN19

20 https://www.tirol.gv.at/fileadmin/themen/umwelt/naturschutz/d ownloads/Foerderungen_Naturschutz/FHB_Tirol_Auflage3.pdf UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN20 Fig. 12: Passage

21 © 2009 UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTLICHE FAKULTÄT Fig. 13: Amphibian protection Permanent protectionGuid fancesroad closures Quelle: op.de Quelle: + all year - high construction costs + Protection, detection - high personnel expenses Quelle: + Protective effect, effort - detours

22 Fig. 14: guiding shield, MamS, UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN22

23 3. Amphibian protection To determine the corridors between habitats, temporary fences with fishing vessels should have to be used Prevention measures such as amphibians passages with their guidance systems are also going to be used During the walking period, the animals are to be collected in suitable containers and implement regular In the autumn migration of amphibians takes place to the winter quarters The space-time bound migratory behavior varies depending on the type UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN23

24 Fig. 15: Catching crosses, MAmS, UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN24

25 Fig. 16: Barrier fences with catching vessels, MAmS, UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN25

26 3. 1 Amphibian protection systems on roads Protection systems are permanent facilities that prevent animals from entering the roadway or to enable them to safely cross the street. Before permanent protection systems are set up, preparatory studies are required to determine position, and dimensions of the passages and guidance to passages Blocking devices have the task of keeping amphibians from the street. Guide facility in connection with amphibians fair passages serve to re-crosslinking of amphibians part habitats. For safety, it must extend for at least 50 m laterally across the width of the corridor. Their ends are U-shaped form, making it difficult to hike around UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN26

27 3. 1 Amphibian protection systems on roads Closer spacing of the passages (30 m) The height of the barrier is at least 40 cm whilst jumping frogs at least 60 cm. Climbing protection on the upper edge of the blocking and guiding devices is indispensable. The guide can be provided with a minimum of 20 cm wide obstacle free tread without height offset and vegetation In the passage guiding shield is needed to prevent the passing of amphibians A large opening is desirable also in view of its suitability for other animals and easier maintenance. Preferably, box culverts are to be used UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN27

28 Fig. 17: Blocking and guiding devices, MAmS, UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN28

29 Fig. 18: Blocking and guiding devices, MAmS, UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN29

30 Fig. 19: Guiding shield, MamS, UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN30

31 4. Noise protection on roads The road as building itself makes no noise, but the vehicles moving along it. through appropriate planning, the road can make a significant contribution to preventing the traffic noise. The place of the outgoing noise is called emission, and the place of acting with noise called immission The human ear is able to perceive an extremely wide spectrum of different sound intensities. I0 = W / m2 (hearing threshold) to I = 10 W / m2 (pain threshold) UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN31

32 4. Noise protection on roads The sound intensity is not suitable as unitspan because of the Exponential. For this reason, we used the auditory threshold I0 as a reference unit forms the respective ratio I / I0 and only the logarithm of this ratio as a sound level (L). Sound level L is actually dimensionless. However, it is stated in noise prediction in B (Bel). In order to arrive at a finer scale, such as between 0 and 100, multiply the specified index number in B by a factor of 10 and receives the sound level L in dB UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN32

33 4. Noise protection on roads Thus: with L = sound level in dB (A) I = current sound intensity in W / m2 I0 = sound intensity of hearing threshold = W / m2

34 4. 1 The maximum permissible noise exposure 16. BlmSchV- from Ordinance shall apply The maximum permissible noise exposure for the construction or substantial modification of roads and railways Only when a new building or a significant change has occurred and thereby the IGW exceeded, noise prevention measures are imperative. The situation is different when it is on an existing road traffic noise very much by the general increase in traffic. In this case any remedial actions in the field of noise abatement is needed UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN34

35 4. 1 The maximum permissible noise exposure However, for noise abatement in contrast to noise prevention no obligation on the road responsible authorities. As evaluation framework, the current traffic load is used for noise reduction measures For noise prevention the traffic forecasting over a period of 15 to 20 years is used. The maximum permissible noise exposure (IGW) are set differently depending on the use (s. Fig. 20) UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN35

36 © 2009 UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTLICHE FAKULTÄT Area category Noise prevention (after 16.BImSchV) Day Night Noise abatement (after VLärmSchR 97) Day Night Tag (6-22 Udayhr) Nach22-6 Uhr) Tag (6-22 Uhr) Nacht (22- 6 Uhr) Hospitals, schools, convalescent homes and homes for the elderly pure, general residential and small housing estates Core areas, village and mixed commercial areas Tab. 1: The maximum permissible noise exposure

37 Lmt = distance 25m, car 100km / h, truck 80 km / h, then depending on DAT and truck percentage, mastic asphalt Dv = correction for speeds DStrO = correction for road surface DSTG = correction for slope Ds = Sound level changes by distances Dbm = correction by soil damping Db = Sound level change through structural measures K = Supplement for intersections, parking UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN37

38 4. 1 The maximum permissible noise exposure During the planning process of the road noise prevention is to be considered as an integral part of the various planning stages. This can be done by planning, construction and / or traffic law measures. Rout selection on the low-conflict corridors Enough distance to legitimate areas Arrangement of the main arteries in industrial and commercial used areas If it can not be achieved by the above-mentioned measures and maximum permissible noise exposure is exceeded, structural protection systems should be built on the street (active noise control at the emission) UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN38

39 4. 1 The maximum permissible noise exposure Active noise control include: Noise protection embankment Noise protection walls The road between the absorbent retaining walls Tunnel Trees and Shrubs (lose leaves in winter) Noise-reducing pavement (whisper, drain, porous asphalt) Speed limits (from 80 to 60 km / h or from 50 to 30 km / h cause only about 2 dB (A)) If along the road no active noise control can be constructed, improving the sound at the immission itself (passive noise protection) UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN39

40 © 2009 UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTLICHE FAKULTÄT Fig. 20: Active noise prevention measures Nois protection wallWearing course -3dBTraffic planning Quelle: nrw.de + P rotective effect - Optics, alternative measures + Protective effect - D urability Quelle: + high protective effect - not general solution

41 Thank you for your attention! UNIVERSITÄT ROSTOCK | FAKULTÄT AGRAR- UND UMWELTWISSENSCHAFTEN41


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