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Self-regulated Learning

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Self-regulated Learning"—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Self-regulated Learning
Basics and Application in Multimedia Learning

2 A Definition of Learning
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience (Klein, 2009) Learning changes the potential for a behavior The results of the experiences are not forcing permanent The changes must not been observable There are always motivational components determining the behavior

3 Some General Theories Behaviorism Social Learning Cognitivism

4 Behaviorism - Thorndike (1874-1947): Associationism
Stimulus-response association (S-R) Puzzle-Box Law of effect: if a behavior causes a specific effect this changing the probability of doing it Law of Exercise: We learn by doing. We forget by not doing, although to a small extent only. Law of readiness: Interference with goal directed behavior causes frustration and causing someone to do something they do not want to do is also frustrating.

5 Behaviorism – Pavlov ( ): Classical conditioning (Klassische Konditionierung; Warunkowanie klasyczne) Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) elicits an unconditioned response (UCR) A first neutral event occurs with the UCS and become a conditioned stimulus (CS) which elicits the UCR as well So the UCR becomes a conditioned response (CR) Generalization Extinction Watson ( ) Working a lot with aversive responses Working with human (little Albert) UCS  UCR CS + UCS  UCR CS  UCR

6 Behaviorism – Skinner ( ): Operant Conditioning (Operante Konditionierung; Warunkowanie instrumentalne) Skinner-Box Operant response: An event whose occurrence influence the frequency of behavior Positive reinforcement (Reinforcement) Negative reinforcement (Escape) Positive punishment (Punishment) Negative punishment (Penalty) Contingency: the more probable an operant response results because of a specific behavior the higher the contingency

7 Skinner-Box

8 Social Learning – Bandura (+1925): learning by observation
Learning by observing others acting within an environment and anticipate cognitions. Behavior, environment and cognitions are not static or independent but all reciprocal. The imitation of a specific behavior depends on the Observed consequences The anticipate associate emotions The identification with the model The self-efficacy beliefs

9 Cognitivism Learning as information-processing function
Selective perception and interpretation Based on individual experiences, knowledge and development Interaction of learn-setting and the cognitive structure of the learner Knowledge: supporting internal processes e.g. with structured overviews or advance organizer Skills and abilities: activation with process related support and feedback

10 Models of information-processing
Representation of experiences in semantic networks Assimilation: Integration of new exp. within the network Accommodation: Change of existing structures Proposals and schemata (or scripts) Dual coding theory: verbal (semantic network) and an nonverbal (pictorial) storage systems of information. Information is activated representational: the direct activation of verbal or non-verbal representations referential: the activation of the verbal system by the nonverbal system or vice-versa associative processing: the activation of representations within the same verbal or nonverbal system. Mental model

11 Learning within the mental model
Single-loop learning Double-loop learning

12 The Stage Theory

13 Bloom´s Taxonomy – cognitive domain

14 Constructivism – basic assumption
Epistemological Everyone has an subjective view of the world There are no objective perceptions, knowledge is „viabel“ We just see, what we already know The common sense is social negotiated Learning perspective Learning is a process of individual construction Relations cannot be found within the experience; they are thought by the actor Knowledge cannot be taught, it will be internal generated

15 Constructivism positions
Radical one: The construction of knowledge is individual an self-determined, instructions inhibit the individual act of constraction Self-policing leads to viable solutions, when there are also settings non-viable solutions do not work Moderate one: Supporting the construction with Expertise in multiple settings Sample of situation for testing viability Motivation to selfreflexion

16 Instruction-Models Anchored Instruction
Teaching in the context of learning e.g. video tutorials More transfer by showing the principals in different settings Cognitive Flexibility Multiple perspective results in a flexible representation Different times, different goals, different contexts Building an individual cognitive map Cognitive Apprenticeship The learner observed an expert Explication of internal cognitive processes Modeling, coaching, fading, articulation, reflection

17 Straka (2003): The Two-Shell-Model of Motivated Self-Directed Learning

18 Winne & Hadwin (1998): Model of self-regulated learning
COPES SMART Scanning, monitoring, assembling, rehearsal, translating

19 Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1988: 9 Events of instruction
Gain attention Inform about objectives Stimulate recall of prior knowledge Present the material Provide guidance for learning Elicit performance Provide feedback Assess performance Enhance retention and transfer


21 Course-Evaluation Scales Items M SD α Score Range
Acceptance Online Portal 6 25.90 2.36 .66 6-30 Acceptance Modules 13 54.93 4.76 .80 13-65 Acceptance Tasks 22.35 2.91 .75 Emotion Enjoyment 23.45 2.56 .72 Emotion Anger 5 10.03 2.15 .74 5-25 Emotion Boredom 11.07 2.39 Self-Efficiency 10 42.35 5.40 .83 10-50 Transfer Tasks 8 102.75 6.55 .55 0-120


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