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Brno, November 19th 2015 Intergenerational learning about media within the family Bernhard Schmidt-Hertha Veronika Thalhammer Anika Klein.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Brno, November 19th 2015 Intergenerational learning about media within the family Bernhard Schmidt-Hertha Veronika Thalhammer Anika Klein."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Brno, November 19th 2015 Intergenerational learning about media within the family Bernhard Schmidt-Hertha Veronika Thalhammer Anika Klein

2 Agenda (Media) generations and their relationships Research project IGEL-Media Stimuli to learn informally Intergenerational relationships in social networks The meaning of learning opportunities

3 Meaning of Digital Literacy in Later Life Effective use of digital media  key competence in daily life People without this ability  risk to have disadvantages Modern technologies provide systems to assist older people to live an autonomous life - safety systems (without human intervention) vs. online activities (need human intervention) Digital media offers a way… - to keep in touch with relatives/people who live far away - to communicate with people when individual mobility decreases due to health reasons 3 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

4 Media Use of Different Generations According to Mannheim (1928): Basis of generational identity = key events that have an impact on the whole society (e.g. a war) Trinder et al. (2008): People born after 1980  “digital natives” People born before 1980  “digital migrants” Media researchers: one leading media of each generation  Differences in intensity and the way of using media  ‘digital divide’ = differences in media behavior between different cohorts Van Eimeren/Frees (2013): Group of older adults has fastest growing share of internet users. 4 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

5 Modernization leads to radical new conditions of growing-up => intergenerationale knowledge transfer becomes obsolet Trajectory from postfigurative to cofigurative society Intergenerationale knowledge transfer is omitted Theory of „generation gap“ (Mead, Eisenstadt) Is only true for certain areas of life Concept of „Life Skills“ Originates from reproduction model Counter- arguments 5 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

6 Relationships of generations (following Lüscher 2005, pp. 74) Convergence Divergence Innovation Reproduction personal dimension institutional dimension Solidarity Emancipation CaptivationAtomization in accordance maintaining holding out discordently amicable development apostatize negatively 6 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

7 Typology of older adults with respect to their attitudes towards intergenerational learning Data 60 qualitative interviews 16 group discussions Types Type „sceptic“: Negative emotions, fears, and doubts dominate Type „reserved“: Limited interest in intergenerational learning Type „enthusiastic“: Unlimited support for intergenerational learning 7 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

8 Forms of intergenerational learning 1 Learning from each other 2 Learning with each other 3 Learning about each other 8 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

9 9 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen Media Competence Informal LearningNon-formal Learning Formal Learning Intergenerational Exchange Within the FamilyOutside the Family Predisposing factors Encouraging factors Predisposing factors Encouraging factors Use of ICT in Everyday LifeMedia Competence Forms and ObjectivesSkills and Limits The IGEL-Media project: knowledge interests

10 IGEL-Media: Research design Quantitative analysis „Competencies in later life“ (CiLL) EdAge-Study Quantitative analysis „Competencies in later life“ (CiLL) EdAge-Study Problem-centered interviews years old adults (n=10) years old adults (n=10) 60+ years old adults (n=32)  Qualitative content analysis (Mayring) Problem-centered interviews years old adults (n=10) years old adults (n=10) 60+ years old adults (n=32)  Qualitative content analysis (Mayring) 3 Group discussions (three cohort groups)  Documentary method 3 Group discussions (three cohort groups)  Documentary method 10 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

11 Predictors of informal learning: a theoretical framework model Informal learning Lifestyle (living conditions, activities, habits, commitment, etc.) Social network (family, friends, associations, etc.) Individual dispositions (self-perception, in- terests, biography, etc.) Stimuli to learn internal Learning opportuni- ties external Individual resources for learning (self-perception, self- efficacy beliefs, learning experience, etc.) internal 11 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen see Schmidt-Hertha/Thalhammer, 2015

12 Stimuli to deal with ICT Vocational context ICT use in daily work New job requirements Request from vocational environment Private context ICT use by contact persons New technological equipments Pre-existing ICT use Using ICT in a new field of activity (e.g. hobby) 12 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

13 Stimuli to learn informally InternalExternal passiv Social environment as barrier External active 13 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

14 „ich wollte ein Tablet, um nicht ganz so blöd zu sterben sozusagen. Weil ja irgendwie muss man ja auch mithalten können. Ja, weil die Jugend, die überholt einen ja im hm. Im Sauseschritt und ich wollte einfach (...) ja mithalten können. Ja mithalten hört sich jetzt blöd an, aber einfach. (...) Mitsprechen können. Nicht mithalten sondern mitreden können. Auch wissen, über was unterhalten die sich eigentlich alle. Was ist das?“(13_wn_53) Internal e.g. keeping oneself up-to-date 14 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

15 „Aber dann denke ich wieder so/, jetzt im Urlaub haben wir so am Nachbartisch so einen älteren Mann, der war bestimmt auch schon siebzig, der hat dann das Handy und so rum und num und hin und her, dann habe ich zu meinem Mann gesagt "Bin ich doof? Mit fünfzig muss ich das doch auch hinbekommen die //manche Sachen?//" […] Und jetzt habe ich mich ein bisschen beschäftigt und siehe da, man kann manches lernen.“ (211_wn_48) External passiv e.g. role models 15 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

16 „Dann habe ich dann Geburtstag gehabt. Da habe ich zum Geburtstag von meiner Tochter, einen Laptop gekriegt. […] Sagt sie, Papa, du musst lernen, dir hilft alles nichts, musst du unbedingt lernen! Wir müssen über Skype telefonieren! Bild direkt SEHEN! Und, und, ja geht alles SCHNELLER und und und viel schöner und so weiter.“ (122_mm_62, Abs ) External active e.g. presenting computers etc. 16 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

17 „Ja und dann später waren wir mal im Ausland und dann sind wir Heim gekommen wieder nach vielen, vielen Jahren. Und da wollte ich dann noch einmal-, wollte ich wieder in meinen Beruf rein. Das ging nicht weil ich nicht am Computer arbeiten konnte. […] Und da wollte ich dann nochmal in die Schule gehen. Aber ich habe nun ein Kind gehabt was in die Schule komm-, gehen musste. Und wie sollte ich das alles machen? Also habe ich es gelassen meines Kindes zuliebe. Ich war halt immer daheim und der konnte wenigstens seine Schule machen, der Jüngste jetzt, ne. Ja und so ging das die ganzen Jahre und mein Mann hat mit dem Computer gearbeitet. Der hat bei [Konzern xy] gearbeitet. Und meine gro-, meine Kinder, die ich aus erster Ehe habe, mein, mein, der Mittlese, Mittlere, der hat immer gesagt "Mama, kauf doch einen Computer, kauf doch-". Mein Mann "nein, mir kommt kein Computer ins Haus, ich brauche sowas nicht".“ (126_wn_77) Social environment as barrier hindering learning opportunities provided e.g. by job 17 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

18 Informal learning Lifestyle (living conditions, activities, habits, commitment, etc.) Social network (family, friends, associations, etc.) Individual dispositions (self-perception, in- terests, biography, etc.) Stimuli to learn internal Learning opportuni- ties external Individual resources for learning (self-perception, self- efficacy beliefs, learning experience, etc.) internal Predictors of informal learning: a theoretical framework model 18 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

19 One central contact person Different contact persons Troubled contacts No contact person at all Respondents name explicitly on person in their closer social environment, which is preferred to assist in coping with ICT. Assistance coming from social environment is described as a relevant ressource for learning. Contacts are chosen depending on different criteria. There is at least one contact person, but assistance is described as troubled primarily. Respondents name explicitly no person, they are assisted by. 28 cases13 cases8 cases4 cases 19 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

20 Intergenerational Support Ressources Economical Time Social Cultural Opportunity structures Intra-/Intergenerational Support Financial Instrumental Emotional Informational Subjective appraisal 20 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen see Thalhammer/Schmidt-Hertha, 2015

21 What hinders intergenerational learning in the familiy? 21 | Autor/Verfasser/Thema/Rubrik/Titel etc.© 2010 Universität Tübingen Family roles Age stereo- types Gender stereo- types

22 Informal learning Lifestyle (living conditions, activities, habits, commitment, etc.) Social network (family, friends, associations, etc.) Individual dispositions (self-perception, in- terests, biography, etc.) Stimuli to learn internal Learning opportuni- ties external Individual resources for learning (self-perception, self- efficacy beliefs, learning experience, etc.) internal Predictors of informal learning: a theoretical framework model 22 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

23 Interaction of opportunities and stimuli to learn High efficancy pressure and much prior knowledge Low efficancy pressure and/or lack of prior knowledge Intention to learn is high instruction/ training/technical literature (targeted use of„efficent“ sources of information) Trial and error (persistent testing, „need to make notes“) Intention to learn is low Quick problemsolving (incidental learning, using proven sources of information) Resignation/ delegation („leave undone“, contacting others ) 23 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen see Klein/Schmidt-Hertha, 2015

24 Conclusions Informal intergenerational learning depends on the interplay of stimuli and opportunities Social networks and intergenerational relationships can be a central resource for learning but also can hinder it. Intergenarational exchange provides stimuli to learn as well as learning opportunities. Choosing older or younger persons in one‘s social environment to assist in learning is a highly selective procedure, driven by a multidimensional set of criteria. 24 | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen

25 Thank you. Prof. Dr. Bernhard Schmidt-Hertha Department of Education Unit Adult Education/Further Education Münzgasse 11, Raum 107, Tübingen Phone: | Schmidt-Hertha / Thalhammer / Klein© 2015 University of Tuebingen


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