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Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 1 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, April 16th, 2009 Man-made Cellulose Fibres as Reinforcement.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 1 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, April 16th, 2009 Man-made Cellulose Fibres as Reinforcement."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 1 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, April 16th, 2009 Man-made Cellulose Fibres as Reinforcement for Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Composites International Congress Innovative Natural Fibre Composites for Industrial Applications April 15th-18th 2009 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig Hochschule Bremen / University of Applied Sciences Faculty 5 / BIOMIMETICS Biological Materials

2 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 2 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Content Use of natural fibres for industrial applications Impact characteristics Production of composites Results Fibre characteristics Composite characteristics Influence of processing parameters Summary, conclusions & outlook

3 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 3 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Bio-based materials for industrial applications Biological materials, procedure & application Amount (region) Biodegradable plastics (packaging industry) 60,000-70,000 t (Western Europe, 2007) Biodegradable plastics (permantent use) 30,000-40,000 t (Germany, 2007) Compression moulding with natural fibres, without cotton (automobile industry) 29,000 t (Germany, 2005) Compression moulding with cotton fibres (truck manufacturer) 79,000 t (Germany, 2003) Natural fibre injection moulding and extrusion 3,000-4,000 t (Europe, 2006) (Gahle, changed)

4 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 4 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 (anonym, 2006) (NEC) + PLA/Kenaf – mobile phone (Nviroplast)

5 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 5 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Flax / PLA urn by Jakob Winter (Satzung, Germany) (Grashorn, 2007)

6 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 6 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 PLA/Kenaf spare tire cover made by Toyota Spare tire cover in Toyota RAUM (2003) made from kenaf fibre reinforced PLA (based on sugar beet) LCA on the spare tire cover showed reduced CO 2 emissions volume by as much as 90 % compared to conventional petroleum- based plastics (Anonym, 2007 ) Carbon neutral effect Index Petroleum based plastics Bioplastics

7 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 7 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Problem: Impact Bast fibre reinforced composites mostly display high stiffness and tensile characteristics But: impact characteristics are often the limiting factors for a use as construction materials due to the force elongation characteristics of the bast fibres

8 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 8 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Load-strain curves of different cellulose fibres Tensile strength, N/mm² Elongation, % Hemp Cotton Lyocell Lyocell fibres combine high elongation and high tensile strength

9 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 9 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Impact strength of different composites Kind of fibreCharpy impact strength of composites in kJ/m² Charpy impact strength of neat PLA in kJ/m² Reference 40 % hemp1024 (Graupner, 2009) 40 % flax1115 (Oksman et al., 2003) 40 % kenaf924 (Graupner, 2008) 40 % cotton2924 (Graupner, 2008) 40 % Lyocell4024 (Graupner, 2008) 30 % Cordenka7016 (Bax & Müssig, 2008)

10 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 10 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Lyocell as additive for impact improvement Mixing 50 % hemp and 50 % Lyocell fibres increased the impact strength clearly Unnotched Charpy impact strength (Graupner, 2009)

11 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 11 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Production of Lyocell/PLA composites Reinforcement: 3 kinds of Lyocell fibres (industrially gained fibres based on 100 % cellulose, density: 1.5 g/cm 3 ) produced by Lenzing AG (Lenzing, Austria) in different fineness (15.0, 6.7, 1.3 dtex) (Topkapi) (Packaging International) Matrix: Nature Works PLA polymer 6202D, density: 1.24 g/cm 3, melting temperature °C, glass transition temperature: 60-65°C

12 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 12 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Production of semi-finished parts Production of multilayer webs and needle felts with fibre loads of 20 and 40 mass-% and a mass per unit area of 2000 g/m² Fibres Carding machine Single layer web Needle felt machine Needle felt Positioned multilayer web (Müssig, 2001) Cross layer

13 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 13 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Compression moulding Pre-cut parts of 300 x 250 mm 2 were compression moulded (Rucks, Glauchau, Germany) Pre-heating at 180°C for 10 min Compression moulding with 3.2 MPa at 180°C for 10 min Aluminium slats as spacer (thickness: 2 mm) Demoulding at approx. 60°C

14 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 14 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Results: Characteristics of 3 kinds of Lyocell fibres for composite production Fibre width, µm Tensile strength, N/mm² Young´s modulus, N/mm² Elongation at break, % Lyocell Lyocell Lyocell Clear influence of fibre fineness on mechanical fibre characteristics

15 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 15 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Results: Tensile strength of composites made from multilayer webs vs. needle felts Composites made from the needle felts show significant higher tensile strength compared to composites made from the multilayer webs Influence of fibre fineness can be seen

16 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 16 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Results: Reduction of fibre mass content of the multilayer webs Reduction of fibre mass content of the multilayer webs lead to increased tensile strength of the composites Tensile strength

17 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 17 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Results: Impact strength of composites made from the multilayer webs Increasing impact strength with raising fibre mass content Composites with a low degree of compaction No significant influences whether multilayer webs or needle felts were used Unnotched Charpy impact strength

18 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 18 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Results: SEM micrographs of tensile fractured surfaces 40 % Lyocell 1.3 needle felt/PLA composite 40 % Lyocell 1.3 multilayer web/PLA composite 20 % Lyocell 1.3 multilayer web/PLA composite

19 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 19 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Results: Influence of process parameters of 40 % Lyocell multilayer web / PLA (Graupner, 2009) Clear inluence on: - 10 min pre-heating, 180 °C - 10 min compression moulding 180 °C - 3 h pre-drying, 105 °C - 20 min compression moulding 180 °C Process parameters compaction coating of fibres with matrix interfacial interactions between fibres and matrix - 10 min pre-heating, 180 °C - 10 min compression moulding 180 °C Tensile strength: 42 N/mm² Young´s modulus: 4142 N/mm² Impact strength: 33 kJ/m² Tensile strength: 82 N/mm² Young´s modulus: 6784 N/mm² Impact strength: 40 kJ/m²

20 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 20 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Summary, conclusions & outlook Lyocell fibres have great potential as reinforcement (high tensile strength and high elongation at break) Lyocell and PLA fibre are processable with conventional textile and formpressing techniques Semi-finished textile products and process parameters have a clear influence on the composite characteristics Compression moulding times and temperatures as well as the influence of pre-drying and pre-heating are important factors Full potential of Lyocell fibres could not be achieved due to suboptimal process parameters using multilayer webs Needle felts lead to better composite characteristics than multilayer webs An optimised production leads to Lyocell/PLA composites which show high impact properties combined with good tensile characteristics

21 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 21 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig University of Applied Sciences Faculty 5 / BIOMIMETICS Biological Materials

22 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 22 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 Acknowledgements We thank … Dr. Sames (Lenzing AG, Lenzing, Austria) for supplying Lyocell fibres Dipl.-Ing. C. Grashorn (IST Ficotex, Bremen, Germany) for supplying PLA Prof. Dr. A. S. Herrmann (Faserinstitut Bremen e.V., Bremen Germany) and G. Gödecke (NAFGO GmbH, Neerstedt, Germany) for support in semi-finished product and composite production the students of the course Materials Research at University of Applied Sciences Bremen – Biomimetics for measuring tensile and impact strength of needle felt reinforced composites

23 Klicken Sie, um das Titelformat zu bearbeiten 23 Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig / Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009 References Anonym (2006): Complete mobile phone housing made of PLA. In: Bioplastics, Vol. 1, (06/01), p. 18 – 19 Anonym (2007): Bioplastics in Automotive Applications. Bioplastics Magazine, Vol. 2 (1), p Bax, B., Müssig, J. (2008): Impact and tensile properties of PLA/Cordenka and PLA/flax composites. Composites Science and Technology 2008; 68: Gahle, C. (2008): Nova-Institut: Biowerkstoffe – Werkstoffe mit Zukunft: Aktuelle Marktdaten und attraktive Produktbeispiele. In: Biowerkstoff Report, Okt., Nov., Dez., p. 26 Grashorn, C. (2007): Erstes Serienprodukt aus naturfaserverstärktem PLA im Spritzguss. In: Nova Institut, Hürth, Germany; 5. N-FibreBase Kongress. Hürth 21st-22nd Mai –in German Graupner, N. (2008): Application of lignin as natural adhesion promoter in cotton fibre-reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites. Journal of Materials Science 2008; 43 (15): Graupner, N. (2009): Improvement of the Mechanical Properties of Biodegradable Hemp Fibre Reinforced Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Composites by the Admixture of Man-made Cellulose Fibres. Journal of Composite Materials 2009; Vol. 43 (6): Müssig, J. (2001): Untersuchung der Eignung heimischer Pflanzenfasern für die Herstellung von naturfaserverstärkten Duroplasten – vom Anbau zum Verbundwerkstoff -. Fortschritt-Berichte VDI Reihe 5 Nr Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag 2001, (ISBN ) Nviroplast:http://www.nviroplast.com/images/corn2resin.jpg&imgrefurl, NEC:http://i.treehugger.com/files/kenaf_phone.jpg&imgrefurl, Oksman, K., Skrifvars, M., Selin, J.-F. (2003): Natural fibres as reinforcement in polylactid acid (PLA) composites. Composites Science and Technology, 63: Packaging International:http://www.packaging-int.com/images/companies/2017/veriplastimage2.jpg, http://www.packaging-int.com/images/companies/2017/veriplastimage2.jpg Topkapi:http://www.topkapi-iplik.com.tr/images/prod_images/lyo3.jpg, http://www.topkapi-iplik.com.tr/images/prod_images/lyo3.jpg


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