Präsentation zum Thema: "How to write a paper Oder: wie Ergebnisse im Manuskript vermitteln? Kriterien für ein Journal: 1.Welche Leser soll es erreichen Psychologie / Kliniker."— Präsentation transkript:
How to write a paper Oder: wie Ergebnisse im Manuskript vermitteln? Kriterien für ein Journal: 1.Welche Leser soll es erreichen Psychologie / Kliniker / Neurophysiologen / Physiker? 2. Entscheidendes Kriterium: Impact Faktor: aktuelle Version 2008:
Titel: -exakte Darstellung des Wesentlichen -Spannend? Ja,.... -aber: nicht zu viel versprechen! -knapp - kurz - prägnant
Titel aus HGW: Role of Distorted Body Image for Pain Non-effective increase of fMRI-activation for motor performance in elder individuals The functional connectivity between amygdala and extrastriate visual cortex activity during emotional picture processing depends on stimulus novelty Comparison of a 32-channel with a 12-channel head coil: are there relevant improvements for functional imaging?
Autoren: Der Erstautor ist derjenige der die experimentelle Arbeit ausführt Der Senior Autor ist derjenige der den Erstautor anleitet, das Projekt betreut und meist das Konzept (Ethik, Finanzierung) geschrieben hat Das Paper wird vor allem vom ersten und letzten Autor verfasst; Zweitautor oftmals involviert Alle in der Mitte sollten etwas zur Arbeit beigetragen haben; zB bei der Messung/ Auswertung geholfen haben oder wesentliche Ideen für die Ausrichtung, Statistik oder anderes eingebracht haben
Autoren: Wer braucht was? Der Doktorand braucht 3 (Psychologie) oder 1 (Medizin) Erstveröffentlichung Die Physikerin /Informatiker braucht eigene Papers und Mitautorenschaften bei methodischen Beiträgen Der Habilitierende braucht 10 Erstveröffentlichungen und 5 Co-Autorplätze Der Prof. braucht sein Institut als ausführendes Lab in den affiliations und Erst- und Letztautorenplätze (LOM)
Hinweise für die Struktur: manuscript information Number of pages: 23; Figures: 4; Tables: 1; Suppl. Tables: 2 (pages: oft <20; Figures 1-3; Tables: 1) Characters: title: 80; running tile: 29 (<75; <30) Number of References: 45 (<50) Words in the Abstract: 194 (<250) Words in the Text: 4203 (<5000); Intro: manchmal <500 (J Neurosci) - Struktur sehr unterschiedlich zwischen den Zeitschriften - bestimmt deutlich die Verfassung eines Artikels; => zuerst einmal Journal aussuchen und Struktur ansehen!
Abstract: Unterscheide: 3 Satz-Abstracts zB Nature Neuroscience 100 Worte (selten) ca 200 Worte (gebräuchlich) Beispiel für kurze Fasssung: To investigate the neural substrates underlying emotional feelings in the absence of a conscious stimulus percept, fMRI images were acquired from nine cortically blind patients while a visual stimulus was presented in their blind field before and after it had been paired with an aversive event. After pairing, self-reported negative emotional valence and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses in somatosensory association areas were enhanced. Somatosensory activity predicted highly corresponding reported feelings and startle reflex amplitudes across subjects. Our data provide direct evidence that cortical activity representing physical emotional states governs emotional feelings.
To investigate the neural substrates underlying emotional feelings in the absence of a conscious stimulus percept, fMRI images were acquired from nine cortically blind patients while a visual stimulus was presented in their blind field before and after it had been paired with an aversive event. After pairing, self-reported negative emotional valence and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses in somatosensory association areas were enhanced. Somatosensory activity predicted highly corresponding reported feelings and startle reflex amplitudes across subjects. Our data provide direct evidence that cortical activity representing physical emotional states governs emotional feelings. warum Studie gemacht kurze Methode Hauptergebnis Diskussion
Key-Words: - sollten nicht bereits im Titel sein - helfen beim Auffinden des Papers - manchmal vorgeschrieben - dh aus vorgegebenen aussuchen neuerdings auch Highlights (50 Wörter; 3 Sätze; Neuroimage): Metastudy over 53 fMRI-studies investigating the cerebral representation of pain Differences between experimentally induced (n=36) and neuropathic pain (n=17) Experimentally induced pain was compared between thermal (n=18) and non-thermal Neuropathic pain showed increased left S2, ACC, and right anterior insula activation S1 was only involved during non-thermal experimentally induced pain
Einleitung: - knappe Hinführung zu der Untersuchung (ca Wörter) - nur wesentiche Vorbefunde listen - eher erschienene Papers bevorzugen -Hypothese entwickeln
Methode: - bei kurzen Papers vieles in Supplements und nur das wesentliche in Haupttext - Typische Unterteilung: Subjects (inklusive Ethik), performance testing, fMRI-measurements, fMRI- evaluation -Statistik: Hypothesen testen!
Figures zu Methode: Conditions per run: 0 min7 min Reading 60 s Copying 60 s Brainstorming 60 s Creative Writing 140 s Rest 20 s Rest 20 s Rest 20 s Rest 20 s Rest 20 s Creative Writing Space for continuing the story Printed beginning of a story.... Figure 1 A B +++++
Participants: Participants age-matched healthy controls (HC; 10 males/14 females: mean age = y; range: y; all strongly right-handed: score = ) without history of neurological or psychiatric disease participated in the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the fMRI investigations only. Participants in both groups provided written informed consent to the experiment, which was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty of the University of Greifswald.
Paradigm: All tasks were trained outside of the scanner to ensure proper performance. During scanning participants were supine and wearing hearing protection. Both patients (using the affected hand) and HC (using the right dominant hand) performed fist clenching around a rubber ball. One movement frequency was paced at 1 Hz via metronome. The other was performed at the participants maximal frequency. Performance frequency was counted in four blocks and averaged over time during scanning. Performance amplitude was monitored online by a pressure detector connected to an electro-optical biosignal-recorder (Varioport-b, Becker Meditec, Karlsruhe, Germany). The signals were recorded and stored for further offline analysis using PhysioMeter software. Force was adjusted to about 30% of maximal force by visual training with the pressure device prior to measurement. In a separate task, passive wrist flexion-extension were elicited by a nonmagnetic torque motor at 1 Hz to assess possible differences in representation maps without any voluntary movement or effort contribution. All conditions were randomized with respect to their order. These signals were presented via a video-projection controlled by the presentation software (Neurobehavioral Systems, Albany, USA) and triggered by the scanner. training performance Monitoring Presentation
Data acquisition: Data were acquired at a 3T Siemens Magnetom Verio (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a 32-channel head coil. For each block A and B, 275 two-dimensional echo-planar images (EPI) were measured with repetition time TR = 2000 ms, echo time TE = 30 ms, flip angle α = 90 degrees and field-of-view (FOV) 192 x 192 mm 2. Each volume consisted of 34 slices with a voxel size of 3 x 3 x 3 mm 3 and 1mm gap between them. The first 2 dummy volumes in each session were discarded to allow for T1 equilibration effect. Thirty-four phase and magnitude images were acquired in the same FOV by a gradient echo (GRE) sequence with TR = 488 ms, TE(1) = 4.92 ms, TE(2) = 7.38 ms and α = 60 degrees to calculate a field map aiming at correcting geometric distortions in the EPI images. An anatomical T1-weighted three-dimensional Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo (MPRAGE) image was acquired for each subject. The total number of sagittal anatomical slices amounted to 176 (TR = 1900ms, TE = 2.52 ms, α = 90 degrees, voxel size = 1 x 1 x 1 mm 3 ).
Data evaluation 1: Data were analyzed using SPM5 (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, London, UK) running on Matlab version 7.4. (MathWorks Inc; Natick, MA, USA). Unwarping of geometrically distorted EPIs was performed in the phase encoding direction using the FieldMap Toolbox available for SPM5. Each individual scan was realigned to the first scan to correct for movement artifacts. EPIs were coregistered to the T1- weighted anatomical image. For normalization the coregistered T1-image was segmented, normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) template and EPIs were resliced at 3x3x3 mm 3. The resulting images were smoothed with a 9 x 9 x 9mm 3 (full-width at half maximum (FWHM)) Gaussian Kernel filter to increase the signal-to-noise-ratio. A temporal high-pass filter (128s) was applied to remove slow signal drifts. Movement parameters estimated during realignment procedure were introduced as covariates into the model to control for variance due to head displacements.
Data evaluation 2: Statistik
Individual statistical maps (fixed effect) of the main (brainstorming, creative writing) and control conditions (reading, copying) were evaluated for each subject using the general linear model. Corresponding contrast images of each subject were then entered into a second level random effect analysis at the second level, which accounts for the variance between subjects. One-sample t-tests were performed to assign for significant activations per condition. A correlation analysis of verbal creativity indices with imaging data was accomplished by calculating a simple regression. Spatial assignment of significant brain areas was conducted with the SPM Anatomy Toolbox Version 1.6 and – if regions were not defined by ANATOMY by using anatomical masks from Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) software. Brain activations were superimposed on the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) render brain and on the T1-weighted Collins-single-subject brain. We reported significant brain activations with intensity threshold of p < 0.001; uncorrected and an extent voxel size threshold of 10 contiguous voxels for main effects and 5 contiguous voxels for comparison and correlation analyses.
Ergebnis A: Behavioral Results: Subjects rated the situation of writing in the scanner as acceptable (Comfort of Writing: credits) and the moment of silent idea generation as helpful for creative story writing (Usefulness of Brainstorming: ). Concentration during 'Brainstorming' and Creative Writing was rated as moderately high (average ) and both texts affected the subjects emotionally only moderately (average ).
Ergebnis A: Verhalten ist oft Figure 2:
Ergebnis B: fMRI-data: Anticipation of future punishment evoked activity in bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus, bilateral supramarginal gyrus (assumed to be consistent with SII), bilateral putamen and amygdala, right VLPFC, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis and operciuularis and bilateral temporo-parietal junction. The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)-response within the medial cingulate cortex, bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) and the bilateral anterior insula covaried significantly with the intensity of the indicated aversive stimulus. Dilemma: Haupteffekte berichten aber nicht seitenweise Tabellen darstellen müssen Ausweg: Verbal zusammenfassen und in Tab nur Interessantes zeigen
Tabelle 1: Region / t-werte / Koordinaten evtl. p-Wert
Ergebnis C: 'Creative Writing' > 'Copying' revealed strongest activation in the medial temporal pole (BA 38) bilaterally (with strong lateralization to the right temporal pole). Further activations were located in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (BA 31) and the bilateral hippocampus. Interestingly, all regions showed lateralized activity to the right hemisphere (see Table 3, see Fig. 3).
Figure 3: Hauptergebnis mit Figure unterstreichen!
Ergebnis D: Correlation analysis of 'Creative Writing > 'Copying' with CI Positive correlation of 'Creative Writing > 'Copying' with the creativity index (CI) was found in the left Brocas area (left IFG (pars opercularis, BA 44/45), t-value=3.69; -51, 21, 27) (see Fig. 4), the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9, t-value= ) and the left temporal pole (BA 38, t-value=3.78; ). Correlation analyses between the rating of the written texts (CAT results) and the fMRI images (Brainstorming and 'Creative Writing < 'Copying') did not show any significant results.
Figure 4: Figure 4 oftmals Korrelation zwischen BOLD und Leistung, oder ratings oder andren neurophys. Parametern Correlation 'Creative Writing>Copying' with Creativity r = Creativity Index BOLD-magnitude (beta) in (-51,21,27)
Discussion: This is the first imaging study that has induced reactive aggression in a social interactive setting by using a modified Taylor (Taylor, 1967) aggression paradigm. In the ventral mPFC activation was stronger in subjects who less callous pointing to the association with empathy. In contrast, the activation of the dorsal mPFC, correlating with revenge intensity, seemed to be related to cognitive operations during conflicting decisions. Furthermore, the present study confirms findings, reporting that activity in the ventral mPFC correlates with autonomic responses (Damasio, 1996). zunächst Wertigkeit der Studie und wichtigstes Ergebnis in 1-2 Sätzen zusammenfassen
Discussion: The critical condition in this study was the retaliation condition when the subjects were asked to select the intensity of the stimulus to be applied to their opponent. During this condition areas related to the visually guided motor response but also associated with social interactive processing (Frith & Frith, 1999) were active (STS, right temporal pole, and dorsal mPFC). We were especially interested in areas correlating with the intensity of the applied retaliation stimulus. These might be related to increasingly conflicting behavior in high provocative situations. Wichtigste Ergebnisse Punkt für Punkt im Kontext zu anderen Papers und in den bisherigen Stand einbetten
Limitations: Was lief nicht optimal oder sollte besser kontrolliert werden? Oft erst durch die Gutachter vorgegeben....
Conclusion: In conclusion, this study points to differential function of the medial prefrontal cortex: whereas the dorsal mPFC represents operations related to conflict management and response selection in aggression-provoking situations, the ventral mPFC might be involved in affective processes associated with compassion to the suffering opponent. In ein bis zwei Sätzen die wesentlichen Ergebnisse nochmals am Schluss zusammenfassen
Evtl noch Ausblick: It seems both challenging and promising to extent this study on reactive aggression to criminal psychopaths - a group of persons who show abnormalities in the processing of emotional pictures (Muller et al., 2003) and conditional learning (Veit et al, 2002, Birbaumer et al., 2005). In these patients we would expect a deficit of the ventral mPFC activation, mirroring the known deficit in anticipation of the opponents suffering (Rilling et al., 2002), without a substantial change in the dorsal mPFC. Given that psychophysiological responses are one important constituent of emotions, biofeedback training in these patients might enhance empathic feelings by increasing their bodily response.
Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements We want to thank Dr. Susanne Leiberg for correction of the manuscript and Professor Tracy Trevorrov for help with the English editing. This study was supported by the DFG, SFB 437; F1. Hier stehen MTAs Fördernde Institutionen Alle die Korrektur gelesen haben und nicht drauf sind
References und Legends: je nach Journal Tabellen meist hinter References Figure legends am Ende des Haupttextes Figures meist extra (meist jpg in akzeptabler Auflösung) Supplementary Files
letter to Editor: schreibt meist der Senior The enclosed manuscript Reactive aggression induced in a social interactive fMRI-experiment; evidence for different roles of the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex by Lotze, M., Veit, R., Anders S. and Birbaumer N. is the first study which provokes aggressive behavior in a social interactive task during functional imaging. Our findings have important consequences for the understanding of reactive aggression and may therefore be relevant for the readers of Cerebral Cortex. We would like to suggest the following reviewers:
5 Versuche mit jeweils 1-2 Gutachterdurch- gängen sind nicht ungewöhnlich wenn man mehr als 5 Punkte will und dann viel Glück und Ausdauer um das Paper durchzubekommen.