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+ Naturalism. + Modern literary movement of the 1890s Attempted to revolutionize literature by aligning the arts with the sciences Naturalist writers.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "+ Naturalism. + Modern literary movement of the 1890s Attempted to revolutionize literature by aligning the arts with the sciences Naturalist writers."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 + Naturalism

2 + Modern literary movement of the 1890s Attempted to revolutionize literature by aligning the arts with the sciences Naturalist writers aimed to be seekers of truth and enemies of falsehood and gloss Intention of representing accurately what is seen as constituting reality

3 + What does Truth mean for Naturalists? Eugen Wolff: Abwendung von aller Konvention Umkehr zur rücksichtslosesten Wahrheit ohne jeden Kompromiss Representation of ein Stück Natur, wie es sich in seinem Temperament zeigt Representation of human nature with reference to the natürliche Mächte in ihm (Anlagen) und außer ihm (Verhältnisse) Maximilian Harden: literature: soll menschliche Dokumente sammeln it depicts den Menschen als Resultat seiner Lebensbedingungen und Umgebung

4 + Influences Auguste Comte: Cours de philosophie positive ( ): Founder of positivism: the only authentic knowledge is that which allows positive verification through empirical observation and scientific experiments. Positivism assumes that there is valid knowledge (truth) only in scientific knowledge. Knowledge of facts reveals laws of nature. Comte was the founder of sociology: applied the same principles to the enquiry of the social sphere

5 + Influences Charles Darwin: On the Origin of Species (1859) Theory of evolution: all species descended from common ancestors and evolved through a process of natural selection Evolution: postulates change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

6 + Ernst Haeckel (naturalist and philosopher): Über die Entwicklungstheorie Charles Darwins (1863) Alle verschiedenen Tiere und Pflanzen, die heute noch leben, sowie alle Organismen, die überhaupt jemals auf der Erde gelebt haben, sind nicht, wie wir anzunehmen von früher Jugend gewohnt sind, jeder für sich selbständig erschaffen worden, sondern haben sich trotz ihrer außerordentlichen Mannigfaltigkeit und Verschiedenheit im Laufe vieler Millionen Jahre aus einigen wenigen, vielleicht sogar aus einer einzigen Stammform, einem höchst einfachen Urorganismus, allmählich entwicklt. Task: how does evolutionism impact on the understanding of human nature?

7 + Arno Holz: Die Kunst. Ihre Wesen und ihre Gesetze (1891) Tasks: Discuss the title of Holzs treatise and its implications. What is the purpose of art and literature, according to Holz? Why does he use a formula to define art? Explain the meaning of this formula. Explain: Die Kunst hat die Tendenz, wieder die Natur zu sein. Sie wird sie nach Maßgabe ihrer jedweiligen Reproduktionsbedingungen und deren Handhabung.

8 + Literary influences E. Zola: roman expérimental (1880): naturalist manifesto Le roman expérimental est une conséquence de lévolution scientifique. Un oeuvre dart est un coin de la création vu à travers un tempérament. Zolas cycle Rougon-Macquart is subtitled: histoire naturelle et sociale.

9 + Literary influences Henrik Ibsen: A Dolls House (1879), Ghosts (1881), The Wild Duck (1884), Miss Julie (1888) Naturalist theatre that attempts to create a perfect illusion of reality through detailed, three-dimensional settings Everyday language rather than verse A secular world view Focus on contemporary conflicts Analysis of social conflicts and themes that are taboo: sexuality, gender equality, patriarchal oppression Extension of the social range of characters A style of acting that attempts to recreate an impression of reality

10 + Arno Holz and Johannes Schlaf: Papa Hamlet (1892) p : Discuss the opening of the narrative in terms of narrative perspective. Who relates the story? Why does dialogue dominate? What is the effect of the prevalence of dialogue? Characterize the language used in terms of register and style.

11 + Chapter 3: P. 28: Analyze the narrative perspective in the opening paragraphs. Compare and contrast Thienwiebels view of human nature with the implied narrators representation of it. What is the function of the Shakespearean quotes? P. 32: Analyze the description of the setting. In what way does this exemplify naturalism?

12 + Sekundenstil: elimination of difference between Erzählzeit and erzählte Zeit. The time it takes to narrate the events should equal the time it takes for the events to occur. Compare Thienwiebels first attack of his child on p. 41 with the concluding pages (pp ). Can you identify examples of Sekundenstil? How is the killing of the child linguistically represented? What is the effect of this style?


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