Präsentation zum Thema: "The Rise of the Nazi Dictatorship From the Weimar Republic to Adolf Hilter, 1919-1933."— Präsentation transkript:
The Rise of the Nazi Dictatorship From the Weimar Republic to Adolf Hilter, 1919-1933
Weimar Republic, 1919-1933 Republic was alien to German political culture. “November criminals” had created republic. Tepid support came from “Centrist” parties Left and Right (40% of electorate) wanted to destroy Weimar Republic LeftCenter Right KPD Liberals, German Democrats, SPD, Catholic Center Party Nationalists, NSDAP
Problems of Weimar Republic Sparticists Rebellion/execution of Wilhelm Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg Kapp Putch Ruhr Occupation (1923) Hyperinations (1923) Street violence: left vs. right Of 376 political murders between 1919 and 1922, 354 committed by right wingers. Beer Hall Putsch (1923)
A Glimmer of Hope, 1925-1929 Gustav Stresemann (1878-1929) Dawes Plan/Young Plan Fulfillment Admission to League of Nation Intellectuals drift toward Weimar: “Where they burn books, they will one day burn children.”—Thomas Mann, Magic Lantern.
Great Depression High unemployment Right blames Weimar Government for Depression; Left sees it as the end of capitalism. Nazi Party Grew in Numbers—largest party in Reichstag in 1931 1932 Elections see Communist Party gains: Big Business supports Hitler From Heinrich Brüning to Adolf Hitler; Jan 30, 1933
DateVotes%age Seats in Reichstag Background May 19241,918,3006.532Hitler in prison December 1924 907,3003.014 Hitler is released from prison May 1928810,1002.612 September 1930 6,409,60018.3107After the financial crisis July 193213,745,80037.4230 November 1932 11,737,00033.1196 March 1933 17,277,00043.9288 After Hitler had become Chancellor
Adolf Hitler, 1889-1945 Rassenpolitik und Lebensraum Hitler’s contradiction: Use of Technology to bring back a Medieval social order
HITLER and Nazi Party June 1934—purge of Ernst Röhm and Sturmabteilung Schutzstaffel und Geheimestaatspolizei 1934 Nuremburg Party Congress Kristallnacht, November 9, 1938 Horst Wessel/Horst Wesel Lied Wehrmacht oath (August 2, 1934) "Ich schwöre bei Gott diesen heiligen Eid, daß ich dem Führer des Deutschen Reiches und Volkes Adolf Hitler, dem Oberbefehlshaber der Wehrmacht, unbedingten Gehorsam leisten und als tapferer Soldat bereit sein will, jederzeit für diesen Eid mein Leben einzusetzen." ("I swear by God this sacred oath that to the Leader of the German state and people, Adolf Hitler, supreme commander of the armed forces, I shall render unconditional obedience and that as a brave soldier I shall at all times be prepared to give my life for this oath.“)
Undoing of World Order Japanese invasion of Manchuria, 1933 Italian invasion of Ethiopia, 1935 German conscription resumes, 1936 Spanish Civil War, 1936-39 Anschluß mit Austria, 1938 Sudetenland/Munich Conference, 1939
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