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1 What is a “CASE”? Grammatical cases indicate how certain words function in a sentence. The case of a word is shown by the particular form of the word.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "1 What is a “CASE”? Grammatical cases indicate how certain words function in a sentence. The case of a word is shown by the particular form of the word."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 1 What is a “CASE”? Grammatical cases indicate how certain words function in a sentence. The case of a word is shown by the particular form of the word itself or by the form of the words that accompany it. In German it affects more parts of the speech than in English: in English: pronouns, certain interrogatives in German: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, articles

2 2 grammatical function and word order In English the function of a noun in a sentence and therefore its meaning is defined by the order of the word in the sentence: The girl gives the boy the apple. The boy gives the girl the apple.

3 3 “CASE”of English pronouns The function of pronouns in English is indicated not only by the word order but also by the form, i.e. the case of the pronoun: I know them. They know me. He sees her. She sees him. In these examples I and me / they and them / he and him / she and her are different forms - different CASES - of the same pronoun.

4 4 “CASE”of English pronouns the nominative case...is used when a pronoun is a subject –She and I went to the movie. –We enjoyed the film. –It was he who spoiled the fun. the objective case...is used when a pronoun is a direct object, (an indirect object,) or an object of a preposition –They invited both him and me. –We asked about them.

5 5 “CASE” in GERMAN Word order does not indicate the function of nouns within a sentence. This is indicated either by the form of the noun or the form of its definite or indefinite article: The boy gives the girl the apple. Der Junge gibt dem Mädchen den Apfel. Dem Mädchen gibt der Junge den Apfel. Den Apfel gibt der Junge dem Mädchen. The difference in function is indicated by the different forms of the article.

6 6 “CASE” in GERMAN There are four different cases in German: the nominative [der Nominativ] used for the subject of a sentence the accusative [der Akkusativ] used for direct objects the dative [der Dativ] used for indirect objects and after some special verbs the genitive [der Genitiv] used to show possession or close relation The boy gives the girl the apple. Der Junge gibt dem Mädchen den Apfel. nominativedative accusative

7 7 ACCUSATIVE As in English, German pronouns used as direct objects change their form, i.e. the case: I you he she it we you they me you him her it us you them ich du er sie es wir ihr sie mich dich ihn sie es uns euch sie In addition in German definite and indefinite articles change: DER DIE DASEIN EINE EIN DEN DIE DASEINEN EINE EIN

8 8 ACCUSATIVE more changes: WER (Who is that?) WEN (Whom did you see?) welcher welche welches welchen welche welches dieser diese dieses diesen diese dieses kein keine kein keinen keine kein

9 9 What are Objects? Children play. Peter sleeps. Ingrid wants an answer. He works for his uncle. Paula reads the book. Paula reads what? the book. the book is the direct object. They are inviting Paula and her sister. They are inviting whom? Paula and her sister Paula and her sister are two direct objects.

10 10 IMPORTANT: The verb ‘sein’ (to be) never takes an object !!!

11 11 AKKUSATIV Peter brings his mother home. His mother brings Peter home. He brings her home. She brings him home. Er bringt sie nach Hause. Sie bringt ihn nach Hause.

12 12 Übung:Nominativ oder Akkusativ? a.Emil nimmt... (der Zug / den Zug) nach Berlin. b.Er möchte zum Geburtstag... (ein CD-Spieler / einen CD-Spieler). c.Der Mann dort ist... (sein Vater / seinen Vater). d.Zu Weihnachten bekomme ich... (dieser Computer / diesen Computer). e.Wie endet... (der Film / den Film) ? f.Kennst du... (mein Freund Paul / meinen Freund Paul) ?

13 13 Übung:Nominativ oder Akkusativ? a.Emil nimmt den Zug nach Berlin. b.Er möchte zum Geburtstag einen CD-Spieler. c.Der Mann dort ist sein Vater. d.Zu Weihnachten bekomme ich diesen Computer. e.Wie endet der Film ? f.Kennst du meinen Freund Paul ?

14 14 type / function / form type of words: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives etc. their function in a sentence: subject, predicate, object etc. their form depending on their function: nominative, accusative, genitive etc.

15 15 AKKUSATIV direct object object of the prepositions: bis durch für gegen ohne um effects: –article words (and adjectives) of masculine nouns –personal pronouns

16 16 AKKUSATIV bis (till) durch (through) für (for) gegen (against) ohne (without) um (around) Ich lerne bis nächsten Mittwoch. Ich gehe durch den Park. Er arbeitet für seinen Onkel. Er ist gegen diesen Politiker. Sie kommt ohne ihren Freund. Wir laufen um den Marktplatz.

17 17 Akkusativ Peter buys a computer. Peter = subject buys = predicate a computer = direct object Peter kauft einen Computer. Peter = Nominativ kauft = Prädikat einen Computer = Akkusativ Peter kauft ihn.

18 18 Akkusativ Peter buys a computer for his brother Peter = subject buys = predicate a computer = direct object for = preposition his brother = object of the preposition Peter kauft einen Computer für seinen Bruder. Peter = Nominativ kauft = Prädikat einen Computer = Akkusativ für = Preposition + Akk seinen Bruder = Akkusativ

19 19 negation The negating word NICHT is usually placed in front of the element of the sentence which is to be negated: Der Test war nicht schwer. (The test was not difficult.) Wir fahren am Samstag nicht nach Halifax. (We’re not going to Halifax on Saturday.) Wir fahren nicht am Samstag sondern am Sonntag. (We’re not going on Saturday but on Sunday.)

20 20 negation However, when the sentence contains a direct object the NICHT is usually placed after the direct object, especially when the direct object is a pronoun. Er schreibt seinen Eltern nicht. (He doesn’t write [to] his parents.) Wir sehen ihn nicht oft. (We don’t see him often.) Sie kauft das Kleid nicht. (She doesn’t buy the dress.)

21 21 kein(e) vs. nicht kein (no, not a, not any) is the negative form of the indefinitive article ein(e). It is only used to negate nouns preceded by either ein(e ) or no article at all, although they may be preceded by adjectives. Hat sie einen Computer? (Does she have a computer?) Nein, sie hat keinen Computer. (No, she does not have a computer) Gibt es hier gute Wintermäntel? (Can you get any good winter coats here?) Nein, hier gibt es keine guten Wintermäntel. (No, you can’t get good winter coats here)

22 22 kein(e) vs. nicht nicht (not) is used to negate all elements of a sentence other than nouns preceded by ein(e) or by no article at all. Sie kauft einen Computer.Sie kauft keinen Computer. Sie kauft meinen Computer. Sie kauft meinen Computer nicht.

23 23 möchte möchte = would like ich möchte du möchtest er/sie/es/man möchte wirmöchten ihr möchtet siemöchten Er möchte einen Computer zm Geburtstag (haben). Ich möchte morgen lange schlafen. (aber: Ich schlafe gern lange.)


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