Präsentation zum Thema: "Wir bitten Sie, die nachfolgenden Hinweise zu jeder Folie zu lesen. Dr"— Präsentation transkript:
1 Wir bitten Sie, die nachfolgenden Hinweise zu jeder Folie zu lesen. Dr Wir bitten Sie, die nachfolgenden Hinweise zu jeder Folie zu lesen. Dr. Steven C. Amstrup, leitender Wissenschaftler und Kathryn A. Foat, Direktorin der Verwaltung der PBI, haben erklärende Informationen hinzugefügt, einschließlich allgemeiner naturgeschichtlicher Informationen, die die Geschichte die Eisbären mit einer sich erwärmenden Welt verbinden.
3 Polar bears are a highly visible species in the Arctic Polar bears are a highly visible species in the Arctic. They’re visible in the sense of public awareness and interest—and visible in the sense that we can see, monitor, and measure them to varying degrees. We can thereby learn more about them and how they relate to their environment. Because they rely on the Arctic sea ice for critical aspects of their life histories, they are excellent sentinels of global warming.For basic information about polar bears – see our All About Polar Bears Powerpoint and the All About Polar Bears section of our website:Der Eisbär ist der Symbol der Arktis. Sein lateinischer Name ist “Ursus maritimus”, was soviel bedeutet wie Meer-Bär.
4 In our modern world, we expect to know basic information about polar bears, like how many bears there are and exactly where they live. The harsh conditions of the Arctic and the high costs of fieldwork in remote locations hinder this basic research. Although a couple of the 19 subpopulations are well-studied, we only know a little about some of them, especially those in Russia.Eisbären leben in den närdilichen Polarkreisen, in den U.S.A. (Alaska), Kanada, Russland, Grönland, und Norwegen. Circa 66% aller Eisbären leben in Kanada.
5 Die Eisbären sind nicht gleichmäßig verteilt. Wissenschaftler haben 19 Subkulturen der Eisbären rund um den nördlichen Polarkreis gefunden.Die Eisbären sind nicht gleichmäßig verteilt.Die meisten Eisbären leben in Regionen in mit vielen Robben.For more information on the status of each subpopulation, explore the interactive map from IUCN’s Polar Bear Specialist Group at The map is interactive and provides a narrative on each subpopulation.It is important to understand that though scientists talk about the population of polar bears, each subpopulation will respond to a warming world differently due to the unique characteristics of the habitat and other pressures.
6 Eisbären haben sich perfekt an das Leben in der Arktis angepasst. Sie können sogar in lebensfeindlichen Regionen überleben, in denen unter -50C herrscht.For more information:Why use the polar bear as a case study for a warming world?The Arctic is undergoing more rapid change than anywhere elsePolar bears are a universal symbol of the ArcticAs an apex predator, polar bears integrate changes that take place at lower levels in the food chainPolar bears are closely linked to the sea ice. Hence, they are a bellwether of the health of the arctic ecosystem.Sea ice changes portend arctic-wide and global climate changes.
7 Eisbären finden sich auf dem offenen Eis am wohlsten. For most polar bears, all of life’s activities occur out on the sea ice – hunting, mating, and in some subpopulations bearing and raising young. (See next slide.) There are some subpopulations that are stranded on land during the summer season. We’ll talk more about this later. It’s important to understand that polar bears can’t exist without sea ice.Knowing what will happen with the ice is critical for understanding the polar bear’s chances for survival.Eisbären finden sich auf dem offenen Eis am wohlsten.
8 Sie brauchen das Eis um… Andere Eisbären zu treffenJungtiere groß zu ziehenRobben zu jagenAuf den Nachwuchs aufzupassen*Polar bears give birth to their young in snow dens. Some female bears dig their dens on the sea ice; others choose locations on land. Scientists have found that more polar bear mothers are denning onshore than in the past due to unstable ice coverage.
9 Eisbären ernähren sich ausschließlich von Robben, die sie auf dem offenen Eis jagen. The sea ice is a critical component of the arctic ecosystem. Loss of sea ice will effect not only the polar bear, but the entire ecosystem and food web. In the Arctic, the polar bear’s food web begins with algae on the underside of the ice. Mammals associated with the sea ice include bearded and ringed seals and cetaceans such as bowhead and beluga whales. Understanding the changes in seal populations from climate warming in the Arctic is an area of new and ongoing research.Photo credit: Steven C. Amstrup
10 This is a subject area of constant new information and misinformation This is a subject area of constant new information and misinformation. Every year there are new scientific and non-scientific papers and articles presented suggesting that polar bears will find a way to survive that involves eating something other than seals. The basis of these is to create the hope that polar bears will adapt by finding something else to eat as the sea ice changes and potentially decreases their access to prey. For each new scenario, whether goose eggs, vegetation, or other marine mammals, these papers miss the point that the polar bear has evolved to feed on seals. Ultimately without the sea ice as platform for hunting seals, the polar bear will not be able to meet its nutritional needs.For more information, see the PBI Blog by Scientists & Explorers – here’s one example from Dr. Andrew Derocher:Es gibt noch keine Beweise dafür, dass Eisbären sich auch von Robben in südlicheren Gegenden ernähren.
11 Data and graphic provided by USGS. Satellite radio collar tracking of female polar bears reveals that they travel great distances annually (between 1,500 and 3,200 miles!). This graphic shows the movements of one such bear over three years! New research that pairs tracking data with sea ice information will be a powerful tool for understanding the future dynamics of polar bear populations.Check out the PBI Bear Tracker to see polar bear movements in real time:Data and graphic provided by USGS.Wilde Eisbären legen die größten Strecken, aller nicht-land-Säugetiere, zurück. Wissenschaftler haben diese Tiere mit Sendern ausgestattet, sodass die Wanderungen besser nachvollziehbar und kontrollierbar werden.
12 warum sind sie dann in Gefahr? Wenn Eisbären sich so gut an ihre Umgebung angepasst haben,warum sind sie dann in Gefahr?
13 Ganz einfach: ihr Zuhause schmilzt weg. In 2007, a group of scientists led by Dr. Steven Amstrup warned that polar bears would become extinct IF no action is taken to save the polar bear’s habitat by reducing the rise in greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, polar bears were listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act in 2008.Ganz einfach: ihr Zuhause schmilzt weg.
14 To fully understand the physics of climate change and the conservation behaviors needed to reduce greenhouse gases, please visit the PBI website for more information and videos on this topic.Here are some basics: The laws of physics require that rising greenhouse gas (GHG) levels MUST result in rising temperatures. Although there are a lot of uncertainties in climate modeling and predictions, as well as unsettled science regarding exactly WHEN particular temperature thresholds might be exceeded, there is no uncertainty, however, that Earth MUST continue to warm as long as we add more greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Read more: Das schmelzen der großen Eisflächen ist die einzige und größte Gefahr für Eisbären. Die warmen Temperaturen werden von Treibhausgasen verursacht.
15 This video depicts arctic sea ice losses over the past 34 years compiled by Dr. Ignatious Rigor, University of Washington.Directions for watching the video—visit the following URL and play:Take a close look at changes in the extent of arctic sea ice between 1978 to The video moves quickly, but pay attention to the dates in the upper right corner. Summer months show the largest contraction, but as time goes on, most subsequent winters don’t expand to the coverage of the previous year. Red dots represent the buoys that measure the ice. The data was compiled by Dr. Ignatious G. Rigor at the University of Washington, Seattle Applied Physics Lab. To read more about this fascinating research—well-worth the side trip—please go to:For additional video resources demonstrating the decrease in sea ice minimums, visit:More video resources from Polar Bears International are available at YouTube. Please follow this link:
16 Was passiert mit den Eisbären, wenn das Eis schmlizt? Sie finden keine Beute mehrSchlechte Überlebens-chancen für JungtiereErtrinken, weil sie nicht mehr an Land kommenWeniger Raum zum NestbauKannibalismusThis information can be hard to take. But it is important that those who speak about the status of polar bears wrestle their way through what it really looks like for a population that is experiencing increased mortality. Here is how Dr. Amstrup explains seeing images depicting these behaviors or results of habitat loss:“It is important to emphasize that when biologists' calculations indicate, as they have in the Western Hudson Bay subpopulation, that survival rate of young is reduced, what that means is that mortality is increased. And a principal mechanism of increased mortality in polar bears is starvation. With ever longer ice-free periods, we will see ever increasing rates of starvation. I think that most people in the general public, the media, and policy makers, don't really get that when scientists speak of lowered survival in scientific papers, what we really are referring to is starvation. The principal mechanism of mortality in apex carnivores is starvation, and we should not be hesitant to point that out.” Another related topic is interbreeding with grizzly bears. You may be asked this question so, again, here is Dr. Amstrup’s response:“All of us (scientists) have commented extensively over the years that polar bears (with or without crossbreeding) simply cannot undo a quarter million years of evolution in 50 or 60 years. Crossbreeding or not, with uncontrolled warming, we will see polar bears disappear. We may see grizzly bears expand as the climate ameliorates, but that is not the issue about which we are concerned. This hybridization topic creates a real problem in that it creates another distraction from the focus on the need to reduce warming. When it comes up, we need to turn the conversation around and point out that there is no solution here, and that to the extent there may be hybridization, it probably will be of little consequence to polar bears facing dramatic declines in their habitat base.”
17 Warum passiert das Alles? In den letzten millionen Jahren ist der CO2 Gehalt in der Atmosphäre gleich gebliebenSeit der Industrialisierung vor 90 Jahren stiegt der CO2-Wert immer stärker an und erwärmt die Luft so stark, dass immer mehr Eis zu schmelzen beginnt.Many people who wish to deny that humans are affecting the earth’s climate overlook the requirements of the laws of physics. Instead, they point at variations in the weather and uncertainties in climate projections. By pointing out cold spells and heavy snow-storms, and by pointing out the unknowns or uncertainties in the understanding of our climate system, they try to cast doubt about the science. Yet cold and warm spells are simply examples of natural variation that are going to continue to occur in a warming world; what’s more, extreme weather events—from droughts to floods to heavy snowfalls—will increase in number and severity as the world warms.It’s important to remember that, extreme weather aside, there always have been and will continue to be natural oscillations in the weather and climate. These oscillations create uncertainties in predicting exactly how fast the world may warm and how the climate at any one time and place may be affected. They do not alter the physical principles, however, which assure that earth MUST warm as greenhouse gas concentrations increase. Nor do they alter the fact that unabated warming will create a world very different than the one to which humans have become accustomed and in which humans have flourished.
18 Steigende Temperaturen = Schmilzen der polaren Eisflaechen. Kein polares Eis = keine Eisbären“No sea ice, no polar bears. How do we know? The experiment was done 10,000-12,000 years ago. We know from fossil remains that polar bears used to live in the Baltic Sea off Sweden and Finland. They aren't there now, but their prey, ringed seals, hangs on. Some sea ice still forms in the Baltic every winter, but it’s not enough to allow polar bears to survive there. Those polar bears didn't eat more goose eggs or berries or become more terrestrial: their habitat disappeared and so did they.” Dr. Andrew DerocherFor more information about how polar bears won’t be able to adapt to changing temperatures—check out our website—What Scientists Say to common misconceptions:
19 Doch die Zukunft ist noch nicht geschrieben. It isn’t too late to save polar bears from extinction. Dr. Amstrup explains the reason for this hope: “Our 2007 work (the research conducted that was the basis for listing polar bears as threatened under the Endangered Species Act) showed conclusively that the only way to preserve a sustainable future for polar bears is through very significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. We initiated additional research to answer the question of whether polar bears are unavoidably doomed, as some previously had concluded. The ‘doomed’ conclusion was based, at least in part, on the belief that the arctic sea ice had tipping points that would result in unstoppable loss of summer ice (and ultimately perennial ice) after a certain temperature was reached. If that were true, future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer little conservation benefit to polar bears. In a paper published in Nature in December 2010, we showed there is no tipping point behavior in summer sea ice. We also demonstrated that by reducing future temperature rise, substantially more polar bear habitat would be preserved than if we let temperatures continue to rise unabated, and that such habitat savings translate directly into saving more polar bears.“Although it seems reasonable to conclude that reducing the degree to which the world warms will save sea ice and that sea ice savings in turn would improve polar bear persistence, there had been no previous studies to show that that was actually the case. The absence of evidence of sea ice tipping points means that the conservation of polar bears, and other cold dependent species of the northern regions, is dependent entirely on controlling temperature rise. This finding simplifies the call to action with regard to saving polar bears—we need to make every effort possible, as soon as possible to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. Saving polar bears is all about controlling temperature rise!”Doch die Zukunft ist noch nicht geschrieben.
20 Gründe zur Hoffnung…PBI has a library of short videos that you could link from YouTube and play here. We suggest this one, Hope for Polar Bears found at:In December 2010, Dr. Amstrup and a team of scientists published research that answered the question of whether it is, in fact, reasonable to expect that reducing emissions would benefit polar bears and their habitat.“Our findings clearly provide a message of hope,” says Amstrup, “but they also underscore the urgent need for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. To achieve the greenhouse gas levels used in our models we must make substantial changes in our emissions patterns within the next decade.”Making the necessary changes will be a challenge, but the rewards will be great. The Arctic is the fastest warming area on earth. Changes there—including sea ice losses and diminishing polar bear populations—are more obvious right now than changes in other regions. Because human-caused warming is global, however, these changes only foreshadow those that will come to the rest of the world. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to save polar bears will therefore save countless other species worldwide—and also preserve the climate in which humans have flourished.
21 Was können WIR tun?Unfortunately, there has so far been no serious action by any of the leading nations to reduce emissions. “So, sadly, I have to report that the outlook for polar bears and other cold-dependent species has only worsened in the time since we released our 2007 reports,” said Dr. Amstrup. “Our recent paper in Nature has shown that it is not too late to save polar bears. We have shown it is possible to take actions in time to save this species. Our paper, however did not address the political plausibility of taking such action. It is my wish that showing there is hope for polar bears may stimulate the actions necessary to realize that hope.”
22 2 Dinge…Am besten ist es wenn Ihr allen von diesem Problem erzählt und möglichst viele darauf aufmerksam macht.Wir müssen herausfinden wo wir viel CO2 freisetzen. Und dann müssen wir uns überlegen wie wir das verhindern können.What actions to take?There is a clear answer to part of that question from Dr. Amstrup’s research: “Our study shows the path we need to follow to preserve much of life as we have known it for the past 10,000 years. That path is a sustainable interaction with Earth. Specifically, we must develop sustainable energy sources that don’t rely on fossil fuels (the primary productivity of the past), which will allow us to continue to interact with Earth in perpetuity. Our study identifies the path. Now it is up to all of us to determine whether we will follow it.”
23 Hier sind einige Beispiele : RecyclenLicht ausschaltenWiederverwendbare Einkaufstüten verwendenÖfter mal zu Fuß gehen, oder mit dem Fahrrad fahrenBäume pflanzenEigenes Gemüse anbauenWasser aus Glas- statt Plastikflaschen trinkenJeder noch so kleine Schritt kann den Unterschied machen.Younger person “what you can do slide”
24 Und noch ein paar Sachen: Lasst euer Haus neu isolieren, dass spart auch GeldVermeidet Plastik bei eurem EinkaufKauft Akkus statt BatterienBildet FahrgemeinschaftenSchaltet eure Heizung ein paar Stufen nach unten.Behaltet Alles was noch funktioniert und kauft euch nichts Neues, was ihr nicht wirklich braucht.Jede Kleinigkeit macht den Unterschied aus.Older youth and adult “what you can do slide”Website resource for home energy savings: