Die Präsentation wird geladen. Bitte warten

Die Präsentation wird geladen. Bitte warten

CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals Chapter 06 Addressing the Network – IPv4 CIDR und VLSM s. später. 1 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik.

Ähnliche Präsentationen


Präsentation zum Thema: "CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals Chapter 06 Addressing the Network – IPv4 CIDR und VLSM s. später. 1 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals Chapter 06 Addressing the Network – IPv4 CIDR und VLSM s. später. 1 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

2 IPv4 Address Each device on a network must be uniquely defined. The packets of the communication need to be identified with the source and destination addresses of the two end systems IPv4 is 32 bits in length and difficult for human to remember. Therefore, represent IPv4 addresses using dotted decimal format ( ) 2 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

3 Some portion of the high-order bits represents the network address. Network - a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns in the network address portion of their addresses. 3 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

4 A variable number of bits that are called the host portion of the address. The number of bits used in this host portion determines the number of hosts that we can have within the network. 4 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

5 Binary to Decimal Conversion 5 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

6 Binary to Decimal Conversion 6 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

7 7

8 Type of Addresses 8 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

9 Network Prefix How do we know how many bits represent the network portion and how many bits represent the host portion? We use network prefix. The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion Ex: /24, the /24 tells us that the first 24 bits are the network address. This leaves the remaining 8 bits, the last octet, as the host portion. 9 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

10 How do we calculate network address, broadcast address and host addresses? 10 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

11 Type of Communication In an IPv4 network, the hosts can communicate one of three different ways: - Unicast - the process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host - Broadcast - the process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network using broadcast address. Broadcast transmission is used for the location of special services/devices for which the address is not known or when a host needs to provide information to all the hosts on the network. 11 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

12 Multicast – it is designed to conserve the bandwidth of the IPv4 network. It reduces traffic by allowing a host to send a single packet to a selected set of hosts Ex of multicast transmission: Video and audio broadcasts, Routing information exchange by routing protocols, Distribution of software, News feeds Multicast clients need to subscribe to a multicast group using multicast address ( to ) 12 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

13 Multicast Transmission 13 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

14 Multicast address range is subdivided into different types of addresses: reserved link local addresses, globally scoped addresses and administratively scoped addresses (limited scope addresses). Reserved link local addresses to These addresses are to be used for multicast groups on a local network. Packets to these destinations are always transmitted with a time-to-live (TTL) value of 1. Therefore, a router connected to the local network should never forward them 14 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

15 Globally scoped addresses to They may be used to multicast data across the Internet. For example, has been reserved for Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize the time-of-day clocks of network devices. Limited scope addresses – limited to a local group or an organization 15 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

16 Reserved IP Addresses 16 Experimental addresses are listed as reserved for future use. Currently, they cannot be used in IPv4 networks. These addresses could be used for research or experimentation AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

17 Private IP Address Most IPv4 host addresses are public addresses There are blocks of addresses that are used in networks that require limited or no Internet access to ( /8) to ( /12) to ( /16) 17 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

18 Network Address Translation 18 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

19 Special IPv4 Addresses Network and Broadcast Addresses- As explained earlier, within each network the first and last addresses cannot be assigned to hosts. These are the network address and the broadcast address, respectively. Default Route - Also presented earlier, we represent the IPv4 default route as The default route is used as a "catch all" route when a more specific route is not available. Loopback - a special address that hosts use to direct traffic to themselves. EX: AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

20 Link-Local Addresses to These addresses can be automatically assigned to the local host by the operating system in environments where no IP configuration is available. TTL value 1 only. Link-local addresses do not provide services outside of the local network. TEST-NET Addresses to ( /24). Set aside for teaching and learning purposes. Unlike the experimental addresses, network devices will accept these addresses in their configurations. 20 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

21 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik – 21

22 Legacy IPv4 Addressing 22 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

23 Limitation of Class-based System Classful allocation of address space often wasted many addresses, which exhausted the availability of IPv4 addresses. Ex: a company that had a network with 260 hosts would need to be given a class B address with more than 65,000 addresses. The system that we currently use is referred to as classless addressing. With the classless system, address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class 23 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

24 Planning Address to the Network The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and documented for the purpose of: - Preventing duplication of addresses - Providing and controlling access - Monitoring security and performance IPv4 add can be assigned to hosts like: - End devices for users - Servers and peripherals - Hosts that are accessible from the Internet - Intermediary devices 24 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

25 An important part of planning an IPv4 addressing scheme is deciding when private addresses are to be used and where they are to be applied. Considerations include: - Will there be more devices connected to the network than public addresses allocated by the network's ISP? - Will the devices need to be accessed from outside the local network? - If devices that may be assigned private addresses require access to the Internet, is the network capable of providing a Network Address Translation (NAT) service? 25 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

26 26 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

27 Who assign addresses? 27 Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) ( ) is the master holderhttp://www.iana.net of the IP addresses. The IP multicast addresses and the IPv6 addresses are obtained directly from IANA. URL for APNIC: AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

28 Role of ISP (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tier-1) Most companies or organizations obtain their IPv4 address blocks from an ISP. The ISP loans or rents these addresses to the organization. Tier 1 ISP (erster Rang) - directly connected to the Internet backbone. The primary advantages for customers of Tier 1 ISPs are reliability and speed. The drawback for Tier 1 ISP customers is its high cost. Tier 2 ISP - Tier 2 ISPs acquire their Internet service from Tier 1 ISPs. Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. Slower Internet access and lower reliability than Tier 1 ISPs. 28 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

29 Tier 3 ISP - Tier 3 ISPs purchase their Internet service from Tier 2 ISPs. The focus of these ISPs is the retail and home markets in a specific locale. Tier 3 ISPs often bundle Internet connectivity as a part of network and computer service contracts for their customers. They may have reduced bandwidth and less reliability than Tier 1 and Tier 2 providers, 29 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

30 IPv6 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) grew concerned about the exhaustion of the IPv4 network addresses and began to look for a replacement for this protocol. Other than this, issues like: Improved packet handling, Increased scalability and longevity, QoS mechanisms and Integrated security are considred. Result: IPv6 30 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

31 To provide these features, IPv6 offers: bit hierarchical addressing - to expand addressing capabilities - Header format simplification - to improve packet handling - Improved support for extensions and options - for increased scalability/longevity and improved packet handling - Flow labeling capability - as QoS mechanisms - Authentication and privacy capabilities - to integrate security 31 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

32 Subnet Mask To define the network and host portions of an address, the devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask Ex: ( ) 1 represents network portion. 0 represents hosts You can use network prefix to represent the same thing. EX: /24 32 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

33 Understand AND operation The IPv4 host address is logically ANDed with its subnet mask to determine the network address to which the host is associated. 1 AND 1 = 11 AND 0 = 0 0 AND 1 = 00 AND 0 = 0 Reasons to use AND: - Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming packet. - An originating host must determine if a packet should be sent directly to a host in the local network or be directed to the gateway. 33 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

34 34 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

35 Basic Subnetting Given /28, answer the followings Class of this IP? Subnet mask in binary format? Number of subnets? [2^N] Number of hosts in each subnet? [2^N] Which subnet is this IP belong to? [AND] What is the broadcast add of this subnet? [Last IP] 35 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

36 Dividing the Network into Right Sizes 36 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

37 Subnetting a subnet, or using Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) was designed to maximize addressing efficiency. When identifying the total number of hosts using traditional subnetting, we allocate the same number of addresses for each subnet. If all the subnets have the same requirements for the number hosts, these fixed size address blocks would be efficient. However, most often that is not the case. 37 Subnetting a Subnet - VLSM AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

38 38 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

39 Testing the Network – Ping Ping is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts. Ping sends out requests for responses from a specified host address. Ping uses a Layer 3 protocol that is a part on the TCP/IP suite called Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). Ping uses an ICMP Echo Request datagram. Ping local loopback ( ) - A response indicates that IP is properly installed on the host. 39 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

40 Testing the Network – Ping Gateway A ping to the gateway indicates that the host and the router's interface serving as that gateway are both operational on the local network. If failed: - problem with router interface - set the wrong address for the gateway. - router interface may be fully operational but have security applied to it that prevents it from processing or responding to ping requests. - It is also possible that other hosts may have the same security restriction applied. 40 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

41 Traceroute – Test the path Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that allows us to observe the path between these hosts. The trace generates a list of hops that were successfully reached along the path. 41 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

42 ICMP – Supporting Testing & Messaging ICMP is the messaging protocol for the TCP/IP suite. ICMP provides control and error messages and is used by the ping and traceroute utilities. ICMP messages that may be sent include: Host conformation, Unreachable Destination or Service, Time exceeded, Route redirection & Source quench 42 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

43 Host Confirmation: An ICMP Echo Message can be used to determine if a host is operational. The host receiving the echo message replies with the ICMP Echo Reply. The ICMP Destination Unreachable can used to notify a host that the destination or service is unreachable. An ICMP Time Exceeded message is used by a router to indicate that a packet cannot be forwarded because the TTL field of the packet has expired. 43 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

44 A router may use the ICMP Redirect Message to notify the hosts on a network that a better route is available for a particular destination. This message may only be used when the source host is on the same physical network as both gateways. The ICMP Source Quench message can be used to tell the source to temporarily stop sending packets. A destination host may also send a source quench message if datagrams arrive too fast to be processed. When a host receives an ICMP Source Quench message, it reports it to the Transport layer. The source host can then use the TCP flow control mechanisms to adjust the transmission. 44 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –

45 45 The end… Fachschule für Elektrotechnik AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik – TI – Technische Informatik NWT – Netzwerktechnik –


Herunterladen ppt "CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals Chapter 06 Addressing the Network – IPv4 CIDR und VLSM s. später. 1 AK-Automatisierungs und Kommunikationstechnik."

Ähnliche Präsentationen


Google-Anzeigen