Präsentation zum Thema: "The Graphic Novel in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Review"— Präsentation transkript:
1 The Graphic Novel in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Review Binghamton University‘s2nd Annual Conference Foreign Language TeachingSeptember 20-21, 2014The Graphic Novel in the Foreign Language Classroom: A ReviewCame into this as newbie: what is out there on GN and FLScanned existing literature in this particular intersectionthis is the shortest possible overview of major findingswith emphasis on concrete exercises:Julia LudewigBinghamton, State University of New YorkDepartment of Comparative Literature
2 One text – Many competencies 2.1. Linguistic 2.2. (Inter-)Cultural Introduction One text – Many competencies2.1. Linguistic2.2. (Inter-)Cultural2.3. MultimodalPossible PitfallsInternet Resources36:30-6:
4 What is a GN? “sequential art” (Eisner 1985) long(er) advanced topics fleshed-out charactersvisually ambitiousOften will hear minimalist def. “sequential art”i.e. every cartoon-style narrative that extends over two or more panels- laymen’s definition: comics in book format- Umbrella term for comics and GNs
5 The fun factor authenticity popular culture young adult literature foreign culture/language as attractionreading motivationnon-didacticized texts
6 Linguistic Competencies First thing to mention:GNs can be used with many assignments teachers have been using with traditional textsLinguistic Competencies
7 Reading reading aloud (Ranker 2007) for beginners’ reading comprehension:yes/no-questions(Monnin 2009)vocab building>> vocab lists(David-West 2012)When it comes to reading >> aloud = optionFor beginnersGN also be used formalized Vocabulary buildingE.g. In form of text-based vocab listTwo examples from literature
8 the hat the hairband the fan Monnin suggests toEnlarge sequence for classroomPrepare index cardsHave students pin IC to excerpt(Monnin 2009)the faninspired by Monnin 2009
9 surprised shocked calm happy joyful sad curious eager bored - More advanced exercise would be to work on adjectivese.g. emotive adj. & those that describe facial expressionsDifferent levels of sophisticaltion: add synonyms - antonymshappyjoyfulsadcuriouseagerboredinspired by Davis 1997
13 The Good Ol’ Reading Log Plus additional section to focus on special panel that students likedHermann & Schröter 2012
14 First, they take a walk … Then, they talk about … Called “Sequential art”This invites sequential descriptionIn languages like German this sequential description would trigger complicated syntaxALSO perfect exercise for direct and reported speechFinally, Jobs agrees to...
15 kamen > sind gekommen Präteritum vs. Perfektwar > ist gewesensah > hat gesehenkamen > sind gekommenlag > hat gelegenAnother prominent grammatically-oriented exerciseDifferent tenses for different domains: e.g. French & German employing diff. past tensesHave students transform these tenses into the alternitiveinspired by Davis 1997
16 tu as >> vous avez ta >> votreLast exercise comes into play with languagesthat have T/V alternationAgain: students can find and then rewrite these formsinspired by Bridges 2009
17 Speaking read aloud >> practice pronunciation retelling >> use own wordsspecial emphasis: dialogue & spoken language
18 ContractionsInformal languageyaI’main’tinspired by Davis 1997
20 Meta-cognitive/linguistic abilities (Chun 2009) How does language change according toSituationParticipantsFunctionTimeCulturedifferent discourses, registers, different ‘masks’Cross-cultural comparisonsonomatopoeianon-verbal communication
23 “An important benefit of graphic novels is that they present alternative views of culture, history, and human life in general in accessible ways, giving voice to minorities and those with diverse viewpoints.”Schwarz 2002: 264
24 Reading your own culture rich in cultural stereotypes(Davis 1997, Vanderbeke 2006)professional stereotypesfamily rolesgender roles…reading in translation
37 critical & media literacy “critically engage with and reflect on the politics of […] representations”“link personal experiences with socio-historical and institutional power relations”(Chun 2009 after Morgan and Ramanathan)
38 Compare with other GNs on similar theme Barefoot Gen, Persepolis racial profiling and stereotypingAfrican Americans, Latinoscompare with other GNs on similarthemesDo “some of the experiences of Vladek Spiegelman resonate with … students’ senses of themselves? If so, how and in what ways?” ChunHow does racial profiling and stereotyping affect students today?Compare with other GNs on similar themeBarefoot Gen, Persepolis
39 Multimodality many semiotic codes verbal, visual, aural “Comics are notillustrations of a text, but acertain medium for the combinedrepresentation of text and picture. “ (Jüngst 2002)
40 Visual literacy: content read and interpretgesture,facial expression,movementclothing,perspective,typography,use of color(Templer 2009)how color affects emotions, [...] how angles of viewing affect perception, and how realism or lack of it plays into the message of a work” (“Bridging” PAGE).EXAMPLE: effect of color from “Books to change your life”OR PERSPECTIVE: Froschperspektive vs. Vogel etc.
41 Henseler 2012 Also means having students describe panels in details Plus describing the effect on them (reader)Henseler 2012
42 Visual literacy: Panels and Sequences How does the sequence influence meaning?Which clues help the reader to determine a reading order?Why did the artist structure the page this way?How do books employ different sequence patterns?Not only within the panelsBut also panels as artistic element themselves
48 Jaeckel & Süreyya Er 2010 Similar task in Sonderheft, S. 21 Add thought bubblesAct scene out with partnerJaeckel & Süreyya Er 2010
49 visual symbols comicssmell,movement,thinking,sound effects etc.visual grammar partly international, partly culture-specific (Derrick 2008)basics of comic design including not only the structure of panels and guttersBut also…
50 Manga iconography Cruciform > anger, irritation Drop > embarrasement
52 overemphasizing form (Hallet 2012) inaccessible or pricy material (Vanderbeke 2006)abstract language (Vanderbeke 2006)unintelligible humor (Ousselin 1997)patronizing students (Ousselin 1997)‘interference’ of words and text (Liu 2004)ethnocentricity (Templer 2009)
61 Mainstream comics DC Comics http://www.dccomics.com/ Garfield Comics.comOneManga.me
62 SourcesBridges, Elizabeth. “Bridging the Gap: A Literacy-Oriented Approach to Teaching the Graphic Novel Der erste Frühling.” Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German 42.2 (2009): Print. Chun, Christian. “Critical Literacies and Graphic Novels for English-Language Learners: Teaching Maus.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 53.2 (2009): 144–153. Print. David-West, Alzo. “Comics, Contractions, and Classics: At the Sign of the Lion in the University EFL Classroom.” The Journal of the Faculty of Foreign Studies. Aichi Prefectural University. Language and Literature 44 (2012): Print. Davis, Randall. “Comics: A Multi-dimensional teaching aid in integrated-skills classes.” ESL-lab, Web. 6 Jul Derrick, Justine. “Using Comics with ESL/EFL Students.” The Internet TESL Journal 11.7 (2008): n.p. Web. 19 Jun Eisner, Will. Comics and Sequential Art. New York: Norton, Print. Hallet, Wolfgang. “Graphic Novels. Literarisches und multiliterales Lernen mit Comic-Romanen.“ Der Fremdsprachliche Unterricht Englisch 117 (2012): 2-9. Print. Henseler, Roswitha. “Story-orientiere Aufgaben zu einer graphic novel stellen.” Der Fremdsprachliche Unterricht Englisch 117 (2012): Print. Hermann, Frank, and Anne Schröter. “Sophisticated Suspense. Fremdverstehen anhand einer graphic novel trainieren.” Der Fremdsprachliche Unterricht Englisch 117 (2012): Print. Jaeckel, Ralph, and Mehmet Süreyya Er. “ Faruk Geç’s A Letter from Germany. An interactive module for self-study and classroom use. Adapted for students of Turkish.” CIS University of Chicago, n.d. Web. 15 Septemeber 2014.
63 Sources (ctd.)Jüngst, Heike. “ Textsortenrealisierung im Comic-Format. Comics zum Fremdsprachenlernen." Lebende Sprachen 47 (2002): 1-6. Print. Kimes-Link, Ann, and Ivo Steininger. “American Born Chinese. Sich anhand einer graphic novel mit dem Leben zwischen zwei Kulturen auseinandersetzen.” Der Fremdsprachliche Unterricht Englisch 117 (2012): Print. Liu, Jun. “Effects of comic strips on L2 learners’ reading comprehension.” TESOL Quarterly 38.2 (2004): Print. Monnin, Katie. Teaching Graphic Novels. Practical Strategies for the Secondary ELA Classroom. Gainsville: Maupin House, Print. Ousselin, Edward. “Ils sont frais, mes menhirs”: Comic strips in the business French class. Journal of Language for International Business, 8.2 (1997): Print. Panknin, Christian, and Björn Wieland. “Let’s get outta here. Die Handlung einer graphic novel nachvollziehen.” Der Fremdsprachliche Unterricht Englisch 117 (2012): Print. Ranker , Jason. “Using comic books as read-alouds: Insights on reading instruction from an English as a second language classroom. The Reading Teacher, 61.4: Print. Schäfers, Monika. “This is not a diary. Narrative Strategien von grafischer Literatur untersuchen.” Der Fremdsprachliche Unterricht Englisch 117 (2012): Print. Schwarz , Gretchen. “Graphic novels for multiple literacies.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 46 (2002): Print. Templer 2009 in Humanising Language Teaching 11; Issue 3; Vanderbeke, Dirk. “Comics and graphic novels in the classroom.” Cultural Studies in the EFL Classroom. Ed. Werner Delanoy, and Laurenz Volkmann. Heidelberg, Winter Print.