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Wissenschaftstag 20071 Fachbereich für Rechtswissenschaften 280/1 Projekt Legal Aspects of land reform in the Republic of Serbia Mai-November 2006.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Wissenschaftstag 20071 Fachbereich für Rechtswissenschaften 280/1 Projekt Legal Aspects of land reform in the Republic of Serbia Mai-November 2006."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Wissenschaftstag Fachbereich für Rechtswissenschaften 280/1 Projekt Legal Aspects of land reform in the Republic of Serbia Mai-November 2006

2 Wissenschaftstag Legal Aspects of land reform in the Republic of Serbia Auftraggeber: 4 Komponenten: Draft Law on Denationalisation of Urban Construction Land (including Option Paper and Action Plan) Draft Construction Law (including Option Paper and Action Plan) Elaboration of a Model for improved working procedures Draft Spatial and Urban Planning Law (including Option Paper and Action Plan)

3 Wissenschaftstag Methode Component-Leader leitet Arbeitgruppen Internationale Experten Serbische Experten Mehrtägige Workshops, insbes. In Belgrad und Wien, mit serbischen inter-ministeriellen bzw. akademischen Arbeitsgruppen (5, Personen) Interviews mit „externen“ serbischen ExpertInnen Internationale long-term und short-term Experts Study trips nach Berlin, Wien Output: Einigung in Arbeitsgruppen auf Modelle

4 Wissenschaftstag Ergebnisse – Stand des Projektes Wissenschaftliche Option-Papers (Kommentierte) Gesetzesentwürfe Implementation Action Plan Prozess Zur Entscheidungsfindung, Bewusstseinbildung

5 Wissenschaftstag Legal Reform of Urban Construction Land in Serbia Teil 2: Ein Gesetz zur Privatisierung und Restitution von Grundeigentum Univ. Ass. Mag. Karin Hiltgartner, E.MA

6 Wissenschaftstag De-Nationalisierung in Serbien Ausgangslage: Alles städtische Land gilt als Bauland Eigentumsmonopol von städtischem Land zu Gunsten der Republik „Pacht-Rechte“ für Privatpersonen Unterschiedliche Ausformungen Ansprüche enteigneter Liegenschaftseigentümer auf Restitution

7 Wissenschaftstag De-Nationalisierung in Serbien Zielsetzungen: Übereinstimmung mit völkerrechtlichen (EMRK) und europarechtlichen Ansprüchen Superficies solo cedit Abschaffung von sozialem Eigentum Interessensausgleich zwischen aktuellen Pächtern und früheren Eigentümern der Grundstücke Sonderfall: Eigentumswohnungen Beschränkung der Kosten für Entschädigungszahlungen

8 Wissenschaftstag De-Nationalisierung in Serbien Arbeitsweise: 13 Workshops, 2 Studienreisen Eruierung der serbischen Rechtslage + Praxis Vergleich der internationalen rechtlichen Anforderungen an Privatisierung und Restitution Gegenüberstellung vergleichbarer Länder Ehemalige sozialistische Staaten Nachfolgestaaten Ex-Jugoslawien Theoretische Erarbeitung von Privatisierungsmodellen Legal Esperanto of De-Nationalisation Auswahl und Adaptierung an serbische Rahmenbedingungen

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12 Wissenschaftstag Gegenüberstellung vergleichbarer Länder CountryRestitution principleCompensationConversionApplication process Albania12yes, if value increased by 50% yes Croatia21yes Macedonia1, if no third party obtained rights2yes Montenegro1, if no third party obtained rights2yes Slovenia1, if no third party obtained rights2yes

13 Wissenschaftstag Grund-Modelle zur De-Nationalisierung Gegenwartsbezogen Privatisierung: Verkauf des verstaatlichten Eigentums Konversion: Umwandlung der „Pacht-Rechte“ in Eigentum Vergangenheitsbezogen Restitution: Rückgabe an Alt-Eigentümer Entschädigung: an Alteigentümer

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16 Wissenschaftstag Vorgeschlagenes Modell Restitution als Grundprinzip Ausnahmen: Neues Eigentumsrecht rechtmäßig begründet (Apartments) Wiedervereinigung von Eigentum an Bauwerk und Boden (inkl. Abschlagszahlung in Varianten) Rechtmäßiges Pacht-Recht (Verpflichtung zur Legalisierung) Entschädigung für Alt-Eigentümer

17 Wissenschaftstag Kommentierter Gesetzesentwurf Framework Draft: Law on Denationalization of Urban Construction Land Note: The following Framework Draft Law on Denationalization reflects statutory language based on the models for denationalization developed and agreed upon with the Working Group. It does not claim to be an exhaustive Draft Law as further elaborations on specific details will be required. The present Framework Draft Law is intended to serve as a facilitating basis for such discussions. General Provisions Article 1. (Subject Matter) This Law shall regulate the denationalization of urban construction land, as defined by law, which has been seized on the basis of, as a result of, or in connection with enforcement of the legal regulations on nationalization, sequestration, confiscation, expropriation and other enactments with the same effect, that had been promulgated and enforced since 9 March 1945, without full and prompt compensation, and which, at the time of entry into force of this Law is owned by the state or social property. The formulation “[…] seized on the basis of, as a result of, or in connection with enforcement of the legal regulations […]” is intended to cover all acts of seizure by state authorities, whether directly based on the regulations mentioned in Article 5 or seizures undertaken in connection with nationalization. However, more specific language could be introduced to further clarify the scope. Article 2. (General Principles & Obligations) In seeking to rectify the consequences of nationalization and as a measure to re-institute private ownership in accordance with international human rights standards and the need to strengthen legal certainty (rule of law) in property relations as well as strengthening sustainable economic development, denationalization shall be based on the following principles: ……………..

18 Wissenschaftstag Verfahrens-Prinzipien Errichtung einer Agentur für De-Nationalisierung Individuelle Antragstellung Unterstützung der Beweissuche ex officio durch Verwaltungsbehörden Veräußerungseinschränkungen während laufender Verfahren Berücksichtigung der Bedürfnisse benachteiligter Gruppen

19 Wissenschaftstag Implementation Action Plan Objective 2Nr.MeasureTime frame Institution(s) responsible for implementation Adoption of De-Nationalization Law and National Action Plan 2.1. Presentation of comparative experiences and best practices (study trips to Germany and Austria) Short-termWorking group component 1 CLC / GTZ 2.2. Development of a mathematical model for evaluating the costs of De-NationalizationShort-termWorking group component 1 and Implementing partner 2.3. Evaluation of costs of De-Nationalization on the basis of data provided through applications for registration of property seized and mathematical model developed Medium-termWorking group component 1 and related experts 2.4. Finalization of the Law on the basis of the models reflected in the Framework DraftMedium-termWorking group component Submission of the Serbian Draft to the ParliamentMedium-termLine Ministries 2.6. Development of a draft National Action Plan as the basis for government policies on De- Nationalization and means / terms of collaboration between different stakeholders Medium-termWorking group component Adoption of a National Action Plan for government policies on De-Nationalization and means of collaboration between different sectors Long-termGovernment of the Republic of Serbia

20 Wissenschaftstag Component 4: Reform of land use planning and zoning provisions Component-Leader: Arthur Kanonier Österreichische MitarbieterInnen: Karim Gies (Universität Salzburg) Thomas Dillinger (TU Wien) Gerhard Schimak (TU Wien) Organisation: 12 Workshops in Belgrad

21 Wissenschaftstag Key aspects of the reform Actual planning system for spatial planning activities Clearly arranged structure of land use planning and a framework for spatial development activities - Regulations and land use activities should take into account EU- regulations and goals (e.g. sustainable development) - All building activities should be in conformity with land use planning and zoning provisions - Disconnection of land use planning and ownership  Spatial planning programs as legal basis for inexpensive and short building permits

22 Wissenschaftstag Goals for a reform Improved acceptance of legally binding planning regulations - Understandable and transparent decision making process - Fair process with possibilities to participate Hierarchical Planning System - Limited number of plans on national, regional and local level - Subordination of planning activities on lower levels (top down approach) - Intensive participation of subordinated affected persons and institutions (bottom up approach) Legal and transparent land use framework for land owners Specified goals and principles for land use planning

23 Wissenschaftstag Key aspects of the reform Updating and renewal of goals and principles in spatial planning Supervisory authority’s approval of local spatial plans Programs instead of plans National planning without preliminary activities on municipal level Strengthening of regional planning Simplification of local spatial plans - reform / reorganization of land use planning Definition of (individual) utilisation categories General criterias for zoning Inclusion of greenland Separation of land use and questions of ownership Clear legal effects of building land (e.g duty of the municipalities to develop building land with infrastructure, building obligation)

24 Wissenschaftstag National Planning/Regional Planning Name / Type General GoalScope of validityContentCompetence Spatial development programme for Serbia (“Strategy”) Long (middle) term objectives of spatial planning and development Territory of the Republic of Serbia Goals and measures for spatial planning and development, axes, and functions National Assembly Development programme for special subjects Long, middle, short term objectives for special subjects Whole territory or parts of the territory of the Republic of Serbia Goals and measures for special subjects (economy, traffic, technical and social infrastructure, …) Government Development programme for regions Long (middle) term objectives for regional spatial planning and development or/and for special subjects Whole territory of a region or autonomous province Goals and measures for regional spatial planning and development Goals and measures for special subjects “Regional entity” or autonomous province Verification through the Ministry in charge for Planning

25 Wissenschaftstag Municipal Planning Name / TypeGoalScope of validityContentCompetence Development programme for Municipalities Long (middle) term objectives and measures of spatial planning and development Territory of the Municipality Goals and measures for the municipal development, zones of regional importance (e.g. industry, commerce), areas of raw material securing, boundary of settlement areas, green areas … Municipal Assembly Verification through the Ministry in charge for Planning Urban Development programme (for cities/towns/ settlements) Long (middle) term objectives spatial planning and development Territory or of the city/town/settlement Goals and measures for the urban development Land Use Plan Goals and measures subject areas (economy, traffic, technical and social infrastructure, Green areas and belts, …) Municipal Assembly Verification through a “Regional entity” or the Ministry in charge for Planning Urban regulatory plan (for cities/towns/ settlements) Rules for arrangement and construction of buildings Whole territory or parts of the city/town/settlement Building regulations (Specification of land-use) Municipal Assembly Notification to a “Regional entity” or the Ministry in charge for Planning

26 Wissenschaftstag Planning Procedure From a legal point of view („rule of law“) it is basically required to structure the procedure of the planning process clearly. The distribution of tasks between the authorities, planners and other participants (private parties, other authorities and interest groups) must be determined legally as far as possible. As spatial planning is carried out by different planning authorities on different levels (national, regional, local) even partially with different goals (general, sectoral), planning procedures must fulfil horizontal as well as vertical functions in cooperation and coordination.

27 Wissenschaftstag IMPLEMENTATION ACTION PLAN Public awareness (M 1 -12) Capacity building (M 13 – 21) Institution building (M 22 – 29) Financial affairs (M 30 – 36) Legal affairs (M 37 – 53) Gender aspects (M 54 – 60) International affairs (M 61 – 64)

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29 Wissenschaftstag Abschließende Bemerkungen Beachtliches mediales Echo in Serbien Neuwahlen in Serbien Anfangs 2007 Bislang keine Regierungsneubildung Kosovo Herausforderndes Projekt: Viele bisherigen gescheiterten Versuche Weltbank Starker Zeitdruck Bedeutende Unterschiede in den Rechtssystemen


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