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Philosophical Inquiry: The Concept of Sunstainability

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1 Philosophical Inquiry: The Concept of Sunstainability
Earth Daniela G. Camhy, Anja Lindbichler

2 EARTH – Abstract The planet Earth is the fifth largest in the solar system and the third closest to the Sun. The Earth has the highest density of any planet. Its diameter is more than 12,700 km and it has existed for about 4.6 billion years. It is the home of all known living organisms. The mass of the Earth is composed mainly of iron (32,1 %), oxygen (30,1 %), silicon (15,1 %), magnesium (13,9 %), sulfur (2,9 %), nickel (1,8 %), calcium (1,5 %) and aluminum (1,4 %). The remaining 1,2% are traces of other elements. According to seismic measurements the structure of the Earth consists of mainly three layers: the Earth’s core, the mantle and the crust. These layers are separated by seismic discontinuity zones of each other. The Earth's crust and the uppermost part of the upper mantle together form the so-called lithosphere. The lithosphere ranges between 50 and 100 km in thickness and is divided in so-called tectonic plates.

3 As the Sun and the other planets the Earth originated about 4
 As the Sun and the other planets the Earth originated about 4.6 billion years ago from the compression of the solar nebula. It is now generally accepted that during the first 100 million years the Earth was exposed to an intense bombardment by asteroids. In contrast to the moon, on Earth almost all impact craters have been removed by geological processes. Because of the conversion of the kinetic energy of the asteroids on impact into heat during the heavy bombardment and by the heat production of the radioactive decay the young Earth was heated until it was mostly melted. As a result, there was a gravitational differentiation of the Earth into a core and mantle. The heaviest elements, especially iron, sank into the center of the planet, whereby heat was produced. Lighter elements, especially oxygen, silicon and aluminum, rose up and formed silicate minerals, which mainly make up the rocks of the Earth's crust.

4 Nicolás de Lekuona, Untilted, 1935, Collection Siblings Lekuona

5 Guiseppe Arcimboldo, Die Erde, 1570, Private Property

6 What is the difference between reality and truth? What is reality?
How real is reality? Is there existence or reality beyond our subjective perception? What is the difference between realness and reality? Discussion plan: Reality How important is reality for humans? What is the difference between real and reality? What is the difference between reality and illusion?

7 Alfred Kubin, Unser aller Mutter Erde, Our Mother Earth 1901-1902, Freiburg

8 Clemens Brentano Schwalbenwitz
Wahrlich, wahrlich, ich sage euch, Himmel und Erde sind sich gleich. Spricht der Himmel: Werde! Da grünt und blüht die Erde! Spricht die Erde: Sterbe! Da wird der Himmel ein lachender Erbe. Sterne sah ich blinken und sinken, Den Mond in der Sonne ertrinken, Die Sonne stieg in die Meere, Ohne daß sich ein Fünklein verlöre. Feuer und Wasser hassen sich, Erde und Wasser umfassen sich, Luft und Feuer entzünden sich, Erde und Feuer ersticken sich, Erde und Luft umkühlen sich, Luft und Wasser umspielen sich, Aber alles ist Liebe, Liebe, Liebe, Und wenn sich alles empörte, verzehrte, verschlänge, Daß gar nichts bliebe, bliebe doch Liebe Die Hülle, die Fülle, die Menge Source: Leitner, Anton G.: „Feuer, Wasser, Luft & Erde. Die Poesie der Elemente“, Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 2003, S. 157.

9 MUSIC Gustav Mahler Das Lied der Erde _Satz 4_ Von der Schönheit
The Song of the Earth 31 Oktober 2012

10 FILM Yann Arthus-Bertrand HOME Documentary, France 2009
Am 26. August 2013

11 What do we owe future generations? Climate change-
what prize will future generations have to pay? Discussion plan. Climate justice Do future generations have rights? How can emission allowances be shared? : How do regulated entities acquire emissions allowances? Do future generations do have the right to a healthy environment?

12 ARTICLE Brenner, Harald Die Entstehung der Erde
The Origin of the Earth Deutschland 2012 You find the article at: wissen.de/natur_technik/weltall/entstehung_des_lebens/entstehung_ der_erde.jsp 31 October 2012

13 What was at the beginning of the universe?
Can one imagine the beginning of all beginnings? Has the universe been here forever or did it have a beginning? Discussion plan: Beginning and end Was the Big Bang the beginning of the universe? What happened before earth has evolved? How can one imagine a spatial end of the universe? What will follow after the end of the universe?

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