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MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina 21.06.2005 A pnCCD detector system for high speed optical.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina 21.06.2005 A pnCCD detector system for high speed optical."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina A pnCCD detector system for high speed optical applications Robert Hartmann 1, Hubert Gorke 2, Norbert Meidinger 3, Heike Soltau 1 and Lothar Strüder 3 1)PNSensor GmbH, Römerstraße 28, München, Germany 2)Forschungszentrum Jülich, Leo-Brandt-Straße, Jülich, Germany 3)Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, Garching, Germany Semiconductor Detector Workshop 2005 Taormina / June 19 – 24, 2005

2 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Principles of pnCCD Optical properties Detector format and geometry Readout and data acquisition Measurements and Performance Summary and outlook Overview

3 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina  Fully depleted 3-phase CCD  Back side illuminated  Cooled to -40º C.. -80º C (typ.)  Small detector capacitance ≈ 25 fF → low noise Principles of the pnCCD  One integrated FET per channel  Channel-Parallel-CCD → fast readout  p-implanted registers  High radiation hardness

4 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Principles of pnCCD Optical properties Detector format and geometry Readout and data acquisition Measurements and Performance Summary and outlook Overview

5 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina pnCCD for optical applications  back illuminated detector  unstructured entrance window results in a homogeneous responsitivity  application of an ultra-thin rectifying implant leads to a high QE in the blue and UV region  easy to apply an anti-reflective coating  entire detector volume of 450µm is radiation sensitive  high quantum efficiency in the red and NIR region  fringing effects are negligible  small detector capacitance  high signal to noise ratio highest electric field at readiation entrance side  narrow PSF  back illuminated detector  unstructured entrance window results in a homogeneous responsitivity  application of an ultra-thin rectifying implant leads to a high QE in the blue and UV region  easy to apply an anti-reflective coating  entire detector volume of 450µm is radiation sensitive  high quantum efficiency in the red and NIR region  fringing effects are negligible  small detector capacitance  high signal to noise ratio highest electric field at readiation entrance side  narrow PSF

6 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Measured and modelled reflectivity of CCD entrance window : Measured data : Model of Si-SiO x -SiO 2 : Model of pure Si-SiO 2 Interface

7 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Internal quantum efficiency

8 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Measurement of optical response at room temperature  Reflectivity of Silicon resp. Si/SiO 2 ≈ 30%  Use layer stack of SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 as ARC  Technology allows to taylor responsitivity over a wide wavelength range Technological compatible ARC:  High QE in visible, maximum at 580nm  Optimum QE in NIR region  Blue and UV optimized 300nm) Standard entrance window, consisting of a thin SiO 2 layer Optimized for CsI(Ti) scintillator readout (λ = 548nm)

9 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina mm Wafer of recent fabrication

10 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Fringing effects due to multiple light reflection between detector front and back side

11 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Principles of pnCCD Optical properties Detector format and geometry Readout and data acquisition Measurements and Performance Summary and outlook Overview

12 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Schematic layout of 51  m CCD with double-side readout

13 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina  m pnCCD with a double-sided readout, mounted onto a ceramic substrate  image area = 13.0×13.5 mm 2  chip area = 16.0×31.0 mm 2  51  m pixel size  256×264 pixel plus 2×4 “light insensitive” columns  readout transfer to both sides

14 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Performance overview Fast transfer time25 μs/image (split to both detector sides) CTI≈ 1 · → total charge loss < 0.15 % Charge handling capacity> 10 5 e¯ / pixel Fill factor100 % Readout time Normal mode: 15 μs/row, i.e. 500fps Fast mode: 6.5 μs/row, i.e. 1000fps Pixel rate70 Mpixel/s, split on 8 readout nodes Readout noise Normal mode → < 500fps : 1.8 e¯ (rms) Fast mode → 1000fps : 2.3 e¯ (rms) Transfer binning (×2, ×3, ×4)2000, 3000, 4000fps : 2.3 e¯ (rms) Operating temperature- 55º C for all measurements above Dynamic output range70 dB

15 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Brief overview Principles of pnCCD Optical properties Detector format and geometry Readout and data acquisition Measurements and Performance Summary and outlook

16 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina CAMEX Amplification- and Readout-Chip Multi-correlated double-sampling filtering (MCDS) Signal processing of all channels in parallel (132) Serialized readout parallel to analogues signalprocessing Selectable gains and operating modes Electronic noise contribution less than 1 e - Readout-speed per node up to 10MHz (i.e. 6.6µs per line on two readout nodes)

17 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Data acquisition and real-time correction  1000 frames / sec.  264 lines / frame  264 pixel / line  70 Mpixel / sec. !!!  140 MB/sec. Split on 4 DAQ boards  á 17.5 Mpixel / sec.  2×14 bit flash-ADC Pipelined data processing in fast FPGA processor for real-time data correction and reduction Output of 1 st CCD line is available with a latency time < 40  s  constructing frame  MIP and cluster analysis  latency ~ 1.2 msec Example for a SH detector:

18 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Overview Camera Controller cPCI-Bus Fiber InterfaceADC-Modul 3ADC-Modul 4SequencerPS-Control Front-End-Boards (incl. clock-drivers) CAMEX pnCCD-Chip Power-Supplies 30 in total, free-to-ground, PC controlable, incl. monitor Linux PC ADC-Modul 2 2 ADC-Modul ’’ crate double height 80 MB/s 300m

19 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Sequenzer1 … 4 ADC-Boards á 2 ADCsOptical InterfaceSpare for Voltage Controller Data acquisition electronic system

20 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Overview Principles of pnCCD Optical properties Detector format and geometry Readout and data acquisition Measurements and Performance Summary and outlook

21 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Spectroscopic soft X-ray performance of pnCCD  Operating Temperature = -55° C  Overall noise contribution : 2.3 e -  All events reconstructed  FWHM for singles: 45eV

22 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Low and uniform noise performance 66 × 264 pixel, ⅛ of 51  m CCD (“worst” section) 1 of 4 output nodes on one readout side image plus storage area operating temperature = -55°C “1000fps” - timing scheme Mean noise = 2.3 electrons (rms) 98.8% of all pixel exhibit less than 2.7 e - noise 100% are below 3.1 e -

23 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina  Repetively readout of n lines with signal  merely transfer with no readout lines w/o signal  readout of next n lines  and so on … 40×40 SH with 5 × 5 Pixel: 1kHz → 1.3kHz frame rate Increase readout speed for dedicated applications

24 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Conclusion  pnCCDs exhibit a high quantum efficiency from the optical to NIR region  device with 256 × 264 (13.0x13.5mm 2 ) image size and a double side readout was successfully tested for a frame rate of 1000 fps  total readout noise of 2.3e - (RMS) was achieved in this mode at an operating temperature of -55ºC  binning in transfer direction allows 2kHz, 3kHz,... frame rates with same noise figures due to very low leakage current  low and homogeneous noise performance over entire area (no bright or hot pixel, even at higher temperatures)  optical photon counting possible down to ≈ 8 γ /pixel

25 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina Back to the beginning Long term stability of pnCCD detector aboard XMM-Newton (1999):  Total area = 36cm 2  all 12 Sub-CCDs are still operating  same operating parameters (T = -90°C)  quantum efficiency unchanged  noise performance unchanged  slight radiation damage as expected: CTI FWHM after 5 years in orbit: Al-K (1.5 keV): 110 eV → 111 eV Mn-K α (5.9 keV): 155 eV → 160 eV ← 6 cm →

26 MPI - Halbleiterlabor für Physik und für extraterrestrische Physik R. Hartmann SDW 2005 Taormina


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