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Ecosystem dynamics in time and space 11. April 2006 Introduction / Overview SS 2006 Lecture/Seminar.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Ecosystem dynamics in time and space 11. April 2006 Introduction / Overview SS 2006 Lecture/Seminar."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Ecosystem dynamics in time and space 11. April 2006 Introduction / Overview SS 2006 Lecture/Seminar

2 Zeit: Mittwoch, Uhr, oder? Ort: Seminarraum, oder? Language: English, oder? Scroll members, Wilmking and teaching

3 Kontakt: Dr. Martin Wilmking Münterstrasse 2, 1. Stock Tel: –

4 Overview I: Ecosystem / Landscape characteristics Structure Interaction Hierarchies in space and time General System Theory Stability and Instability Self organization Evolution

5 Overview II: Application of reality Real systems in time and space Landscape ecological complex analysis Your contribution… e.g. Dynamics of ecosystem boundaries Use of models in ecosystem science Design of Diplom thesis approach

6 Major goal for today: Start you thinking about some of the concepts in ecological science Maybe things are not as clear as we wish them to be

7 Questions to YOU at this point: What constitutes / belongs to an ecosystem? How big is an ecosystem? Define Landscape / Landschaft What is a dissipative system What is landscape ecology?

8 Terms, definitions on and on: Landscape / Ecosystem / Land-ecology / Landsystem / Total Human Ecosystem / Pattern and Process / ……

9 Terms, definitions on and on: Haase (1991): Der Begriff Landschaft bezeichnet Inhalt und Wesen eines von der Naturausstattung vorgezeichneten und durch die Gesellschaft beeinflussten und gestalteten Raum als Ausschnitt der Erdhülle. Zonnefeld (1995): Landschap equals 1)Scenery (Landschaftsbild) 2)Pattern (Mosaik und Gefüge) 3)Ecosystem in a pragmatically thinking Holism = Land ecology

10 Terms, definitions on and on: Troll (1970): Landschaftsökologie, Geoökologie, Biogeocoenologie alles das Gleiche Hard (1983): Es gibt keine Landschaftsökologie im Sinne einer Ökologie der ganzen Landschaft, aber natürlich gibt es viele Ökologen die sich irgendwie mit landschaftlichen Phänomenen beschäftigen, und einige wenige nennen sich dann, die beschriebene Suggestionskraft der Landschaftsvokabel nutzend, Landschafts- ökologen.

11 Terms, definitions on and on: Foreman and Godron (1986): We can now define landscape as a heterogeneous land area composed of a cluster of interacting ecosystems that repeat in similar form throughout.

12 Terms, definitions on and on: Naveh and Lieberman (1994): The Total Human Ecosystem is the complex sum of all landscapes, interacting and integrating with human beings. Whereas the geosphere, biosphere and noosphere can be understood as subsystems of the landscape, the THE is the conceptual suprasystem.

13 Terms, definitions on and on:

14 Example: What is landscape? Linguistic Landscapes: Concepts, languages and interpretation of the term Landscape in European countries.

15

16 Ecosystem Ecology Chapin et al. (2002): Study of interactions among organisms and their physical environment as an integrated system

17 What is an ecosystem? bounded ecological system consisting of all the organisms in an area and the physical environment with which they interact Simple ecosystem model

18 Concepts? System Interaction Spatial extent Temporal extent

19 Temporal dynamics?

20 General approaches Systems approach -Top-down -Based on observations of general patterns Mechanistic approach - Bottom-up - Based on process understanding

21 Observation of pattern

22 Ecosystem distribution is predictable from global patterns of wind and ocean circulation

23 Levels of simplifying assumptions Equilibrium Steady State Dynamic change

24 Ecosystems in space and time

25 Literature: Blumenstein, Schachtzabel: Grundlagen der Geoökologie Bastian, Steinhardt: Developments and Perspectives of Landscape Ecology Jantsch: Die Selbstorganisation des Universums Steinhardt et al: Lehrbuch der Laök

26 Literature: Schneider-Sliwa et al.: Angewandte Laök Briggs and Peat: Die Entdeckung des Chaos Chapin et al.: Principals of terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology

27 Example of long term dynamic:

28 Younger Dryas: Younger Dryas cooling

29 ACR / YDC:

30 Influx of freshwater from melting ice sheets Shutdown or slowing of thermohaline circulation Transition in a decade or so Most pronounced in Europe

31 ACR / YDC: Europe: Sweden saw displacement of forest by tundra Glaciation increased globally Dust increased in atmosphere from deserts in Asia Similar events in S hemisphere

32 ACR / YDC: End of Younger Dryas in years 3 distinctive steps 7°C warming in a few years No human interference

33

34 Spatial scale

35 Econ:


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