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Sustainable Consumption Behavior – Personal Norm and Feelings of Guilt. Authors: Lanmüller Ulrike Klik Katharina

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Sustainable Consumption Behavior – Personal Norm and Feelings of Guilt. Authors: Lanmüller Ulrike Klik Katharina"—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Sustainable Consumption Behavior – Personal Norm and Feelings of Guilt. Authors: Lanmüller Ulrike Klik Katharina Cervinka Renate Institute of Environmental Health, University of Vienna Head: Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Groll-Knapp © Lanmüller, Klik & Cervinka, 2003 References: Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft (BMLFUW) (Hrsg.) (2002). Österreichs Zukunft Nachhaltig Gestalten. Die Österreichische Strategie zur Nachhaltigen Entwicklung. Eine Initiative der Bundesregierung. Wien: BMLFUW. BUND/ Misereor (1996). Zukunftsfähiges Deutschland. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag. Gatersleben, B., Steg, L. & Vlek, C. (2002). Measurement and determinants of environmentally significant consumer behavior. Environment and Behavior, 34 (3), Hodge, T. (1997). Toward a conceptual framework for assessing progress toward sustainability. Social Indicators Research, 40 (1-2), Hunecke, M. (2000). Ökologische Verantwortung, Lebensstile und Umweltverhalten. Heidelberg & Krönung: Asanger Verlag. Kaiser, F.G., Frick, J. & Stoll-Kleemann, S. (2001). Zur Angemessenheit selbstberichteten Verhaltens: Eine Validitätsuntersuchung der Skala Allgemeinen Ökologischen Verhaltens. Diagnostica, 47 (2), Kals, E. & Montada, L. (1994). Umweltschutz und Verantwortung der Bürger. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 25 (4), Scherhorn, G., Reisch, L. & Schrödl, S. (1997). Wege zu nachhaltigen Konsummustern. Marburg: Metropolis-Verlag. Schwartz, S.H. (1977). Normative influences on alturism. In L. Berkowitz (Hrsg.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 10 ( ). New York: Academic Press. UNCED (1992). Agenda 21 (Online im Internet) URL: [ ].http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/agenda21text.htm UNECD (2002) Konferenz der Vereinten Nationen für Umwelt und Entwicklung in Johannesburg. (Online im Internet) URL: [ ]. Objectives: Theoretical Background: Material & Method: Measurement of Variables: Selfreported Sustainable Consumption-Behavior: Items were compiled from literatur concerning sustainable consumption (e.g. BUND/Misereor, 1996; Scherhorn et al., 1997) and from the Scale of General Ecological Behavior (Kaiser et al., 2001) (21 Items,  =,86). Under reference to Hunecke’s (2000) work, items for Personal Norm (7 Items;  =,81) and Feelings of Guilt (9 Items;  =,73) were adapted specifically to consumption behavior. Survey: Data collection by questionnaire took place between February and April 2002 (N=283; fig.5). Method: Linear and multiple regression analysis was applied to test the research hypothesises (fig.4). Main results: Personal Norm and Feelings of Guilt qualify as predictors for Sustainable Consumption Behavior (R 2 = 0.655; p < 0.001) (fig.6). Feelings of Guilt and Age explain 43,8% (p < 0.001) of the variance of Personal Norm (fig.6). Sex and Age are statistically significant correlated with all three parts of the model. Women and older persons show a higher degree in Feelings of Guilt, Personal Norm and Sustainable Consumption Behavior. The highest correlation was found between Sex and Feeling of Guilt (r FoG,Sex.Age = ; p < 0.01) and Age and Personal Norm (r PN,Age.Sex = ; p < 0.01). Discussion & perspectives: 5 th Biannual Conference on Environmental Psychology, Eindhoven 2003 Fig.1: Fig.2: Heuristisches Strukturmodell zur Erklärung umweltrelevanter Bereitschaften und Entscheidungen (Kals & Montada, 1994) Fig.3: Results of the modified Norm-Activation-Model (Hunecke, 2000) Fig.4: Investigation model Fig.6: Main results Scale construction and examples of items:Consumption Behavior: selfreported ecological- and socially friendly consumption behavior. Ich verwende biologisch abbaubares Waschmittel.* (umwelt) Ich achte beim Kauf, ob ein Produkt mit Kinderarbeit verbunden sein könnte. (sozial) Personal Norm: the individually felt moral obligation to act ecological- and socially friendly in terms of consumer behavior. Ich fühle mich aus ökologischen Gründen dazu verpflichtet, wenn immer es mir möglich ist, Nahrungsmittel aus kontrolliert biologischem Anbau zu kaufen. (umwelt) Ich fühle mich dazu verpflichtet, wenn immer es mir möglich ist, “Fair-Trade”-Produkte zu kaufen. (sozial) Feelings of Guilt: the felt guilt because of one‘s contribution to environmental problems and/or social unfairness. Ich habe ein schlechtes Gewissen, wenn ich Produkte von Firmen kaufe, die sich nachweislich umweltschädigend verhalten. (umwelt) Ich habe keine Schuldgefühle, wenn ich Billigprodukte aus 3.-Weltländern erwerbe. (sozial) * Scale of General Ecological Behavior (Kaiser et al., 2001) Fig.5: Study sample Examination of the relationship between Sustainable Consumption Behavior, Personal Norm and Feelings of Guilt. Sustainable Development (SD) is a normative concept and is based on a value set that consists of a longterm perspective of human and ecosystem development and a... a principle of fairness concerning todays and future generations. Objective of SD is to maintain or improve human and ecosystem wellbeing (Hodge, 1997). „Changing Consumption Patterns“ is seen as one major objective within the Agenda 21 (UNCED, 1992). This commitment has been renewed in the Johannesburg Declaration on SD (UNCED, 2002). Political declarations often point out that a lifestyle change is necessary and has to be accompagnied by a change in values and attitudes (fig.1). Normorientated approaches for behavior-explanation within Environmental Psychology: Heuristisches Strukturmodell zur Erklärung umweltrelevanter Bereitschaften und Entscheidungen (Kals & Montada, 1994, fig.2) Adaptiertes und modifiziertes Norm-Aktivations-Modell (Hunecke, 2000, based on Schwartz, 1977, fig.3) The results indicate that norm-related cognitions and emotions play an important role in predicting ecological- and socially friendly consumption behavior. Thus, it seems reasonable for political strategies to focus also on the normative aspects of sustainable consumption. Any strategy or campaign should communicate these normative aspects behavior-specific and not in terms of general appeals.  To avoid reactance in consumers, rather than reinforcing it is recommended to reduce Feelings of Guilt by suggesting a sustainable consumer behavior.  Replication of the study with actual sustainable consumption behavior as dependent variable.  Consideration of the environmental and social impact of the behavior (Gatersleben et al., 2002).


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