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Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Teaching Academic Writing to Austrian.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Teaching Academic Writing to Austrian."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Teaching Academic Writing to Austrian University Students. What Linguistics has to offer. Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf

2 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Introduction Preceding projects: Wissenschaftliches Schreiben an der Universität (1999/2000, University of Business Administration, Dept. of Slavic Languages and University of Vienna, Dept. of Linguistics, funded by Austrian National Bank) Genre, Habitus and Academic Writing ( , University of Vienna, Dept. of Linguistics, funded by Austrian Science Foundation and Austrian National Bank) Current Project: Developing a Writing Course for Austrian University Students ( , University of Vienna, Dept. of Linguistics, funded by Austrian Science Foundation, grant no.: L179-G03

3 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Introduction Main aims of the presentation: Presentation of a modular course design based on our previous research Presentation of a multi-dimensional grid combining all factors relevant in developing teaching materials for students in a blended learning framework

4 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Theoretical Basis: Modelling text types – localization & diversification Text type Genre Individual text Abstraction Localization Contextually determined level of specificity Low specificity: Legal aspects, semiotic mode undecided Medium Specificity: Disciplinary aspects, semiotic mode decided High Specificity: Course-specific, writer-specific

5 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Theoretical Basis: Underlying linguistic criteria Macro-structure = how the text is structured : Systemic Functional Theory (SFL) tells something about how a text is structured in terms of communicative acts and what function these communicative acts have (e.g. presenting state of the art of the relevant field, reporting what is known about phenomena under study, pointing out deficiencies in the present state of knowledge, stating purpose of present study, give an overview about structure and content of the following study,...) Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) tells something about how text coherence is established - how parts of a text are connected or related to each other and what function these relations have. (e.g. background, condition, contrast, elaboration, justify, list, sequence, solutionhood, summary,…)

6 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Theoretical Basis: Underlying linguistic criteria Meta-communication = about the seminar paper: Contextualization: places the seminar paper in the context of university education (e.g. title, author, name of the supervisor, seminar-title, date,…) Structure: all features with the function of structuring the text (content, subtitles, layout (e.g. white space in between text blocs), lists,…) Theme orientation: comments on the theme of the seminar paper (e.g. stating the purpose of the present seminar paper, offer hypothesis, present research questions…) Digressive function: signalizes that a specific part of the seminar paper is just a comment or an excursus and not the main part of the text.

7 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Theoretical Basis: Underlying linguistic criteria Intertextuality = connect knowledge, inform about the present state of research, establish continuity, tradition and authority among a scientific community: Quotation (direct and indirect) Reference Allusion Collectivization

8 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Theoretical Basis: Underlying linguistic criteria Argumentation = explicate or argue sth.: Explaining sth. Defining sth. Argumentation strategies Sophism

9 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Theoretical Basis: Underlying linguistic criteria Modality = degree or kind of truth or the degree of objectivity assigned to a communicative act. In seminar papers modality occurs: when course participants position themselves when they try to be objective when they make evaluations when they introduce another authors perspective.

10 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Theoretical Basis: Underlying linguistic criteria Lexis = semantic value of a word, phrase or a communicative act: Terminology Style Use of acronyms and abbreviations Nominalizations Use of active and passive voice

11 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 1: Reconceptualizing analytical categories Newly formulated didactic categories: General issues of academic writing Difference between the language of everyday life and scientific language The structure of a seminar paper Connecting text-segments Quotation and Reference Explication and Argumentation

12 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 1: Contribution of areas of analysis to didactic units Areas of linguistic analysisDidactic units Macro-structure (SFL, RST)Structure of a seminar paper, connecting text-segments, argumentation Meta-communicationStructure of a seminar paper, connecting text-segments, general issues of academic writing IntertextualityQuotation and Reference ArgumentationExplication and Argumentation ModalityDifference between the language of everyday life and scientific language LexisDifference between the language of everyday life and scientific language

13 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 2: Building a modular course design Entrance module Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Evaluation Everyday Language vs. Language of Science: general aspects of writing process / web- based Focus on writing: discipline-specific aspects of text structure, intertexuality, argumentation / face-to-face and web-based Writing workshop: paralleling course or seminar / face-to-face and online exchange

14 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 3: Considering the dimension of joint actions Joint actions (Clark, 1996) combine different lines of activity, using language is only one of them Other relevant activity lines: –(Semiotic) modes of communication: Face to face written (textually mediated) synchronous asynchronous

15 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 3: Considering the dimension of joint actions Joint actions (Clark, 1996) combine different lines of activity, using language is only one of them Other relevant activity lines: –Communicative orientation (Koch & Österreicher, 1994): conceptually spoken conceptually written

16 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 3: Considering the dimension of joint actions Joint actions (Clark, 1996) combine different lines of activity, using language is only one of them Other relevant activity lines: –direction of communication: monological (in terms of setting properties: no or only limited possibilities for students activities during teaching activities) dialogical (in terms of setting properties: students activities as a part of teaching activity)

17 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 3: Considering the dimension of joint actions Joint actions (Clark, 1996) combine different lines of activity, using language is only one of them Other relevant activity lines: –n of communication partners: 1:1 1:n n:n

18 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 4: Considering the knowledge dimension Types of knowledge: encyclopedic knowledge: knowing that p (p: genres, generic stages, types of linguistic actions, argumentative patterns, discipline specific types of valid arguments, citation conventions etc. etc. procedural knowledge: knowing how to p (p: drafting an outline of a paper, organising ones work during the semester, finding relevant literature, writing exerpts, preparing a paper presentation, preparing a first draft of the paper, revising strategies meta-knowldege: knowing about knowing (or not knowing) that … and how to …

19 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 5: Considering the pedagogical dimension Types of pedagogic practices: Instructing: instructor centered, monological, 1:n, conceptually written or spoken, synchronous or asynchronous, transmission of encyclopedic knowledge Detecting: Learning by doing (legitimate peripheral participation, Lave & Wenger, 1993); joint activities of students and instructors, student centered, dialogical, acquisition of procedural and meta-knowledge professional communities (Schrittesser, in press): blended learning structures which seek for a compromise between the two above extremes; limited time frame; foster detecting of new content under the guide of instructors, student centered

20 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 5: Considering the pedagogical dimension Two Modes of knowledge production during pedagogic process: Making implicit (tacit) knowledge explicit: brainstorming in groups, working with real text examples, detecting of existing knowledge Acquiring new knowledge (connecting to existing knowledge): –Instructing –Detecting

21 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Institutional constraints personnel resources (2 instructors for 2 courses) time constraints (1 semester, 1-hour course)

22 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 6: Combining modes of communication to media (Holly, 1997) Sub dimensions of joint action plane/ communication media Hypertext (product oriented) (discussion tool, wiki) (process oriented) F2F – instruction (product oriented) F2F group exercises (process oriented) individual exercises (product oriented) (1) conceptual mode of communication writtenwritten & spokenspokeninteraction: spoken; output: written written (2) semiotic modalitymulti-modalprimarily textual (hypertext possible) spokeninteraction: spoken; output: textual textual (3) primary communicative function monologicaldialogicalmonologicaldialogicalmonological (4) n of communication partners 1:n1:1 (personal communication) 1:n (newsgroups etc.) 1:n1:n (student:stu- dent) 1:1 (student:in- structor) (6) synchronicity vs. asynchronicity asynchron- ous asynchronoussynchron- ous synchronousasynchron- ous

23 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Course Work designed to explicate previous knowledge and skills Brainstorming a topic or term Exercises working with a text o Describing o Detecting o Modifying o Composing Course Work designed to practice newly acquired knowledge and skills Brainstorming a topic or term Exercises working with a text o Classifying o Correlating, Grading or Sequencing o Abstracting o Focused Variation Step 7: Designing types of course work

24 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 8: A taxonomy of didactic options in the teaching of academic writing Mode of communication pedagogical practice type of knowledge type of exercises F2F instructing (lecture) conceptual knowledge (new concepts)/ meta(linguistic) knowledge classify, correlating, grading or sequencing (group exercises) detecting (group work) conceptual knowledge (implicitly/ tacitly known concepts)/ procedural knowledge/ meta(linguistic) knowledge abstracting, focused variation, writing (group exercises)

25 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft Step 8: A taxonomy of didactic options in the teaching of academic writing Mode of communication pedagogical practice type of knowledgetype of exercises online instructing (hypertext) conceptual knowledge (basic concepts and additional + background information)/ meta(linguistic) knowledge Classifying, correlating, grading or sequencing (short term, individual exercises) Detecting (e-discussion tool) conceptual knowledge (additional concepts which expand knowledge which was acquired in F2F workshop)/ procedural knowledge/ meta(linguistic) knowledge abstracting, focused variation, composition (long term, group exercises)

26 Helmut Gruber Birgit Huemer Markus Rheindorf Institut für Sprachwissenschaft References: Clark, Herbert (1996): Using Language. Cambrigde: C.U.P. Eggins, Suzanne and Martin, J.R. (1997): Genres and Registers of Discourse. In: Dijk, Teun A. van (ed.): Discourse as Structure and Process. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, Vol.1. London: Sage, Gruber, H., Muntigl, P., Reisigl, M., Rheindorf, M., Wetschanow, K., Czinglar, Ch. (2006): Genre, Habitus und wissenschaftliches Schreiben. Münster: LIT Verlag. Halliday, M.A.K.(1994): An Indroduction to Functional Grammar. London: Arnold Holly, Werner (1997): Zur Rolle von Sprache in Medien. Semiotische und kommunikationsstrukturelle Grundlagen. Muttersprache, 107, Koch, Peter & Wulf Oesterreicher (1994): Schriftlichkeit und Sprache. In: H. Günther and O. Ludwig (eds.), Schrift und Schriftlichkeit: ein interdisziplinäres Handbuch internationaler Forschung Berlin: de Gruyter. Lave, Jean & Etienne Wenger (1993): Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambrigde: C.U.P. Schrittesser, Ilse (in press): Die professional community: Zur Gestaltung einer geeigneten Lernumgebung für die Entwicklung und Vertiefung professionalisierten Handelns. Eine erste Bestandsaufnahme eines von der Universität Wien geförderten anwendungsbezogenen Forschungsprojekts. To be publised in: A. Mettinger, P. Oberhuemer, C. Zwiauer: eLearning an der Universität Wien, Münster: Waxmann.


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