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Moses’ prophecy or the primordial song of humanity? Psalm 92 and the liturgical reading of psalms in Judaism Dr Annette M. Boeckler Moses' Prophetie oder.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Moses’ prophecy or the primordial song of humanity? Psalm 92 and the liturgical reading of psalms in Judaism Dr Annette M. Boeckler Moses' Prophetie oder."—  Präsentation transkript:

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2 Moses’ prophecy or the primordial song of humanity? Psalm 92 and the liturgical reading of psalms in Judaism Dr Annette M. Boeckler Moses' Prophetie oder der Urgesang der Menschheit? Psalm 92 und die liturgische Interpretation der Psalmen im Judentum These slides will provide you with background information in Hebrew with English and German translations. (Note the flags) The slide number is printed in the hand out. Diese Folien bieten Ihnen Hintergrundinformationen in Hebräisch mit Englischer und Deutscher Übersetzung. (Suchen Sie die Fahnen) Die Foliennummer finden Sie in der Kopie.

3 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) Übersicht Nutzung der Psalmen 90Pesukei de Zimra Shabbat(Shiv’a, Funeral) 91Pesukei de Zimra Shabbat(Funeral), evening prayer 92vor Abendgebet Erev Shabbat 93vor Abendgebet Erev Shabbat / FRIDAY - FREITAG 94WEDNESDAY - MITTWOCH 95Kabbalat Shabbat 96Kabbalat Shabbat 97Kabbalat Shabbat 98Kabbalat Shabbat 99Kabbalat Shabbat[9. Av ancient trad.] 100Pesukei de Zimra Weekday 101_____________________________________________________ 102___________________________V. 28 Yom Kippur 103V Yom Kippur 104ROSH CHODESH 105Pesukei de Zimra quoted in 1 Chron 16: Pesukei de Zimra quoted in 1 Chron 16:8-36 2

4 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) Rashi on Ps 90:1 3 A prayer of Moses – eleven psalms, from here until “A Psalm of David” [Ps 101], Moses had said them all; corresponding to them he uttered eleven blessings for eleven tribes in (the passage beginning with): “And in this the blessing” (Deut 33). Ein Gebet des Mose – elf Psalmen, von hier bis “Ein Psalm Davids” (Psalm 101), sie alle hat Mose gesagt; ihnen entsprechend sagte er elf Segenssprüche für elf Stämme in (dem Abschnitt, der anfängt mit) “Und dies ist der Segen” (Dtn 32). ( )

5 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) Mishnah Tamid 7:4 The song that the Levites said in the temple: on the 1st day they said Psalm 24; on the 2nd day they said Psalm 48; on the 3 rd day they said Psalm 82; on the 4 th day they said Psalm 94; on the 5 th day they said Psalm 81; on the 6 th day they said Psalm 93; on Shabbat they said Psalm Lied, das die Leviten im Tempel sangen: am ersten Tag sagten sie Psalm 24; am ersten Tag sagten sie Psalm 48; am ersten Tag sagten sie Psalm 82; am ersten Tag sagten sie Psalm 94; am ersten Tag sagten sie Psalm 81; am ersten Tag sagten sie Psalm 93; am ersten Tag sagten sie Psalm 92.

6 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) Mishnah Berakhot 5:1 One does only stand for praying with a focussed mind. The pious ones of the past used to meditate an hour and (then) prayed, to direct their hearts to God Man stellt sich nicht hin zum beten es sei den mit Ehrfurcht. Die Frommen der alten Zeiten pflegten eine Stunde lang zu meditieren und (dann) beteten sie, um ihr Herz auf Gott auszurichen.

7 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) About Work and education time in Palestine and Syria since 921 or 922 in Babylonia since 928 head of the rabbinic academy in Sura. author of first Hebrew grammar, one of the first prayerbooks, philosopher and halakhic authority TAFZIR on Torah, Isaiah, Mishle, Job, parts of Megillot Basic Information Relationships and Family Contact Information P hotos Saayda ben Yosef haGaon F riends Living Sura, Babylonia Sa'id ‘ibn Yusuf al-Fayyûmî Born 882 Fayyum, Upper Egypt. 2 M ALTER, H., Saadia Gaon. His Life and Works, Philadelphia 1921 (Nachdr. Hildesheim 1978) - zur Bibelexegese siehe S u Enemies Karaits Arabic scholars 6

8 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) 1 Chron 16:8-36 Acclaim the Lord, invoke His name, make His deeds known among all people. Praise him in song and in psalm, recalling all of His wonders. Exult in His hallowed name: let His seekers rejoice in their heart. Seek the Lord and His strength, seek His Presence always. Children of Israel His servant, chosen people of Jacob, remember the wonders He has wrought, His marvels and His justice. He is the Lord our God; His justice fills the earth. Remember His covenant always, His word to a thousand generations, His covenant with Abraham, His oath to Isaac, His unchanging compact with Jacob, His everlasting promise to Israel: “I will give you the land of Canaan as your inheritance, your possession.” You were very few in number, little more than strangers in the land, wandering from nation to nation, from kingdom to kingdom. He would let no one oppress you, admonishing kings for your sake: “Touch not my anointed, harm not My prophets.” [Ps 105 :1-15 = first part ERSTE HÄLFTE ] Sing to the Lord, all the earth; proclaim His triumph day by day. Declare His glory among the nations, His marvels among all peoples. Great is the Lord, and worthy of praise, to be revered beyond all gods. All the pagan gods are mere idols, but the Lord created the heavens. Grandeur and glory attend Him, strength and joy abide in His dwelling. Acclaim the Lord, you families of nations, acclaim His glory and might. Come into His Presence with an offering; worship the Lord in the spendor of holiness. Let all on earth tremble before Him, for he fashioned and steadied the world. Let the heavens rejoice and the earth exult. Let the nations declare: the Lord is King. Let the sea roar, and all that is in it; let the fields exult, and all they contain. Let trees of the forest sing for joy; for the Lord comes to judge the earth. [Psalm 96 :1-13, not literally identical; NICHT WÖRTLICH IDENTISCH ] It is good to acclaim the Lord, for His love endures for ever. [Psalm 106:1 ] Declare: “Save us, God of our salvation; gather us and deliver us from oppression, that we may acknowledge Your holiness, that we may take pride in Your praise. Praised be the Lord God of Israel from age to age. And all the people said “Amen” and “Praise the Lord”. [Psalm 106:47-48 = end of the 4 th book = ENDE DES 4. BUCHS ] 7 recited daily in Pesukei de Zimrazitiert täglich in den Pesuke deSimra

9 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) 8 Pesukei deZimra Weekday only Ps 100 > Shabbat only Ps 19, 34, 90, 91 Ps 135 u. 136 („hallel hagadol“) Ps 33, 92, 93 < Daily 1 Chron 16:8-36 Ps 99:5.9; 94:1-2 various verses various verses Ashrei (Ps 84:5; 144:15; 145) – Ps 150 („Daily Hallel“)... (vayevarech David 1 Chron 28, Neh 9, Ex ) BARUKH SHE-AMAR YISHTABACH

10 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) About Work and education studied in Mayence, Rhineland short time in Worms, Rhineland work: unclear (vintner?) Basic Information Relationships and Family Contact Information P hotos Rashi F riends Living Troyes, Northern France Shelomo ben Yizhaq married, father of Yocheved, Miriam and Rachel G ROSSMAN, A., Rashi. Oxford, Portland OR: Littman Library, 2012 S HERESHEVSKY E ZRA, Rashi, the Man and his World, New York, NY 1982 G ELLES, B ENJAMIN J., Peshat and Derash in the Exegesis of Rashi (Études sur le Judaïsme médiéval 9), Leiden 1981 L ikes Midrashim to comfort others Menachem ben Saruk Dunash ibn Labrat

11 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) Targum שבחא ושירא דאמר אדם קדמאי על יומא דשבתא „Lob und Lied, dass der erste Mensch über den Schabbat Tag sagte.“ „Praise and song that the first human being said about the Sabbath day.“ 10

12 MidrTehillim on Ps 92:1 “When Adam sinned against the command of the Holy One, blessed be He, God sat in judgment upon him to punish him. [The torah says: When you eat from this fruit, you will die Gen 2:17.] But what was the outcome? [As we know, Adam surprisingly did not die.] You find that Adam was created on the eve of Shabbat: In the first hour, he came into being as a thought; in the second hour, God consulted the ministering angels; in the third, God gathered the dust; in the fourth, God kneaded the dust; in the fifth, God made the form; in the sixth, God joined the parts; in the seventh, God blew breath into him; in the eighth, God stood him on his feet; in the ninth, God enjoined him; in the tenth, he sinned; in the eleventh, he was brought to judgment; in the twelfth, he was driven out – driven out because when God was about to decree his destruction, the Shabbat arrived and brought his expulsion instead.... When Adam saw the power of the Shabbat [that he was kept alive], he was about to sing a hymn in her honour. But the Shabbat said to Adam: ‘Do you sing a hymn to me? Let us, I and you, sing a hymn to the Holy One, blessed be He.’ Hence it is said: “It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Eternal One”. 11

13 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) Friday evening FREITAG ABEND (Mincha [Nachmittagsgebet]) (Yedid Nefesh) Ps 95 – 96 – 97 – 98 – 99 – 29 ana bekoach Lekha Dodi Ps 92 – 93 Barchu – 2 Blessings – Shema – 2 Blessings Amidah Concluding parts 12 songs, texts, meditations, prayers,...

14 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) 13

15 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) 14

16 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) Mishnah Berurah 260:3; 263:10 et al. a 19 th cent. commentary on Shulkhan Arukh Orakh Hayim ein Kommentar aus dem 19. Jh. über Schulchan Aruch Orach Chaim Ps 92 = der Beginn des Schabbat 15 Nowadays, early Shabbos begins when the congregation recites mizmor shir l'yom ha- Shabbos in shul. Once that psalm is recited, it is considered as if Shabbos in all its aspects has begun even though it is still bright daylight outside.

17 Liturgical Performance Mizmor Shir LeYom haShabbat may be read chanted Western: Adonai Malach Mode Eastern Magen Avot Mode sung to a composed melody as a whole or in parts, aloud, mumbled, or in silence 16

18 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) Louis I. Rabinowitz “It is called a Sabbath Psalm not because it sings of the Sabbath and extols its virtues, but because it represents the kind of thoughts which are liable to enter and possess the thoughts of that person who observes the Sabbath in its true spirit.... Just as of the enslaved children of Israel in Egypt, it is recorded that they rejected the vision of the redemption מקוצר רוח ומעבודה קשה ‘from the shortness of spirit which comes from hard labour,’ so to-day, even though it be not ‘hard labour,’ it takes man away from the contemplation of things of the spirit. He sees only that which is before his eyes. He has not the time, and if he had the time he has not the inclination, for contemplation of things sub specie aeternitatis, under the aspect of eternity. It is only when the Sabbath comes, and he is relieved of material cares, when he makes of the day a day of recreation that in the serenity and tranquil peace of that blessed day he can give himself over to meditation and contemplation. It is then that he can sing of the greatness of God and of the ultimate triumph of right and justice. It is then that he can declare that the Lord is upright, that there is no iniquity in him. He can attune himself to the spirit of God and enter into communion with him, and spiritually refreshed and strengthened in his faith, face the future with confidence and trust. Therein much more than in the enforced abstention from work lies the true value of the Sabbath of the Lord.” 17

19 ©Dr Annette M. Boeckler (2014) 18

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