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Diversity Management in Education

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1 Diversity Management in Education
1 Diversity Management in Education (from inter cultural management side) Brno, June 2013 Mag. Rupert Beinhauer. 1 1

2 Who am I? Mag. Rupert Beinhauer Rupert.beinhauer@fh-joanneum.at
2 Who am I? Mag. Rupert Beinhauer EU Projectmanager at Psychologist, Lecturer and Trainer 2 2

3 3 3

4 At the end of the course you should be able to…
4 At the end of the course you should be able to… … have a better idea about your own cultural baseline. … better understand cultural differences … comprehend the influence of culture on education … explain cultural theories to yourself and others 4 4


6 CCLVET – Cross Cultural Teaching
6 Video: CCLVET – Cross Cultural Teaching 6 6 6 6

7 The logic of co-operation:
7 The logic of co-operation: Game theory The setup: Participants in a game had to contribute with a computer programme taking decisions depending on their own decisions and on the opponents prior moves. The options were: “I cooperate” and “I refuse to cooperate” Both do not cooperate: 1 point Both co-operate: 3 points One refuse / one cooperate: 5 points / 0 points 3 rounds planned. Sun Tzu wrote in his art of war (about 500 BC) That a) „all warfare is based on deception“, b) „the height of skill is to win without a fight“ and c) that „he who knows when to fight, and when not to, will be vitorious. Even though he gave a number of advices when to fight and when not, he did not give clear guidelines. 7 7

8 What could be the most successful strategy ?
8 Take a moment to think What could be the most successful strategy ? How to start? How to react on co-operation? How to react to a refusal? How to finish? Do you have an idea? 8 8 8 8

9 9 Video: Tit for Tat 9 9 9 9

10 Results and further rounds
1010 Results and further rounds “Nice” programs (those restraining from refusing co-operation until having received a refusal themselves, performed significantly better. “The best defence is attack” does not seem to be true. The strategies and their respective performance were published. In the second round 64 competitors from different fields and with different cultural background tried to win against the winning strategy of round one. Still the strategy won again. There was no sense in a third round. Sun Tzu: „The looser searches the victory in the fight, the winner wins before seeking the fight.“ 10 10

11 So what was the winning strategy?
1111 So what was the winning strategy? Start: Co-operative Cooperates as long as it gets co-operative moves in return. When it gets a refusal: refuse until it gets a co-operative move again. It was the simplest strategy of the tournament… This strategy was developed by the bio-mathematician Anatol Rapoport. 11 11

12 1212 Translation: Robert Axelrod described Rapoport‘s mechanism in a real world context Don‘t be envious Never be the first to defect (to refuse cooperation) Practice reciprocity Don‘t be too clever Don‘t try to be tricky Are a do and four dont‘s enough? Where is the difference between envy and inspiration? What is the line between clever and too clever? 12 12

13 A set of forces for cross-cultural excellence.
1313 A set of forces for cross-cultural excellence. Benevolence (opening the game with a cooperative move) Reciprocity (maintaining cooperation when receiving cooperation, playing refusal after a refusal) Benevolence Reciprocity 13 13

14 A set of forces for cross-cultural excellence.
1414 A set of forces for cross-cultural excellence. Clarity (refusing immediately, making your rules clear) Creativity (in real life it is sometimes necessary to find an innovative solution for benevolence, reciprocity an clarity) A second strategy was waiting for two refusals before refusing itself. It was less successful, as it was much more difficult to read, it was missing clarity. Of course in real life you need one more element to succeed: You may not always be able to see how benevolence, reciprocity and clarity can be reached. Sometimes you need an innovative solution: The fourth force: Creativity Clarity Creativity 14 14

15 The cross-cultural compass
1515 The cross-cultural compass Clarity Creativity Benevolence Reciprocity Examples: The very special menue, the Korean lecturer in an European class. 15 15

16 The logic of co-operation:
1616 The logic of co-operation: Conclusion Cooperation seems to have been recognized as one of the driving forces of success by as different authorities as Sun Tzu, Anatol Rapoport and Robert Axelrod. Effective cooperation management can be done by using four forces: Benevolence, Reciprocity, Clarity, Creativity. They can be used to construct solutions for cross cultural communication in cross-cultural relationships. 16 16

17 1717 PAUSE (?) 16 17 17 17 17

18 Read through the case and try to answer the questions attached.
1818 Training in Yemen Read through the case and try to answer the questions attached. Groupwork max.30 min 18 18 18 18

19 Video: The worlds local bank
1919 Video: The worlds local bank 19 19

20 2020 PAUSE (?) 16 20 20 20 20

21 Comparing Cultures Different ways to define culture Use of stereotypes
2121 Comparing Cultures Different ways to define culture Use of stereotypes Layers of Culture Cultural Dimensions 21 21

22 Decisions in everyday live
2222 Decisions in everyday live We are all trained from birth to deal with everyday situation. To handle these everyday situations is easy for us, we internalized the coping strategies common to our own culture. Things get more tricky if we need to cope with a new environment or if we a forced to explain our own actions to an outsider. Questions, misunderstandings and sometimes outright shock seem to happen much more often outside our own group and / or environment Example Questions: Why do they dress the way they dress? Why do they show so litte (or much) respect towards a teacher? I won‘t eat this! 22 22

23 Definitions of Culture
2323 Definitions of Culture „Culture is the collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one group from another“ – Geert Hofstede „Culture hides more than it reveals, and strangely enough, what it hides, it hides most effectively from its own participants“ – Edward T. Hall. „Culture refers to whatever an identifiable group of people shares in order to meet it‘s basic human needs and maintain its sense of identity.“ - Jean-Claude Arteau 23 23

24 CULTURE What is culture ?
2424 What is culture ? Culture relates to the way people understand the reality of the world around them. It is strongly related to civilisation; Habits Food CULTURE Language Religion Traditions Which other aspects might influence our way to understand reality ? 24 24

25 Patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting towards others
2525 Patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting towards others Culture can also be seen a something a lot more personal: Halfway between our human natures characteristics and our personal preferences. Morals, Values Honor CULTURE Flexibility Trust Decion Making 25 25

26 Values Orientation Theory
2626 Values Orientation Theory Florence Kluckhon & Fred Strodtbeck There is a limited number of common human problems While there is variability in these solutions it is neither limitless nor random, but it is definitely variable between a range of possible solutions. The alternatives of all solutions are present in all societies at all times but are differentially preferred. 26 26

27 Example: The grocery store theory.
2727 Example: The grocery store theory. You are in a grocery store. It’s the end of the afternoon and several people are lining up in front of the cashier. You are fourth in line. In front of you stands a young parent with a young child. The boy is approximately five years old and all of a sudden he gets into hysterics. You understand from his cries that he wants a chocolate bar. Immediately the atmosphere in the shop is changing. Each client exchanges amused looks and smiles. All but one: the parent. 27 27

28 Comparing Cultures: Values Orientation Theory
Now imagine you are the parent. What are your options? Take a moment to think about them and note them. Comparing Cultures: Values Orientation Theory

29 The grocery store theory - Options
To buy the chocolate bar? To ignore the child? To spank the boy? To leave the shop? Any others? All options are possible but depending on our upbringing, personalities and also our culture we favour different ones.

30 The grocery store theory
3030 The grocery store theory Actually all the options are possible. However, ask around and most people will confirm the second assumption of Kluckholm and Strodtbeck: that in fact, a limited number of options is really available. Availability heuristics: We usually choose our solution from the most easily accessible ones. Now imagine the grocery store being located in another country… 30 30

31 The grocery store theory
3131 The grocery store theory A mother might shock the clients in a foreign grocery store by ignoring the cries. Not because people have different options, but because they have different rankings in mind. Ignore the child Buy the chocolate Leave the shop Spank the child Spank the child Leave the shop Ignore the child Buy the chocolate Being able to adapt your ranking to the other’s is what cross-cultural competence is about. 31 31

32 Culture is the way we solve our problems.
3232 Culture is an orientation system which provides standards of perceiving, thinking, valuing and acting accepted by the majority creates culture specific ways of action. Culture is the way we solve our problems. 32 32

33 Comparing Cultures: Stereotypes
Typical Czech? What is typical for Czech people? Take a moment to think about it and note your observations. 33

34 3434 Ethnocentrism When in contact with other cultures, and whenever we face difficulties in comprehending or accepting the manners or habits of others, we have a common tendency to see the world through the prism of our own culture. Understanding other cultures is not an easy process and as human beings we will often try to reduce the dissonance, by either denying the differences or by deciding our own culture is simply better (and so removing the need for adaptation). This behaviour is called ethnocentrism and it is the prime obstacle to cross-cultural management and education. 34 34

35 Stereotypes and Prejudice
3535 Stereotypes and Prejudice A stereotype is a cut-and-tried opinion. It is the result of a categorization that guides our behaviour, particularly with regard to a given group or population. Stereotypes are usually negative (called prejudice) but may also be positive. They can be helpful as starting point in new situations. Stereotypes related to the ethnic characteristics or the superiority of a culture over others should be considered so intolerant that they are not compatible with the open-mindedness required in cross-cultural communication and managment. Ultimately stereotypes may inform more about the individual who comes up with the stereotype than the stereotyped person. Think about the stereotype “all the rich people are lazy”… 35 35

36 3636 PAUSE (?) 16 36 36 36 36

37 Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Christopher Earley and Soon Ang
Cognition: „Do I know what is happening?“ Motivation „Am I motivated to act?“ Behavior „Can I respond approproately and effecticely?“ Completing this course is designed to greatly enhance your CQ. But before finding out how to reach out to other cultures we need to understand what culture is made of. 37

38 3838 Concepts of Culture Culture is compare to a lot of different things: Like an iceberg it has a part easily visible and a part which is normally hidden from view. Like an onion it has different layers; and like a lily it is firmly rooted at the bottom of the pond, while the leaves and the flowers are drifting with the current… 38 38

39 The cultural lens Individual Family Organisation Nationality Religion
3939 The cultural lens Individual Family Organisation Nationality Religion Gender Humanity (?) Information Perception 39 39

40 Three layers Artifacts The norms and values The core of the culture
4040 Three layers Artifacts (explicit culture) The norms and values (implicit culture) The core of the culture (preconditions) 40 40

41 4141 Of Heroes and Villains Comparing Cultures: Three Layers of Culture Which are the heroes and villains of your childhood? What makes a hero? What makes a villain? Try to find at least two fictional examples for each and present them. Groupwork max. 30min 41 41 41 41

42 4242 PAUSE (?) 16 42 42 42 42

43 Artifacts (explicit culture)
4343 Artifacts (explicit culture) Symbols: words, gestures, pictures or objects, that carry a particular meaning. (e.g. a countries flag, gestures, typical architecture) Characters (villains or heroes): persons, dead or alive, real or fictional, who are clearly associated with the culture Habits (or rituals): activities the members of the culture demonstrate in their natural environment. (Religion, sport, business etiquette) Guess what was the fourth largest religion according to Britains 2001 census? 43 43

44 Comparing Cultures: Three Layers of Culture
Wake-up Question: What would you believe has been the fourth largest religion in the UK, according to the answers of the participants in the last population poll? Comparing Cultures: Three Layers of Culture


46 The norms and values (implicit culture)
4646 The norms and values (implicit culture) Norm: a common orientation of a group toward what one should do (what is considered normal). Groups, in essence are individuals sharing a common normative system. This is a binary concept (right or wrong). Value: a common orientation toward one would like to do, This is a lot more personal. Values are not binary, there are more shades then black and white. In our upbringing we learn the norms and values of our culture. We internalize them. In the case of the grocery store, an Italian mother might decide to spank the child, an American citizen would find the action totally inappropriate. On the other hand the American mother might buy the sweet which would show that the mother has given up and has no moral firmness to the Italian. 46 46

47 How and why do rules work
4747 How and why do rules work Comparing Cultures: Three Layers of Culture Which rules do you apply in education? Which work well? Which do not? What do you do to make the difference?. Groupwork max. 20min 47 47 47 47

48 The core of the culture (preconditions)
4848 The core of the culture (preconditions) External forces which have influenced the shaping of the culture. These basic assumptions are the ultimate sources of value and norms and if taken for granted, they are difficult to distinguish. Geography Climate History Example: Gift wraping: Japanese tradition of creating beautiful shapes per paper folding and elaborate rules (handed with both hands, never in numbers of four or nine) vs. uncomplicated Russian way of presenting gifts. Japan: Small territory and shortage of trees results in gift wrapping being very codified. Russia: Large territory, plenty of trees. Wrapping very casual as paper has no specific value. 48 48

49 4949 Taboo Originally a Taboo was often connected to religion, it has been more generalized in the intercultural context. A Taboo is something forbidden. It can be a place, a word, a gesture, an activity among others. Examples Symbols (the swastika in Germany and Austria) Characters (He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named in Harry Potter) Words (any considered vulgar) Norms (nudity in Muslim countries) Rituals (Animal sacrifice in Western countries) …. Before going into another culture, you should really know about the connected taboos! Think about it: Did you experience overstepping taboos unknown to you before? How could you have prevented getting trapped? 49 49

50 Advanced Stereotyping
5050 Advanced Stereotyping One can’t talk about entire cultures without generalizing, However while generalisations might be accurate about groups, they are never going to be fully true for individuals. While generalisations refers to behaviour displayed by the majority of a population, stereotypes are an extrapolation of an extreme behaviour. One should be aware of generalisations even if they are not as ill-defined as stereotypes. Culture is only one influence on behaviour. Example generalisation: French enjoy drinking wine at dinner. Example stereotype: French eat frog-legs each dinner. 50 50

51 Comparing Cultures Scan !
5151 Comparing Cultures Scan ! In the graph above each curve represents a culture. The difference in amplitude between the cultures is the cultural gap. Thus the further away from each other, the greater the cultural gap. However when cultures are separated by a small gap it does not mean that they are the same. Managers who make such assumptions when they go to a culture perceived as similar risk to pay a high price. While a big cultural gap is a guarantee of exoticism and cultural shocks, the differences are unmistakable. Two cultures with narrow gaps may lead to ignoring the cultural differences altogether… until they come back in full force. The central part of the graph, with stripes, is the cultural overlap or common ground. We represent culture with such a curve because cultures also have extremities: extreme (or at least not shared) behaviours. While sometimes it can be tolerated if other cultures do not share the same behaviour (e.g. eating with fork / fingers), sometimes – especially if religion is part of the picture this might be impossible (e.g. different religions forbid different kinds of meat). It is useful to know your own extremes and limitations in order to engage with other cultures effortlessly. (Example: Knowing how guests are treated differently in different countries and what to expect). 51 51

52 5252 About Ape and Man Chimpanzee: Live in clear cut social groups, have clear role definitions between males and females, an alpha male heads the group, using aggression to maintain his position. They can feature extreme violence leading to mutilation and murder. Bonobos (a subspecies): Are not strongly territorial, allow interaction between groups, a cluster of females heads each group. Males in the group usually submit to matriarchy. Bonobos have few conflicts, which are avoided by pre-emptive social interaction. Imagine how our image of early hominids would have changed if we knew about Bonobos first…. 52 52

53 Example: Conflict Resolution
Cultural Dimension Example: Conflict Resolution Power Empathy Chimpanzees Bonobos It is understood that each genus showcases both behaviours, and the individual preferences vary greatly. However, should we take a survey one could position the chimps on the „power side“ while the bonobos would be more on the „empathy side“. If one goes to the jungle and has the opportunity to observe some chimpanzees and bonobos, it is possible that a bonobo alpha male will be dictating to the other with the help of his strength, while a chimpanzee is showing Empathy to a youngster. However, there is a strong likelihood that the opposite will happen. While dimensions are very useful tools, the danger comes from transforming them into dogma. Cross Cultural Studies do not claim to be a hard science. Their purpose is only to note certain likelihoods of behaviours. Dimensions, the most widely used tool, should be handled with care, and only used as guidelines. 53

54 5454 Culture and Nation While it is tempting to equate nationality with culture (e.g. national boundaries with cultural territory), it is potentially misleading, overly simplistic and limiting. Culture should might be better understood as a dynamic process that often cuts across national borders or is not meaningfully described in geographic terms. 54 54

55 Video: HSBC Videos By Prof. Jürgen Bolten available on Youtube 5555 55

56 „Fuzzy Cultures“ Following current trends in cultural studies, culture is not considered a “container” but is a complex network of relations. Each individual can be “multi-collective”, belonging to a number of “cultures” (K1-K9) while on the other hand each culture is “poli-collective”, including a number of Persons (A-E). Look up Jürgen Bolten and his current research if you want to know more about the topic. 56 56

57 5757 PAUSE (?) 16 57 57 57 57

58 Cross-Cultural Research as of today
5858 Cross-Cultural Research as of today Dimensions and standards The Main Models 58 58

59 Dimensions and Standards
5959 Dimensions and Standards 2 ways if observing cultures and differences: Dimensions (etic approach) : The “dimensioners” set up and conduct qualitative studies with hundreds to thousands of participants, aiming to be able to measure cultural differences along certain dimensions, which are set up and defined ex ante. Standards (emic approach): The main aim is to deal with differences in perception, actions, or judgment in cross-cultural encounters. Cultural standard research is more context related. Cultural dimensions regard a culture from outside in (the etic approach), while the cultural standard method regards culture from inside out (the emic approach). 59 59

60 6060 Alexander Thomas The cultural standard method was brought up as an answer to the early defined cultural dimensions, being presumably biased by characteristics of the researchers' own culture. Through qualitative interviews, unexpected reactions to critical situations are identified. A cultural standard is defined when a number of individuals are reacting repeatedly to one critical situation the same way. Pros: differentiated, good theoretical foundation. It explains behaviour instead of describing it. Cons: risk of advanced stereotyping. Cultural dimensions regard a culture from outside in (the etic approach), while the cultural standard method regards culture from inside out (the emic approach). 60 60

61 Alexander Thomas - Example
6161 Alexander Thomas - Example German CS: Task Orientation Rule Orientation Straightforwardness Differentiation of interpersonal contact Deference to hierarchy / authority Time scheduling US CS: Individualism Relaxedness Social Recognition Minimisation of personal distance Achievement Orientation Action Orientation Cultural dimensions regard a culture from outside in (the etic approach), while the cultural standard method regards culture from inside out (the emic approach). 61 61

62 Example for cultural standards.
6262 „Like a fairy tale“ Example for cultural standards. Look at for the full story at „the Spiegel“, in German. 62 62

63 Dimensions of culture according to Geert Hofsteede.
6363 Dimensions of culture according to Geert Hofsteede. 63 63

64 Video: Geert Hofstede on culture
6464 Video: Geert Hofstede on culture Available on Geert Hofestedes Website and on Youtube 64 64

65 Power Distance Power Distance
6565 Power Distance Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality (more versus less), but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a society's level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. Power and inequality, of course, are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that "all societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than others". 65 65

66 Uncertainty Avoidance
6666 Uncertainty Avoidance Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Unstructured situations are novel, unknown, surprising, different from usual. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth: "there can only be one Truth and we have it". People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous energy. The opposite type, uncertainty accepting cultures, are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to; they try to have as few rules as possible, and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative, and not expected by their environment to express emotions. 66 66

67 Individualism (vs. Collectivism)
6767 Individualism Individualism on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after her/himself and her/his immediate family. On the collectivist side, we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families (with uncles, aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. The word collectivism in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group, not to the state. Again, the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one, regarding all societies in the world. 67 67

68 Masculinity (vs. Femininity)
6868 Masculinity versus its opposite, femininity, refers to the distribution of emotional roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. The IBM studies revealed that (a) women's values differ less among societies than men's values; (b) men's values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women's values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to women's values on the other. The assertive pole has been called masculine and the modest, caring pole feminine. The women in feminine countries have the same modest, caring values as the men; in the masculine countries they are more assertive and more competitive, but not as much as the men, so that these countries show a gap between men's values and women's values. 68 68

69 Long Term Orientation Long- term oriented
6969 Long- term oriented societies foster pragmatic virtues oriented towards future rewards, in particular saving, persistence, and adapting to changing circumstances. Short-term oriented societies foster virtues related to the past and present such as national pride, respect for tradition, preservation of "face", and fulfilling social obligations. The fifth dimension: Long-Term Orientation Research by Michael Bond and colleagues among students in 23 countries led him in to adding a fifth dimension called Long- versus Short-Term Orientation. In 2010, research by Michael Minkov allowed to extend the number of country scores for this dimension to 93, using recent World Values Survey data from representative samples of national populations. 69 69

70 7070 Much of the information here has been taken from Geert Hofestedes personal page. It is worth a visit. 70 70

71 Austrian an Czech Students:
7171 Austrian an Czech Students: Preparing a training for Austrian Students compared to Czech Students, what would you change? Open Discussion 71 71 71 71

72 7272 Yang Liu East and West 72 72

73 7373 PAUSE (?) 16 73 73 73 73

74 Of Individuals and Collectives
7474 Of Individuals and Collectives Individualism and Collectivism are culturally very important and play an enormous role in education. „A nail that sticks out will be hammered in“ Who is more important the individual or the collective? 74 74 74 74

75 The successful project team
7575 The successful project team Distributing rewards Start by reading through the handout and finding your own answers. Part 2 (Teamwork, ~4persons, 20 min) Try to compromise and find a collective answer in the group (not always easily possible) 75 75 75 75

76 Communication Communication model Verbal communication Paralanguage
7676 Communication Communication model Verbal communication Paralanguage Non Verbal communication 76 76

77 General Communication Model
Noise Sender Channel Receiver Coding Decoding According to the most accepted model communication is all about sending messages to others. An individual, the sender of the message, needs to choose several options when communicating. The message is coded in an acceptable format to fit the channel chosen. For instance when you read this text, the channel chosen is written form. The language we use would be the code. Extra information, called alternatively noise or contextual information has an impact on the process, but not an fundamental one. To understand your code the receiver needs to be able to decode the message and to use the same channel. Finally for the communication to be complete, feedback needs to be sent from the receiver to the sender. Feedback 77

78 7878 Schulz von Thun: 4 sides of a message 78 78

79 Friedemann Schulz von Thun The four sides of communication
The matter layer contains statements which are matter of fact like data and facts, which are part of the news. In the self-revealing or self-disclosure the speaker - conscious or not intended - tells something about himself, his motives, values, emotions etc. In the Relationship-layer is expressed resp. received, how the sender gets along with the receiver and what he thinks of him. The Appeal contains the desire, advice, instruction and effects that the speaker is seeking for. 79 79

80 Friedemann Schulz von Thun The four sides of communication
Example A man (first sender) and a woman (first receiver) are eating a home cooked meal together. The man says: "There is something green in the soup.“ She answers: “If you do not like my cooking you can cook yourself.” Which messages have been sent and received here? 80 80

81 Friedemann Schulz von Thun The four sides of communication
Matter Sender Appeal Receiverr Self-Revealing Message Relationship 81 81

82 Friedemann Schulz von Thun The four sides of communication
(1) Matter There is something green. "There is something green in the soup." Herr Meyer I don't know what it is. Tell me what it is!! Frau Meyer Self-Revealing (2) Appeal You should know what it is. (3) Relationship 82 82

83 Verbal Communication “Deadly Vibe hits Albany”
Words to matter in communication, in fact most of our communication is verbal. If you arrive in a foreign country without beeing able to speak the local language, no matter how proficient in reading body language and taking up other clues, you will be hard pressed to understand those around you. Even if you share the same language communication can still be difficult. Often same words do not carry the same meaning in different cultures. 83 83

84 What would you associate with the heading above
What would you associate with the heading above? Shouldn’t the faces of the people pictured be concerned rather than happy because of the ‘deadly’ vibe that’s impacting the town? This is an example for how Aboriginal words can be mistaken by speakers of the English language. ‘Deadly’ is an Aboriginal slang word for ‘fantastic’, ‘great’ or ‘awesome’. The article reports about the fun and joy people had at the two-day Aboriginal youth weekend Vibe 3on3. Read more: australian-english#ixzz2HPf7cXY7 84


86 Verbal Communication Lost in translation
“ We send each wash towel, thrown into our rivers and seas more grams of detergent, if going to be several days with us and believes that this towel is able to use a second leave hanging, but put it in the ground” (Sign in a hotel in Spain) Approximate translation is obviously cause for much incomprehension and even misunderstandings. Usually all it takes to avoid such blunder is verification. 86 86

87 Video: Sapir Worf Hypothesis
8787 Video: Sapir Worf Hypothesis 87 87

88 Verbal Communication Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes. Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined as having two versions: (i) the strong version that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories and (ii) the weak version that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behavior. This is part of a wikipedia entry, you can find it at: 88 88

89 Words we cannot translate tell us something about culture:
What do the following words mean and where do they come from? Gründlichkeit Manana Harakiri Guanxi Savoir Vivre Fairplay g)Hygge Solution: To be thorough (Germany) Tomorrow (Spain) c) Ritual suicide (Japan) d) Relation Network (China) e) The good life (Frankreich) f) Fairness (England) g) Complete absence of anything annoying (Danish) 89 89

90 Paralanguage How we say things.
Refers to how we say things. It covers a wide scope of details, that all reveal cultural influence. Paralanguage includes various types of acoustic elements that accompany language, as well as vocalizations that replace or supplement speech. Paralinguistic patterns do not only inform us about the emotional state of the speaker, but they also constitute cultural cues. 90 90

91 Paralanguage How we say things.
Paralinguistics which are influenced by culture: The speed with which we talk Our volume or loudness The intonation or melody of the language Our tone of voice The timing of our verbal interactions The use of pause or silence Sounds that are not really words. 91 91

92 Non-Verbal Communication Seeing-Touching-Tasting-Smelling
All our senses can be channels for communication. Different messages can, again, be decoded very differently in different cultures Gestures (Example: shaking the head) Seeing (Examples: Age, Hair color, Gender, Skin color) Touching (Examples: Personal space, Hugging, Kissing) Tasting & Smelling (Examples: Food, Wine, Cheese) 92 92

93 What does this guesture
mean where? „Okay“ Homosexual „Zero value“ Money Perfect „Zero Days left“ 93

94 What does this guesture
mean where? „Okay“ – Northamerica, parts of Europe Homosexual - Turkey „Zero Value“ – Belgium, France, Tunesia Money - Japan Perfect - Italy „Zero Days left“ - Finland Guestures and facial expressions are interpreted very differently in different cultures. 94

95 9595 PAUSE (?) 16 95 95 95 95

96 The question of Trust Trust is in crisis.
9696 The question of Trust Trust is in crisis. Trust in nearly everything (politics, religion, economy, education) is steeply in decline. But trust is necessary for any educational relationship. So how can we build trust? 96 96 96 96

97 Little trust in Education (in Austria)
Eigentlich sollte die Schule das Rüstzeug fürs Leben mitgeben, in der Realität haben die Menschen aber ein völlig anderes Bild: Nicht einmal jeder dritte Österreicher (29 Prozent) ist der Meinung, dass unser Bildungssystem die Menschen gut auf die Zukunft vorbereitet. Umfrage Erstellt am Das ergab eine repräsentative Umfrage (1.000 Österreicher ab 14 Jahren) des Zentrums für Zukunftsstudien der Fachhochschule Salzburg, so dessen Leiter Reinhold Popp zur APA. (Steiermark: 49%) 97

98 The question of trust Part 1 (Teamwork, ~4persons, 20 min)
9898 The question of trust Part 1 (Teamwork, ~4persons, 20 min) How does trust into the educational system differ from learner group to learner group. What can you actually do the develop trust in education? Part 2 (Presentations) 98 98 98 98

99 High Speed of Trust (Stephen M.R. Covey)
9999 High Speed of Trust (Stephen M.R. Covey) 1. Talk Straight Say what is on your mind. Don’t hide your agenda. When we talk straight we tell the truth and leave the right impression. Most employees don't think their bosses communicate honestly. This creates a trust tax. This causes speed to go down and costs to go up. We spend entirely too much time trying to decipher truth from spin. Straight talk needs to be paired with tact. There is no excuse for being so blunt you hurt feelings and destroy relationships. Tact is a skill that can be learned and when coupled with straight talk, will build relationship trust. 2. Demonstrate Respect The principle behind demonstrating respect is the value of the individual. The behavior is acting out the Golden Rule. Almost every culture and religion recognizes the value of the Golden Rule. We should treat people the way we want to be treated.   Our actions should show we care. They should be sincere. People will notice if an action is motivated by a lesser reason or an impure value. Respect is demonstrated in the “little” things we do daily. 3. Create Transparency Tell the truth in a way that can be verified. Transparency is based on principles of honesty, openness, integrity and authenticity. It is based on doing things in the open where all can see. Part of transparency is sharing information. If ever in question, err on the side of disclosure. Rollin King, founder of Southwest Airlines states, “We adopted the philosophy that we wouldn’t hide anything, not any of our problems, from the employees.” That’s transparency. 4. Right Wrongs To right a wrong is much more than apologizing. It involves making restitution. With customers it may include that free gift along with the sincere apology. We have all been to a restaurant where we received an apology along with a free dessert or a coupon for something free the next time we eat there. It is the principle of going the extra mile.  Some will justify their wrongful behavior while others will try covering up their misdeeds. Both of these attempts will not only fail to make deposits in trust ac- counts, but are certain to make substantial withdrawals. 5. Show Loyalty There are many ways to show loyalty to your employees. Covey focuses on two. First, give credit to others. As a leader you need to give credit to the individuals responsible for success. A leader should never take credit for the hard work of others. Just as bad is the one who gives credit to someone in their presence, but then down-plays their contribution to others. Giving credit to others is the right thing to do. It will foster an environment where people are encouraged to be creative and innovative. It will increase trust and have a direct impact on the bottom line. Second, speak about others as if they were present. Some people think it builds relationships to talk about others. The opposite is true. Talking about others behind their back will decrease trust with your current audience. 6. Deliver Results The fastest way to build trust with a client is to deliver results. Results give you instant credibility and trust. Delivering results is based on competence. “This behavior grows out of the principles of responsibility, accountability and performance. The opposite of Deliver Results is performing poorly or failing to deliver. The counterfeit is delivering activities instead of results.” Delivering results converts the cynics, establishes trust in new relationships, and restores trust that has been lost due to lack of competence. It is also the first half of covey’s definition of leader- ship: getting results in a way that inspires trust. 7. Get Better In today’s ever changing environment one must continue to improve or become obsolete. You cannot learn a skill and ride that one skill for 30 years. You have to constantly be improving. When others see you continually learning and adapting to change they become more confident in your ability to lead into the future. Be careful not to be- come a life-long learner that does not produce, or one who sees only one way to improve self and others. Covey suggest two ways to get better. First, seek feedback from those around you. Second, learn from your mistakes. 8. Confront Reality We cannot close our eyes to the tough realities we face. If we are honest about the difficult issues and are addressing them head-on people will trust us. We have to avoid the temptation to avoid reality or act as if we are addressing the difficult issues, while we are actually evading them. 9. Clarify Expectations It is important to focus on a shared vision of success up front. This is a preventative measure. When expectations are not clearly defined up front, trust and speed both go down. A lot of time is wasted due to leaders not clearly defining expectations. Failure to clarify expectations leaves people guessing. When results are delivered they fall short and are not valued. 10. Practice Accountability In a 2002 Golin/Harris poll, “assuming personal responsibility and account- ability” was ranked as the second- highest factor in building trust. Great leaders build trust by first holding themselves accountable then hold- ing others accountable. Holding yourself accountable includes taking responsibility for bad results. It is often our natural response to blame others for failure. When we fail, we need to look in the mirror. Holding others accountable allows performers to feel good about the job they are doing. It also in- creases trust by assuring performers that slackers and poor performers will not pull them down. 11. Listen First Listening before prescribing builds trust. Trying to give advice before knowing all the facts is a waste of time and simply not fair. You need to be careful not to learn the mechanics of listening and leave the impression you are listening when you really are not. Remember that communication is more than just words, so you will have to listen to nonverbal messages as well. If a person is displaying a high level of emotion, they don’t feel understood. Keep listening. Also, a person is not likely to ask for advice until they feel you understand all the pertinent information. Don’t give advice too early. 12. Keep Commitments Covey re- fers to this as the “Big Kahuna” of all the trust behaviors. When you make a commitment you build hope. When you keep a commitment you build trust. Be careful when making commitments. Make only the commitments you can keep. Also, don’t be vague when making commitments. There are implicit and explicit commitments, and violating either is a huge withdrawal from the trust account. Be aware of the commitment expectations. Some companies are strict with internal meeting times and others are more flexible. Also, remember family commitments are just as important if not more so than work commitments. 13. Extend Trust The other behaviors help you become a trusted leader; this behavior helps you become a trusting leader. We should extend trust to those who have earned it. Be willing to extend trust to those who are still earning it. Be wise in extending trust to those who have not exemplified a character worth trusting. 1. Talk Straight 2. Demonstrate Respect 3. Create Transparency 4. Right Wrongs 5. Show Loyalty 6. Deliver Results 7. Get Better 8. Confront Reality 9. Clarify Expectations 10. Practice Accountability 11. Listen First 12. Keep Commitments 13. Extend Trust 99 99 99 99

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101 Any questions left? Mail me! Rupert.beinhauer@fh-joanneum.at 101101101

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