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History of development cooperation

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1 History of development cooperation
Part 2 Milestones towards a new architecture of development cooperation The end of the Cold War changed a lot as concern attitudes towards development Cooperation. But long before the course was set ! Truman text (next slide) Aber schon lange vor dem Ende des kalten Krieges wurden die weichen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit neu gestellt bzw, die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit aus der Taufe gehoben (Truman Text) Trogen, 3 July 2012

2 the „Invention“ of Underdevelopment
Inaugural Speech of US-President Harry S. Trumann, 20th Januay 1949: Four point program for peace and liberty Creation of the North Atlantic Treaty (Defence) Organization (NATO) Continuation of the „Marshall-Plan“ and similar programs to reconstruct world economy after 2. World War 3. Support of the UN 4. Support to „underdevelopped“ regions

3 Extract of Truman‘s Inaugural speech 1949 (Point-Four Declaration)
“Fourth, we must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. More than half of the people of the earth are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate. They are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more prosperous areas. For the first time in history, humanity possesses the knowledge and skill to relieve the suffering of these people. ... I believe that we should make available to peace-loving peoples the benefits of our store of technical knowledge in order to help them realize their aspirations for a better life. .... We invite other countries to pool their technological resources in this undertaking This should be a cooperative enterprise in which all nations work together through the United Nations and its specialized agencies whenever practicable. It must be a worldwide effort for the achievement of peace, plenty, and freedom. With the cooperation of business, private capital, agriculture, and labour in this country, this program can greatly increase the industrial activity in other nations and can raise substantially their standards of living....” Self determined development aspects are missing / we doing something good for the poor (charity aspects) Positive (promotes role of just created UN), (pooling of resources, intervening on various levels business, private sector ....)

4 Group work What do you think of the perceptions and concepts of the „Point Four Declaration“ ? What are positive aspects of this declaration? Where would you criticize it? What is still valid today? (10 minute brain-storming) Positive /progressive/prospective innovative features (green cards) Negative /paternalistic features (red cards) Nevertheless, forward-looking speech which oriented development cooperation very much Historically important (besides the end of cold war) have been the 60th and 70th of last century – first of all the raising up of worldwide Student Movements (next slide)

5 60th/70th: The „Third World on Advance“
Student movement in Mexico, Massacre of Tlatelolco, „The sad night“ 3. October 1968 Mao Tse-Tung 1966 Student uprise occured not only in Europe: the violence (30 – 1000 dead) occurred ten days before the 1968 Summer Olympics celebrations in Mexico City. The Mexican government invested a massive $150 million in preparations for the 1968 Olympics that were to be hosted in Mexico City. That amount was equal to roughly $7.5 billion dollars by today's terms 1966/1967 cultural revolution in China was a socio-political movement designed to further advance socialism in the country by removing capitalist elements from Chinese society. The movement brought chaos, as social norms largely evaporated and the previously established political institutions disintegrated at all levels of government. Mao alleged that bourgeois elements were permeating the government and society at large, aiming to restore capitalism. He insisted that these "revisionists" be removed through violent class struggle. It resulted in widespread factional struggles in all walks of life. In the top leadership, it led to a mass purge of senior officials who were accused of deviating from the socialist path, most notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. During the same period Mao's personality cult grew to immense proportions. The Cultural Revolution damaged the country on a great scale economically and socially. Millions of people were persecuted in the violent factional struggles that ensued across the country, and suffered a wide range of abuses including torture, rape, imprisonment, sustained harassment, and seizure of property. A large segment of the population was forcibly displaced, most notably the transfer of urban youth to rural regions during the Down to the Countryside Movement. Historical relics and artifacts were destroyed. Cultural and religious sites were ransacked. The political instability between 1971 and the arrest of the Gang of Four in 1976 are now also widely regarded as part of the Revolution. After Mao's death in 1976, forces within the Party that opposed the Cultural Revolution, led by Deng Xiaoping, gained prominence. Most of the Maoist reforms associated with the Cultural Revolution were abandoned by The Cultural Revolution has been treated officially as a negative phenomenon ever since; in 1981, the Party assigned chief responsibility to Mao, but also laid significant blame on Lin Biao and the Gang of Four for causing its worst excesses. Daniel Cohn Bendit Paris, May 1968

6 60th/70th: The „Third World on Advance“
Evacuation of US-Embassy Saigon 1975 Vietnam War, 1972 Coming up of the Peace Movement The worldwide resistance against the War in Vietnam played a central role for the Peace Movement and the Mouvement against Imperialism of the North Both the student movements and the cultural revolution in China influenced movements in the developing world and made the „Third World“ a factor in World Politics (next slide)

7 The „Third World“ – a factor in world policy during the 60th and 70th
Critic of industrialized countries development model: first UN-conference on Human Environment (Stockholm); Club of Rome: „The Limits to Growth“ (1972) Cultural Revolution in China (1966/67) fascination of the left wing movements for the radical ideas of Mao Tse Tung Sympathies for socialistic ideas in the Third World African Socialism in Tanzania (Nyerere) Fight against imperialism of the North: 68th movement in Europe, solidarity movements with „Third World“ Independance Mouvements in the South Fight against the White in South Africa, Rhodesia, Angola, Mozambique and liberalisation movements in Latin America „Carnation-Revolution“ in Portugal (1974) result in independance of last colonies (Angola, Mosambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cap Verde) Stockholm conference was a turning point in the developmet of international development policies (state of global environment) Carnation was the signal for independance of remaining colonies (next slide)

8 60th/70th: The „Third World on Advance“
Victory of mosamb. FRELIMO, Independance from Portugal 1975 25 April 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, coupled with an unanticipated and extensive campaign of civil resistance. These events effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a democracy, and produced enormous changes in social, economic and political structures of Portugal's new regime pledged itself to end the colonial wars and began negotiations with the African independence movements. By the end of 1974, Portuguese troops had been withdrawn from Portuguese Guinea and the latter had become a UN member. This was followed by the independence of Cape Verde, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and Angola in The Carnation Revolution in Portugal also led to Portugal's withdrawal from East Timor in Southeast Asia. Portugal,last african country which achieved independance The 70th saw fundamental changes as concerns development approaches (next slide) Carnation revolution, Portugal 1974

9 Development Cooperation since the 80th: the search for impact
The basic needs strategies of the 80th and 90th The rough wind of the 80th The end of the cold war Searching for aid effectiviness Milestones to a new development cooperation architecture

10 Basic needs strategy: Pearson-Report (1969) World Bank Strategy during President McNamara (1972)
Satisfaction of basic needs: Development must be oriented towards the satisfaction of basic needs of the poorest social strata: Nutrition, drinking water, housing, education and infrastructure Participation: Population must be involved in change processes and given the possibility to activly participate in planning and implementation of change processes. Development of participative methods: bottom-up approaches development of participative methods Former Canadian Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson accepted an invitation from Robert S. McNamara, then President of the World Bank, to form a commission to review the previous 20 years of development assistance, assess the results, and make recommendations for the future. Pearson was a former diplomat and Nobel Peace Prize winner who had played an active role in UN affairs (initiator of UN peace forces) . On September 15, 1969, slightly more than a year after McNamara’s invitation, Pearson and seven colleagues on the Commission on International Development—which became known as the Pearson Commission—delivered their report, "Partners in Development“ A policy change by upcoming conservatives in industrialized countries towards Neoliberalism in the 80th (Thatcher, Kohl, Reagan) favored the Structural Adjustment Policies of the 80th and 90th) which had quite some impact in the developing world (next slide) Debate - skepticism and opposition by: adherents of growth and macro-economic approaches many developing countries which believed that industrialized countries try to distract them from the new dynamic of the world economy and industrialization by promoting the basic needs strategy.

11 Transfert into practice: Period of Integrated Rural Development Projects / Programs (70th – 90th)
IHDP: Integrated Hill Development Project, Nepal ( ) DRI Yoro, DRI Margoas, DRI Chinorte: Desarrollo Rural Integrado, Honduras and Nicaragua (80-er und 90-er Jahre) TIRDEP: Tanga Integrated Rural Development Program, Tanzania ( ) Orientation towards basic needs: Agriculture, education, health infrastructure, living conditions etc. Community Development starting in the 80th Participation: bottom-up approaches; methodologies to pro,mote participation (target oriented project planning/ZOPP, Participatory Rural Appraisal, Selfpromotion), Base organisations: promotion of base organisations (e.g.cooperatives, producer organisations etc..) Appropriate and sustainable technologies: low extrenal input strategies, agroforestry, animal traction instead of tractors etc.

12 Transfert into practice: Period of Integrated Rural Development Projects / Programs (70th – 90th)
DRI Yoro, DRI Margoas, DRI Chinorte: Desarrollo Rural Integrado, Honduras und Nicaragua (80-er und 90-er Jahre) TIRDEP: Tanga Integrated Rural Development Program, Tanzania ( ) Ausrichtung auf Grundbedürfnisse: Landwirtschaft, Bildung, Gesundheit, Wohnen, Infrastruktur Community Development: Entwicklung auf Dorfebene Partizipation: bottom-up approach; methodische Ansätze zur Förderung der Partizipation (zielorientierte Projektplanung/ZOPP, Participatory Rural Appraisal, Auto-Promotion), Basisorganisationen: Aufbau von Basisorganisationen (z.B. Genossenschaften, ProduzentInnen-Organisationen, Nutzer-Gruppen, etc.) angepasste und nachhaltige Technologien: z.B. Minimisierung resp. Eliminierung von externen Inputs in der Landwirtschaft; Agro-Forstwirtschaft; Tierzug statt Traktoren

13 Debt crisis in developing countries
towards macro-economic stability in developing countries Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP) Debt crisis in developing countries Targets: Restoration of liquidity and credit worthiness Control of (hyper-) inflation Balance of state expenditures and external trade medium- and lonterm improvement of the chances to achieve economic growth and orientation towards world marke Implementation of neoliberal economical and financial reform measures in developing countries (under leadership of World Bank and IMF) Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP) impulsed by donors Origin of SAP Debt crisis since 70th: high oil prices, low prices for raw materials, unproductive, meaningless investment projects, subsidy programs which have been financed by credits 13. August 1982: Mexiko annonces insolvency erklärt die Zahlungsunfähigkeit! Debt overload of many developing countries (interest rates for debts became higher than state icome in foreign currency) Schuldendienst überstieg Deviseneinnahmen) durch: grosse Investitionsvolumen durch Petrodollars (Preisanstieg des Erdöls infolge OPEC-Embargo 1973); z.T. And Neo-conservative mouvement of the 80th (next dia)  critic: Redistribution of wealth and poverty reduction are not (explicit) targets of the SAP

14 The „neo-conservative Revolution“ of the 80th
politicy change in industrialized countries  Neo-conservatives M. Thatcher/GB, 1981 R. Reagan/USA), 1982 H. Kohl/Germany Vision: worldwide competition of open economies (M. Friedman and others) New regulatory policies (neo-liberalism): Priority are macro-economic stability and economic growth Liberalisation of economies: derugulation, privatisation, free trade Reduction of state role Markets as central allocation and regulation mechanisms increased appreciation of private sector New Public Management (introduction of market ecomomic rules inside public administrations)

15 Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) (Washington Consensus)
Stabilisation of Macroeconomy Balanced government budgets (decrease of subsidies, cutting social budgets (health, education), less government employees, increased tax income, .... Price stability: depreciation of currency, no restriction of foreign currency exchange Foreign trade balance, promotion of exports, restriction of imports Privatisation of government enterprises and parastatals and extractive industries Deregulations No price controls Reduction of role played by state Liberalisation of national capital markets and foreign trade No import restrictions Promoting (foreign) direct investments

16 Costs of the SAPs social costs for poor: the 80th: a lost decade?
social services (education, health etc.) became expensive price oncreases: basic food (was often subsidized before), transport, energy, water etc. reduction or loss of specific governmental support programs such as: rural extension, health advice, adult education the 80th: a lost decade? in many countries economic growth decreased or became even negative poverty reduction stagnated or poverty even increased (deterioration of child mortality reduction, school enrolment .... ) Costs in exchange for ending hyperinflations in many countries (e.g. Bolivia and Mozambique) social mitigtion measures (since end of 80th) sociale Investment funds: Infrastructure, improvement of production & marketing food aid SDA: Social Dimension of Adjustment Program: Initiative of the World Bank in Africa: Combination of social investments, job creating measures ... As a reaction to the failure of SAPs World Bank started to introduce Comprehensive Development Frameworks (CDF) (next slide) social mitigation measures (since end of 80th)

17 the search for alternatives „What Now“ (1975) Report of the Dag-Hammarskjöld-Foundation to the UN
Development as endogen and self-determined process there exists no universal formula/model for development! Satisfaction of basic needs Developmment must focus on satisfaction of basic needs of poorest population strata: nutrition, housing, health and education Participation (bottom-up approaches) Concerned population has to be included in change processes Elimination of internal inequalities Poverty and underdevelopment is not only a result of external dependencies but also of internal inequalities. Respect of ecological limits for growth Industrialized countries should change their consumption patterns and economic systems Reorganisation of the UN – system more efficiency and decentralisation Importance Search for alternative approaches between the radical approaches of the developng countries and the industrialized countries (subsequent reports with similar tendencies: Brandt-Report 1980, Brundtland-Report 1987, Report of the South Commission 1990 Concepts and requests Satisfaction of basic needs Developmment must focus on satisfaction of basic needs of poorest population stratas: nutrition, housing, health and education (see Pearson-Report 1969, and basic needs strategy of the World Bank under president Robert McNamara, 1972) Elimination of internal inequalities Poverty and underdevelopment is not only a result of external dependencies but also of internal inequalities. Development aid should favour states which fight against internal inequalities. Staes which do not respect human rights should be excluded from developing aid.

18 Comprehensive Development Framework (CDF), World Bank (1998)
Concept of holistic national development strategies as common basis for national and international actors inside a country (national government, civil society,and private sector, multi- and bilateral donor organisations, international NGOs) Principles of the CDF: Long-term holistic vision Country ownership Country-led partnership Results focus The concrete instrument to implement the CDFs are the PRS (PRSP) (next slide) 18

19 Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP), World Bank and IMF (1999)
concrete instrument to implement CDF-concept primary goal of development aid is poverty reduction each developing country elaborates a national poverty reduction strategy PRSP pre-condition to participate at debt-relief initiative for highly indebted countries (HIPIC) Also quite important for the implementation of the MDG (refer to yesterday) Paralell to the World Bank the DAC OECD developed new ideas (next slide) 19 19

20 Elements of a PRSP Poverty analysis: Targets: Strategy:
Definition of poverty, identification of poor population groups, analysis of causes for and obstacles to overcome poverty Targets: Formulation of objectives and indicators for poverty reduction Strategy: Elaboration of a holistic stragy to reduce poverty (ways how to rreach objectives) Implementation: Implementation costs, financing strategy (needed own and external funds) Particpation: Description of the participative elaboration process (Civil Society and private sector included?) Monitoring: Elaborated monitoring-mechanism

21 OECD/DAC: „Shaping the 21st Century“ (1996)
„Shaping the 21st Century: the Contribution of Development Cooperation“ 4 principles fo a partner-based cooperation: Country priorities: Interests and priorities of developing countries have to be in the center Ownership: Every country has to elaborate its locally owned strategy, which should orient the progams and activities of donors Multi-Stakeholder approach: Planning and implementation have to involve a multitude of stakeholders from the state , private sector and the Civil Society Local capacities: Development processes have to strengthen and be built on local capacities 21

22 The Search for Effectiveness of Development Aid Debade on Aid Effectiveness
Themes: National Ownership: Who is in the driver seat? Favoring frame conditions: Good Governance Limits of project approaches ➔ from Project- to Program Approach Actors (in the beginning): OECD/DAC: Development Assistance Committee (Development Co-operation Directorate) ➔ Organisation of the donor countries United Nations (UN): Important power of the development and transition countries (hold majority of the General Assembly) World Bank: under the presidency of James Wolfensohn ( ) the World Bank became the leading „Development Organisation“ What are the limits of project approaches ? (next slide)

23 Limits of the Project Approaches
Limted effectivity /impact Impact restricted to direct target groups (isolated „island“ solutions) Multiplication of strategies (up-scaling, mainstreaming) often not successful No or limited influence on political frame conditions Limited Sustainability reduced utility after external support missing ownership because of dominant role played by international development organisations Just to illustrate it with some examples (next slide) Creation of donor driven Parallel Structures Project Implementing Units outside regular structures regular structures are not strenghthened Projects develop towards (dependant) organisations

24 Problems of project approaches:
Example Vietnam: bilateral agencies, 19 multilteral Agencies, internationae NGOs  8000 Projects Example Mosambique Agencies, 840 new projects/year  > 1000 Project finding-, Monitoring- and Evaluationmissions / year  thousands of reports high transaction costs, missing ownership and donor coordination

25 Development Aid in too much pieces of too much donors
Governments are absorbed by development cooperation !!! Problems of coherence and coordination Little national Ownership; Projects are donor driven (each donor has ist own concept – each project shows the flag of the donor) High transaction costs: different procedures and requirements In consequence learning out of the failure of tproject approaches the follwing instruments/ principles became to be favored (next slide)

26 Instruments for new architecture of development cooperation
Basis: PRSPs as binding national development strategies Alignment and Harmonisation as binding principles  Project support: Projects/Programs of multi- or bilateral agencies as well as international or national NGOs, preferably in Partnership with national government structures or/and Civil Society actors and private sector. Main objective – capacity development.  SWAP: Sector-wide Approach. Close collaboration of donors, ministries, NGOs and private sector based on a national sector strategy. Budget of donors tranferred to budget of repsective sector ministry or to a basket fund of donors.  General Budget Support (GBS): Development aid budget are transferred to budget of partner government Program- based approaches Donor governments and aid agencies began to realise that their many different approaches and requirements were imposing huge costs on developing countries and making aid less effective. They began working with each other, and with developing countries, to harmonise their work in order to improve its impact. It is against this background that the international aid effectiveness movement began taking shape in the late 1990s and resulted in the Paris Declaration In order to improve aid effectiveness (next slide).


28 Ebenen der Politikberatung
Dezentralisierungs-ebene Nationale Ebene Meso-Ebene Lokale Ebene Regierung Ministerien, Institutionen (Statistikamt, etc.) Distriktregie-rungen und -institutionen Kommunalver-tretungen (Bürgermeister, Gemeinderäte) Zivilgesellschaft NGO-Dachver-bände, Vereini-gungen von Nutzergruppen Zivilges. Vereinigungen auf Distriktebene NGOs, zivilges. Organisationen wie Nutzerkomitees Privatwirtschaft Berufsvereinigungen, Industrie- und Handels-kammern Berufsverbände auf Distriktebene Genossenschaf-ten, Business Development Committees

29 Prinzipien der Politikberatung
Nachhaltigkeit Schwerpunkt auf Capacity Development beim Partner (Individuen, Organisationen, Gesellschaft) Ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Vorgänge und systemische Ansätze Berücksichtigung ökologischer und sozialer Aspekte Partizipation Transparenz Gegenseitige Verantwortung Führt dann hoffentlich zu gegenseitigem Vertrauen, ohne das Politikberatung nicht funktioniert.

30 Warum ist der „New International Economic Order“ gescheitert?
1. Abbröckeln der gemeinsamen Front der EL: zunehmend unterschiedliche Entwicklungsdynamik und Interessenlage innerhalb der Gruppe der EL: NIC (newly industrialised countries): Brasilien, Mexiko, Argentinien, Chile, Costa Rica, Venezuela; später die südost-asiatischen „Tiger-Staaten“; z.T. auch die Grossstaaten Indien und China Erdöl-exportierende Staaten: Nahost, Nordafrika, Venezuela, Mexiko, Nigeria, Indonesien LDC (least developed countries): sub-Sahara Afrika, einige Länder Lateinamerikas und Asiens 2. weltweite Wirtschaftskrise in den 70-er Jahren, ausgelöst durch die steigenden Erdölpreise als Folge des OPEC-Embargos von 1973 Industrieländer stellen ihre eigenen Wirtschaftsinteressen in den Vordergrund Stagnierung der Budgets für Entwicklungshilfe Auswirkungen der Wirtschaftskrise in den IL auf die Wirtschaft in den EL (stagnierender Welthandel, verlangsamtes Wirtschaftswachstum) Beginn der übermässigen Verschuldung der EL infolge der Zunahme des weltweiten Investitionsvolumens (Petrodollars) 3. Fehlende verbindliche Umsetzungsmechanismen Beschlüsse der UNO-Vollversammlung sind nicht bindend → Prinzip der nationalen Souveränität Vetorecht der fünf ständigen Mitglieder des Sicherheitsrates

31 Modernisation theory of Walt Rostow The Stages of Economic Growth: a Non-Communist Manifesto, 1960
Traditional Society: traditional agrarian societies with restricted growth potential Pre-conditions for Take-off The society and especially elites perceive the potentials and necessity of investions, innovation, change and progress Take-off Phase of economic boom; long period of productive investions and technical progress and growth Drive to Maturity Development towards maturity; consolidation and widening of industrialisation Age of High Mass-Consumption redistribution of economic profits; higher wages to stimulate consumation; construction of social welfare state Take-off Phase des wirtschaftlichen Aufschwungs; lange Periode von produktiven Investitionen, von technischem Fortschritt (Innovationen, Industrialisierung) und Wachstum; gesellschaftliche Anpassungen zur Sicherstellung von dauerhaftem Wachstum Drive to Maturity Entwicklung zur Reife; Konsolidierung und Verbreiterung der Industrialisierung; gesellschaftliche Auswirkungen werden akzeptiert und verarbeitet Communisme does not permit long-term economic growth. Hits those societies, which do not organize modernisation in a target oriented manner

32 the World of Rostow Rostow economist and US government security advisor take-off drive to maturity age of mass-consumption

33 Kritik an Rostows Modernisierungstheorie
Vernachlässigung der historisch gewachsenen und kulturellen Eigenheiten der Gesellschaften: alle Gesellschaften gehen durch die gleichen Entwicklungsprozesse keine Berücksichtigung von unterschiedlichen, historisch gewachsenen Ausgangslagen undifferenziertes Bild der einfachen ahistorische Betrachtungsweise: Vernachlässigung des Einflusses der globalen wirtschaftlichen und politischen Rahmenbedingungen auf nationale Entwicklungsprozesse. z.B.: Industrialisierung in Europa im Zeitalter des Imperialismus und Industrialisierung im globalisierten Kontext des nachkolonialen Afrika kann nicht nach den gleichen Gesetzmässigkeiten ablaufen Entwicklung nach westlichem Vorbild als einziger Weg in die Moderne: Entwicklung und Modernisierung bedeutet Übernahme des westlichen Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftsmodells Kein Raum für alternative Entwicklungswege Trickle-down Effekt findet nicht statt: „automatische“ Armutsreduktion als Folge der allgemeinen wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Entwicklung findet vielerorts nicht statt

34 Dependenztheorie: Strukturelle Ursachen von Unterentwicklung (60-er und 70-e Jahre: Fernando Cardoso, Celso Furtado, Orlando Fals Borda, Rodolfo Stavenhagen, u.a.m.) Grundlage: marxistische Imperialismustheorie Zentrum-Peripherie-Modell: Abhängigkeit der Peripherie (Entwicklungsländer) von den Zentren (Industrieländer) Entstehung der Abhängigkeitsstrukturen durch die koloniale Expansion Europas und später durch den US-Imperialismus Ressourcenabfluss durch ungleichen Tausch Aufrechterhaltung der Abhängigkeit durch Gewalt (Imperialismus, z.B. Interventionen der USA in Lateinamerika) Allianz zwischen den politischen Kräften der Zentren und den politischen und wirtschaftlichen Eliten in der Peripherie (nationale Bourgeoisie, Grossgrundbesitzer, Unternehmer) Reproduktion der externen Abhängigkeit durch die Strukturen der internen Ungleichheit: semifeudale Strukturen (z.B. Grossgrundbesitz), Marginalisierung der ethnischen Minderheiten (indigene Bevölkerungen, interner Kolonialismus), autokratische und repressive Regierungssysteme  Handlungsstrategien: Abkoppelung (self-reliance), Importsubstitution, interne politische Veränderungen (Entwicklung als Befreiung)

35 Diskussion der Dependenztheorie
Stärken: ganzheitliche Sichtweise: Entwicklung und Unterentwicklung im globalen Kontext Miteinbezug der historischen Zusammenhänge Augenmerk auf die internen sozialen, kulturellen, politischen und wirtschaftlichen Widersprüche der Entwicklungsländer Schwächen: Vernachlässigung der marktwirtschaftlichen Kräfte Überbewertung der externen Abhängigkeit im Vergleich zu den internen entwicklungshemmenden Faktoren Ausblendung von kulturellen Faktoren schematische Gegenüberstellung von „Erster“ und „Dritter“ Welt > Vernachlässigung der wachsenden Differenzierung innerhalb der sog. Dritten Welt

36 1974: The New International Economic Order (NIEO)
seit den 60-er Jahren Forderungen der EL nach Neuordnung der Weltwirtschaftsordnung; ungenügender Zugang der EL zu den Märkten in den IL; UNCTAD blieb ohne wirkliche Macht; trotz GATT schütz(t)en die IL ihre Märkte vor den Importen der EL 1974, Verabschiedung der Erklärung über eine neue Weltwirtschaftsordnung (NIEO) durch die UNO-Vollversammlung Weltweite Zusammenarbeit als Voraussetzung für Entwicklung Neue Regeln für den internationalen Handel zugunsten der Entwicklungsländer Kontrolle der multinationalen Konzerne Schutz der Rohstoffproduzenten durch Unterstützung von Produzentenorganisationen Stabilisierung der Terms of Trade (Verhältnis zw. Export- und Importpreisen) verbesserter Zugang für die Entwicklungsländer zu den Märkten in den Industrieländern Recht auf Verstaatlichung der Rohstoffproduktion Mitbestimmung der Entwicklungsländer in der Weltbank und im Internationalen Währungsfonds (IWF) ➔ Die NIEO wurde in der Praxis nie umgesetzt

37 Development Cooperation since the 80th: the search for impact
die Grundbedürfnisstrategie der raue Wind der 80-er Jahre das Ende des Kalten Krieges auf der Suche nach Wirksamkeit Meilensteine auf dem Weg zu einer neuen Architektur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit

38 enttäuschte Hoffungen: das sandinistische Nicaragua (1979-1990)
1979: Sturz der seit 43 Jahren regierenden Diktatur der Familie Somoza durch die FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional) > Aufbau der sandinistischen Massenorganisationen > Unterstützung durch UdSSR und Kuba > internationale Solidaritätsbewegung sandinistische Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik > Neuverteilung des Bodens und (subventionierte) Unterstützung der Kleinbauernbetriebe und Genossenschaften > Verbesserung der Produktion und Verteilung von Grundnahrungsmitteln > Verbesserung des öffentlichen Grundschul- und Gesundheitswesens > Alphabetisierungskampagnen jedoch: steigende Staatsverschuldung Haltung der USA > Wirtschaftssanktionen > Aufbau und Finanzierung der bewaffneten Opposition (Contra), Sabotage der Wirtschaft > grosse wirtschaftliche Schäden durch den Bürgerkrieg 1990: die Sandinisten werden abgewählt; neue Präsidentin Violeta Barrios de Chamorro

39 Die neue Welt(un)ordnung
George H. W. Bush, 1990: ... out of these troubled times, our fifth objective, a new world order, can emerge: a new era freer from the threat of terror, stronger in the pursuit of justice, and more secure in the quest for peace. An era in which the nations of the world, East and West, North and South, can prosper and live in harmony." Osteuropa und Zentralasien werden kurz- und mittelfristig zu neuen internationalen „Sozialfällen“ (Osthilfe) Ausbruch von „neuen“ (nationalistischen) Konflikten: Ruanda (1994), Balkan ( ), Kaukasus (Georgien, Tschetschenien), Zentralasien (Tadschikistan 1991), u.a. Beendigung von „alten“ Konflikten: Mosambik (1994), Angola (1995), El Salvador (1992), Guatemala (1996), u.a. Ende des Apartheid-Regimes in Südafrika (1990 Entlassung von Mandela aus dem Gefängnis, 1994 Wahlsieg des ANC unter Mandela) Krieg wird (wieder) zu einer Option: Irak (1990/91), Serbien (1999), Afghanistan (2001), Irak 2003 islamistischer Terrorismus ➔ War against Terrorism Mostar (Bosnien- Herzegowina) N. Mandela

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