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Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation History of development cooperation Part 2 Milestones towards a new architecture of development.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation History of development cooperation Part 2 Milestones towards a new architecture of development."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation History of development cooperation Part 2 Milestones towards a new architecture of development cooperation Trogen, 3 July 2012

2 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 2 the Invention of Underdevelopment Inaugural Speech of US-President Harry S. Trumann, 20th Januay 1949: Four point program for peace and liberty 1.Creation of the North Atlantic Treaty (Defence) Organization (NATO) 2.Continuation of the Marshall-Plan and similar programs to reconstruct world economy after 2. World War 4. Support to underdevelopped regions 3. Support of the UN

3 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 3 Fourth, we must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. More than half of the people of the earth are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate. They are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more prosperous areas. For the first time in history, humanity possesses the knowledge and skill to relieve the suffering of these people.... I believe that we should make available to peace-loving peoples the benefits of our store of technical knowledge in order to help them realize their aspirations for a better life..... We invite other countries to pool their technological resources in this undertaking..... This should be a cooperative enterprise in which all nations work together through the United Nations and its specialized agencies whenever practicable. It must be a worldwide effort for the achievement of peace, plenty, and freedom. With the cooperation of business, private capital, agriculture, and labour in this country, this program can greatly increase the industrial activity in other nations and can raise substantially their standards of living.... Extract of Trumans Inaugural speech 1949 (Point-Four Declaration)

4 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation What do you think of the perceptions and concepts of the Point Four Declaration ? What are positive aspects of this declaration? Where would you criticize it? What is still valid today? (10 minute brain-storming) Group work

5 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 5 60th/70th: The Third World on Advance Mao Tse-Tung 1966 Student movement in Mexico, Massacre of Tlatelolco, The sad night 3. October 1968 Daniel Cohn Bendit Paris, May 1968

6 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation Vietnam War, 1972 Evacuation of US-Embassy Saigon th/70th: The Third World on Advance

7 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 7 The Third World – a factor in world policy during the 60th and 70th Fight against imperialism of the North: 68th movement in Europe, solidarity movements with Third World Independance Mouvements in the South Fight against the White in South Africa, Rhodesia, Angola, Mozambique and liberalisation movements in Latin America Carnation-Revolution in Portugal (1974) result in independance of last colonies (Angola, Mosambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cap Verde) Cultural Revolution in China (1966/67) fascination of the left wing movements for the radical ideas of Mao Tse Tung Sympathies for socialistic ideas in the Third World African Socialism in Tanzania (Nyerere) Critic of industrialized countries development model: 1972 first UN-conference on Human Environment (Stockholm); Club of Rome: The Limits to Growth (1972)

8 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation Carnation revolution, Portugal 1974 Victory of mosamb. FRELIMO, Independance from Portugal th/70th: The Third World on Advance

9 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 9 Development Cooperation since the 80th: the search for impact The basic needs strategies of the 80th and 90th The rough wind of the 80th The end of the cold war Searching for aid effectiviness Milestones to a new development cooperation architecture

10 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation Basic needs strategy: Pearson-Report (1969) World Bank Strategy during President McNamara (1972) Satisfaction of basic needs: Development must be oriented towards the satisfaction of basic needs of the poorest social strata: Nutrition, drinking water, housing, education and infrastructure Participation: Population must be involved in change processes and given the possibility to activly participate in planning and implementation of change processes. Development of participative methods: bottom-up approaches development of participative methods Debate - skepticism and opposition by: adherents of growth and macro-economic approaches many developing countries which believed that industrialized countries try to distract them from the new dynamic of the world economy and industrialization by promoting the basic needs strategy.

11 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 11 Transfert into practice: Period of Integrated Rural Development Projects / Programs (70th – 90th) IHDP: Integrated Hill Development Project, Nepal ( ) DRI Yoro, DRI Margoas, DRI Chinorte: Desarrollo Rural Integrado, Honduras and Nicaragua (80-er und 90-er Jahre) TIRDEP: Tanga Integrated Rural Development Program, Tanzania ( ) Orientation towards basic needs: Agriculture, education, health infrastructure, living conditions etc. Community Development starting in the 80th Participation: bottom-up approaches; methodologies to pro,mote participation (target oriented project planning/ZOPP, Participatory Rural Appraisal, Selfpromotion), Base organisations: promotion of base organisations (e.g.cooperatives, producer organisations etc..) Appropriate and sustainable technologies: low extrenal input strategies, agroforestry, animal traction instead of tractors etc.

12 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 12 Transfert into practice: Period of Integrated Rural Development Projects / Programs (70th – 90th) DRI Yoro, DRI Margoas, DRI Chinorte: Desarrollo Rural Integrado, Honduras und Nicaragua (80-er und 90-er Jahre) TIRDEP: Tanga Integrated Rural Development Program, Tanzania ( ) Ausrichtung auf Grundbedürfnisse: Landwirtschaft, Bildung, Gesundheit, Wohnen, Infrastruktur Community Development: Entwicklung auf Dorfebene Partizipation: bottom-up approach; methodische Ansätze zur Förderung der Partizipation (zielorientierte Projektplanung/ZOPP, Participatory Rural Appraisal, Auto-Promotion), Basisorganisationen: Aufbau von Basisorganisationen (z.B. Genossenschaften, ProduzentInnen-Organisationen, Nutzer-Gruppen, etc.) angepasste und nachhaltige Technologien: z.B. Minimisierung resp. Eliminierung von externen Inputs in der Landwirtschaft; Agro-Forstwirtschaft; Tierzug statt Traktoren

13 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation towards macro -economic stability in developing countries Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP) Debt crisis in developing countries Targets: Restoration of liquidity and credit worthiness Control of (hyper-) inflation Balance of state expenditures and external trade medium- and lonterm improvement of the chances to achieve economic growth and orientation towards world marke Implementation of neoliberal economical and financial reform measures in developing countries (under leadership of World Bank and IMF) Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP) impulsed by donors critic: Redistribution of wealth and poverty reduction are not (explicit) targets of the SAP

14 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation The neo-conservative Revolution of the 80th politicy change in industrialized countries Neo-conservatives 1979 M. Thatcher/GB, 1981 R. Reagan/USA), 1982 H. Kohl/Germany Vision: worldwide competition of open economies (M. Friedman and others) New regulatory policies (neo-liberalism) : Priority are macro-economic stability and economic growth Liberalisation of economies: derugulation, privatisation, free trade Reduction of state role Markets as central allocation and regulation mechanisms increased appreciation of private sector New Public Management (introduction of market ecomomic rules inside public administrations)

15 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 15 Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) (Washington Consensus) Stabilisation of Macroeconomy Balanced government budgets (decrease of subsidies, cutting social budgets (health, education), less government employees, increased tax income,.... Price stability: depreciation of currency, no restriction of foreign currency exchange Foreign trade balance, promotion of exports, restriction of imports Privatisation of government enterprises and parastatals and extractive industries Deregulations No price controls Reduction of role played by state Liberalisation of national capital markets and foreign trade No import restrictions Promoting (foreign) direct investments

16 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation Costs of the SAPs social costs for poor: social services (education, health etc.) became expensive price oncreases: basic food (was often subsidized before), transport, energy, water etc. reduction or loss of specific governmental support programs such as: rural extension, health advice, adult education social mitigation measures (since end of 80th) the 80th: a lost decade? in many countries economic growth decreased or became even negative poverty reduction stagnated or poverty even increased (deterioration of child mortality reduction, school enrolment.... )

17 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 17 the search for alternatives What Now (1975) Report of the Dag-Hammarskjöld-Foundation to the UN Development as endogen and self-determined process there exists no universal formula/model for development! Satisfaction of basic needs Developmment must focus on satisfaction of basic needs of poorest population strata: nutrition, housing, health and education Participation (bottom-up approaches) C oncerned population has to be included in change processes Elimination of internal inequalities Poverty and underdevelopment is not only a result of external dependencies but also of internal inequalities. Respect of ecological limits for growth Industrialized countries should change their consumption patterns and economic systems Reorganisation of the UN – system more efficiency and decentralisation

18 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation Comprehensive Development Framework (CDF), World Bank (1998) Concept of holistic national development strategies as common basis for national and international actors inside a country (national government, civil society,and private sector, multi- and bilateral donor organisations, international NGOs) Principles of the CDF: Long-term holistic vision Country ownership Country-led partnership Results focus

19 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 19 Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP), World Bank and IMF (1999) concrete instrument to implement CDF-concept primary goal of development aid is poverty reduction each developing country elaborates a national poverty reduction strategy PRSP pre-condition to participate at debt-relief initiative for highly indebted countries (HIPIC)

20 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation Poverty analysis: Definition of poverty, identification of poor population groups, analysis of causes for and obstacles to overcome poverty Targets: Formulation of objectives and indicators for poverty reduction Strategy: Elaboration of a holistic stragy to reduce poverty (ways how to rreach objectives) Implementation: Implementation costs, financing strategy (needed own and external funds) Particpation: Description of the participative elaboration process (Civil Society and private sector included?) Monitoring: Elaborated monitoring-mechanism Elements of a PRSP

21 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation OECD/DAC: Shaping the 21st Century (1996) Shaping the 21st Century: the Contribution of Development Cooperation 4 principles fo a partner-based cooperation: 1.Country priorities: Interests and priorities of developing countries have to be in the center 2.Ownership: Every country has to elaborate its locally owned strategy, which should orient the progams and activities of donors 3.Multi-Stakeholder approach: Planning and implementation have to involve a multitude of stakeholders from the state, private sector and the Civil Society 4.Local capacities: Development processes have to strengthen and be built on local capacities

22 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation The Search for Effectiveness of Development Aid Debade on Aid Effectiveness Themes: National Ownership: Who is in the driver seat? Favoring frame conditions: Good Governance Limits of project approaches from Project- to Program Approach 22

23 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation Limted effectivity /impact Impact restricted to direct target groups (isolated island solutions) Multiplication of strategies (up-scaling, mainstreaming) often not successful No or limited influence on political frame conditions Limits of the Project Approaches Limited Sustainability reduced utility after external support missing ownership because of dominant role played by international development organisations Creation of donor driven Parallel Structures Project Implementing Units outside regular structures regular structures are not strenghthened Projects develop towards (dependant) organisations 23

24 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 24 Example Vietnam: 25 bilateral agencies, 19 multilteral Agencies, 350 internationae NGOs 8000 Projects Example Mosambique 49 Agencies, 840 new projects/year > 1000 Project finding-, Monitoring- and Evaluationmissions / year thousands of reports Problems of project approaches: high transaction costs, missing ownership and donor coordination

25 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation Development Aid in too much pieces of too much donors Problems of coherence and coordination Little national Ownership; Projects are donor driven (each donor has ist own concept – each project shows the flag of the donor) High transaction costs: different procedures and requirements Governments are absorbed by development cooperation !!! 25

26 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation Instruments for new architecture of development cooperation Basis:PRSPs as binding national development strategies Alignment and Harmonisation as binding principles Project support: Projects/Programs of multi- or bilateral agencies as well as international or national NGOs, preferably in Partnership with national government structures or/and Civil Society actors and private sector. Main objective – capacity development. SWAP: Sector-wide Approach. Close collaboration of donors, ministries, NGOs and private sector based on a national sector strategy. Budget of donors tranferred to budget of repsective sector ministry or to a basket fund of donors. General Budget Support (GBS): Development aid budget are transferred to budget of partner government Program- based approaches 26

27 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 27

28 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation Ebenen der Politikberatung Dezentralisierung s-ebene Nationale EbeneMeso-EbeneLokale Ebene Regierung Ministerien, Institutionen (Statistikamt, etc.) Distriktregie- rungen und - institutionen Kommunalver- tretungen (Bürgermeister, Gemeinderäte) Zivilgesellschaft NGO-Dachver- bände, Vereini- gungen von Nutzergruppen Zivilges. Vereinigungen auf Distriktebene NGOs, zivilges. Organisationen wie Nutzerkomitees Privatwirtschaft Berufsvereinigun gen, Industrie- und Handels- kammern Berufsverbände auf Distriktebene Genossenschaf- ten, Business Development Committees

29 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation Prinzipien der Politikberatung Nachhaltigkeit Schwerpunkt auf Capacity Development beim Partner (Individuen, Organisationen, Gesellschaft) Ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Vorgänge und systemische Ansätze Berücksichtigung ökologischer und sozialer Aspekte Partizipation Transparenz Gegenseitige Verantwortung Führt dann hoffentlich zu gegenseitigem Vertrauen, ohne das Politikberatung nicht funktioniert.

30 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 30 Warum ist der New International Economic Order gescheitert? 1. Abbröckeln der gemeinsamen Front der EL: zunehmend unterschiedliche Entwicklungsdynamik und Interessenlage innerhalb der Gruppe der EL: NIC (newly industrialised countries): Brasilien, Mexiko, Argentinien, Chile, Costa Rica, Venezuela; später die südost-asiatischen Tiger-Staaten; z.T. auch die Grossstaaten Indien und China Erdöl-exportierende Staaten: Nahost, Nordafrika, Venezuela, Mexiko, Nigeria, Indonesien LDC (least developed countries): sub-Sahara Afrika, einige Länder Lateinamerikas und Asiens 2. weltweite Wirtschaftskrise in den 70-er Jahren, ausgelöst durch die steigenden Erdölpreise als Folge des OPEC-Embargos von 1973 Industrieländer stellen ihre eigenen Wirtschaftsinteressen in den Vordergrund Stagnierung der Budgets für Entwicklungshilfe Auswirkungen der Wirtschaftskrise in den IL auf die Wirtschaft in den EL (stagnierender Welthandel, verlangsamtes Wirtschaftswachstum) Beginn der übermässigen Verschuldung der EL infolge der Zunahme des weltweiten Investitionsvolumens (Petrodollars) 3. Fehlende verbindliche Umsetzungsmechanismen Beschlüsse der UNO-Vollversammlung sind nicht bindend Prinzip der nationalen Souveränität Vetorecht der fünf ständigen Mitglieder des Sicherheitsrates

31 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 31 Modernisation theory of Walt Rostow The Stages of Economic Growth: a Non-Communist Manifesto, 1960 Traditional Society: traditional agrarian societies with restricted growth potential Pre-conditions for Take-off T he society and especially elites perceive the potentials and necessity of investions, innovation, change and progress Take-off Phase of economic boom; long period of productive investions and technical progress and growth Drive to Maturity Development towards maturity; consolidation and widening of industrialisation Age of High Mass-Consumption redistribution of economic profits; higher wages to stimulate consumation; construction of social welfare state

32 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 32 the World of Rostow take-off drive to maturity age of mass-consumption

33 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 33 Kritik an Rostows Modernisierungstheorie Vernachlässigung der historisch gewachsenen und kulturellen Eigenheiten der Gesellschaften: alle Gesellschaften gehen durch die gleichen Entwicklungsprozesse keine Berücksichtigung von unterschiedlichen, historisch gewachsenen Ausgangslagen undifferenziertes Bild der einfachen ahistorische Betrachtungsweise: Vernachlässigung des Einflusses der globalen wirtschaftlichen und politischen Rahmenbedingungen auf nationale Entwicklungsprozesse. z.B.: Industrialisierung in Europa im Zeitalter des Imperialismus und Industrialisierung im globalisierten Kontext des nachkolonialen Afrika kann nicht nach den gleichen Gesetzmässigkeiten ablaufen Entwicklung nach westlichem Vorbild als einziger Weg in die Moderne: Entwicklung und Modernisierung bedeutet Übernahme des westlichen Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftsmodells Kein Raum für alternative Entwicklungswege Trickle-down Effekt findet nicht statt: automatische Armutsreduktion als Folge der allgemeinen wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Entwicklung findet vielerorts nicht statt

34 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 34 Grundlage: marxistische Imperialismustheorie Zentrum-Peripherie-Modell: Abhängigkeit der Peripherie (Entwicklungsländer) von den Zentren (Industrieländer) Entstehung der Abhängigkeitsstrukturen durch die koloniale Expansion Europas und später durch den US-Imperialismus Ressourcenabfluss durch ungleichen Tausch Aufrechterhaltung der Abhängigkeit durch Gewalt (Imperialismus, z.B. Interventionen der USA in Lateinamerika) Allianz zwischen den politischen Kräften der Zentren und den politischen und wirtschaftlichen Eliten in der Peripherie (nationale Bourgeoisie, Grossgrundbesitzer, Unternehmer) Reproduktion der externen Abhängigkeit durch die Strukturen der internen Ungleichheit: semifeudale Strukturen (z.B. Grossgrundbesitz), Marginalisierung der ethnischen Minderheiten (indigene Bevölkerungen, interner Kolonialismus), autokratische und repressive Regierungssysteme Handlungsstrategien: Abkoppelung (self-reliance), Importsubstitution, interne politische Veränderungen (Entwicklung als Befreiung) Dependenztheorie: Strukturelle Ursachen von Unterentwicklung (60-er und 70-e Jahre: Fernando Cardoso, Celso Furtado, Orlando Fals Borda, Rodolfo Stavenhagen, u.a.m.)

35 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 35 Diskussion der Dependenztheorie Stärken: ganzheitliche Sichtweise: Entwicklung und Unterentwicklung im globalen Kontext Miteinbezug der historischen Zusammenhänge Augenmerk auf die internen sozialen, kulturellen, politischen und wirtschaftlichen Widersprüche der Entwicklungsländer Schwächen: Vernachlässigung der marktwirtschaftlichen Kräfte Überbewertung der externen Abhängigkeit im Vergleich zu den internen entwicklungshemmenden Faktoren Ausblendung von kulturellen Faktoren schematische Gegenüberstellung von Erster und Dritter Welt > Vernachlässigung der wachsenden Differenzierung innerhalb der sog. Dritten Welt

36 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation : The New International Economic Order (NIEO) seit den 60-er Jahren Forderungen der EL nach Neuordnung der Weltwirtschaftsordnung; ungenügender Zugang der EL zu den Märkten in den IL; UNCTAD blieb ohne wirkliche Macht; trotz GATT schütz(t)en die IL ihre Märkte vor den Importen der EL 1974, Verabschiedung der Erklärung über eine neue Weltwirtschaftsordnung (NIEO) durch die UNO-Vollversammlung Weltweite Zusammenarbeit als Voraussetzung für Entwicklung Neue Regeln für den internationalen Handel zugunsten der Entwicklungsländer Kontrolle der multinationalen Konzerne Schutz der Rohstoffproduzenten durch Unterstützung von Produzentenorganisationen Stabilisierung der Terms of Trade (Verhältnis zw. Export- und Importpreisen) verbesserter Zugang für die Entwicklungsländer zu den Märkten in den Industrieländern Recht auf Verstaatlichung der Rohstoffproduktion Mitbestimmung der Entwicklungsländer in der Weltbank und im Internationalen Währungsfonds (IWF) Die NIEO wurde in der Praxis nie umgesetzt

37 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 37 Development Cooperation since the 80th: the search for impact die Grundbedürfnisstrategie der raue Wind der 80-er Jahre das Ende des Kalten Krieges auf der Suche nach Wirksamkeit Meilensteine auf dem Weg zu einer neuen Architektur der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit

38 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 38 enttäuschte Hoffungen: das sandinistische Nicaragua ( ) 1979: Sturz der seit 43 Jahren regierenden Diktatur der Familie Somoza durch die FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional) > Aufbau der sandinistischen Massenorganisationen > Unterstützung durch UdSSR und Kuba > internationale Solidaritätsbewegung sandinistische Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik > Neuverteilung des Bodens und (subventionierte) Unterstützung der Kleinbauernbetriebe und Genossenschaften > Verbesserung der Produktion und Verteilung von Grundnahrungsmitteln > Verbesserung des öffentlichen Grundschul- und Gesundheitswesens > Alphabetisierungskampagnen jedoch: steigende Staatsverschuldung Haltung der USA > Wirtschaftssanktionen > Aufbau und Finanzierung der bewaffneten Opposition (Contra), Sabotage der Wirtschaft > grosse wirtschaftliche Schäden durch den Bürgerkrieg 1990: die Sandinisten werden abgewählt; neue Präsidentin Violeta Barrios de Chamorro

39 Pestalozzi 7/2012 International Development Cooperation 39 Osteuropa und Zentralasien werden kurz- und mittelfristig zu neuen internationalen Sozialfällen (Osthilfe) Ausbruch von neuen (nationalistischen) Konflikten: Ruanda (1994), Balkan ( ), Kaukasus (Georgien, Tschetschenien), Zentralasien (Tadschikistan 1991), u.a. Beendigung von alten Konflikten: Mosambik (1994), Angola (1995), El Salvador (1992), Guatemala (1996), u.a. Ende des Apartheid-Regimes in Südafrika (1990 Entlassung von Mandela aus dem Gefängnis, 1994 Wahlsieg des ANC unter Mandela) Krieg wird (wieder) zu einer Option: Irak (1990/91), Serbien (1999), Afghanistan (2001), Irak 2003 islamistischer Terrorismus War against Terrorism N. Mandela Mostar (Bosnien- Herzegowina) Die neue Welt(un)ordnung George H. W. Bush, 1990:... out of these troubled times, our fifth objective, a new world order, can emerge: a new era freer from the threat of terror, stronger in the pursuit of justice, and more secure in the quest for peace. An era in which the nations of the world, East and West, North and South, can prosper and live in harmony."


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