7Erste Reaktion auf dieses Problem: Thesauri IndizierungSuchfunktionenProbleme mit string-basiertem Suchendiffuse Organisation durch Synonymakeine logische Struktur
8Ontologie und Webtechnologie die Integration von Wissen im Internetz.B. im Rahmen des so genannten “Semantic Web”Ontology Web Language (OWL)
9Ausdrucksfähigkeit vs. Berechenbarkeit die Sprachen des Ontological Engineers bieten nur stark begrenzte Ausdrucksmöglichkeitensie führen daher oft zu vereinfachten ‘Modellen’ der Wirklichkeit statt zu einer Repräsentationen dieser Wirklichkeit selbst
10Semantic Web führt daher leider oft zu ‘schwachen Ontologien’ Pet Profile OntologyMusicBrainz Metadata VocabularyMusical Baton VocabularyBeer OntologyKissology(http://www.w3.org/)
11Ontology (science)eine Wissenschaft von Typen von Entitäten in den verschiedenen Domänen der Wirklichkeit, sowie von den Relationen zwischen diesen TypenOntologien werden durch intensive multidisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit entwickeltempirische und logische Methoden werden verwendet, um Evolutionsschritte in Richtung einer Qualitätsverbesserung zu ermöglichen
15Ontology (science) in der Biomedizin how do we know what data we have ?how do I know what data you have ?how do we know what data we don’t have ?how do we make different sorts of data combinable ?
16wir brauchen semantische Annotation dieser Daten where in the cell ?what kind of process ?what kind of biological goal ?wir brauchen semantischeAnnotation dieser Datendir.niehs.nih.gov/ microarray/datamining/
17Woops: 54M already ! Compare with 3M Dec 2004, and 12 M june 2005 when I did this.
20GO Methodologie der Annotation Experten durchforsten die wissenschaftliche Literatur, um Einträge in biochemischen Datenbanken mit GO-Termini zu verbindendiese Verbindungen werden digital katalogisiertdie verschiedenen Datenbanken werden dann durch die GO-Termini automatisch integriertund zwar in einer Weise, die die biochemischen Daten auch für Menschen zugänglich machtGO Methodologie der Annotation
21this leads to improvements and extensions of the ontology GO + Annotationen stellen eine wachsende algorithmisch interpretierbare Landkarte der biologischen Wirklichkeit darSie spielen auch für Menschen eine wichtige integrierende Rollethis leads to improvements and extensions of the ontology
22Ontology (science) Wichtigkeit menschlicher Akzeptanz Menschen müssen Ontologien bevölkern und benützen Gegengift zum Nimbus der EDV-Fachleute
23Ontologie (science) als wissenschaftliche Begleitung der Rechtsinformationssysteme Anwendungen in:Standardisierung (z.B. des EU-Rechts)Lernsystemen im komparativen RechtFestlegung gemeinsamen Grundwissensautomatischem SchließenStatistikIntegration von Daten
25Dokument als Gegenstand der Informatik Bob Glushko (Document Engineering): “A document is a purposeful and self-contained collection of information.”on-line business transactions are ‘internet information exchanges’but there is more than information here
26Was ist ein Dokument? x is a document=def x ist eine dauerhafte Urkunde, die einen deontisch oder institutionell relevanten Akt darstellt oder ausdrücktx ist eine dauerhafte Urkunde, die eine wesentliche Rolle in einem deontisch oder institutionell relevanten Akt spielt
27Beispiele von Dokumenten in diesem deontischen Sinn identification documentscommercial documentslegal documentsThus: not novels, recipes, diaries ...
28Some examples Made of paper Not made of paper novel textbook newspaper advertising flierrecipemapbusiness cardlicensedegree certificatedeedcontractwillbillstatement of accountsconsent formclay tablet record-ing outcome of litigatione-documentelectronic health recordcredit cardcar license plateadvertising hoardinggravestonehallmarked silver platefilm creditsexterior signage on buildings
29OED 1., 2. Teaching, lesson learned (cf. doctor, docile, docent) 3. That which serves to show, point out, or prove something; evidence, proof.4. Something written, inscribed, etc., which furnishes evidence or information upon any subject, as a manuscript, title-deed, tombstone, coin, picture, etc.
30Scope of document ontology the sorts of things we can do with documentsthe powers of documentsthe social interactions in which documents play an essential rolethe enduring institutional systems to which documents belong
31Basic distinctions among documents document template (Vorlage) vs. filled-in documentdocument vs. piece of paperauthentic document vs. copy, forgery
35Allographic = identity is notational Autographic = identity is historical A signature is autographicA fingerprint left at the scene of the crime is autographicA fingerprint taken for identification purposes is allographic
36What happens when you sign your passport? you initiate the validity of the passportyou attest to the truth of the assertions it contains (historical identity)you provide a sample pattern for comparison (syntactic identity)Three document acts for the price of one
37Passport acts I use my passport to prove my identity You use my passport to check my identityHe renews my passportThey confiscate my passport
38You use my passport to check my identity knowledge by acquaintanceknowledge by descriptionknowledge by comparison
42Documents belong to the realm of administrative entities entities such as organizations, rules, prices, debts, standardized transactions ..., which we ourselves createBut what does ‘create’ mean ?
43Speech Act Theory We tell people how things are (assertives) We try to get them to do things (directives)We commit ourselves to doing things (commissives)We express our feelings and attitudes (expressives)We bring about changes in the world through utterances (declarations) (“I name this ship ...”)Searle 1996, p. 9.
44The Searle thesis:the performance of speech acts brings into being claims and obligations and deontic powers
45appointings, marryings, promisings change the world... provided certain background conditions are satisfied:valid formulationlegitimate authorityacceptance by addresseesWe perform a speech act ... the world changes, instantaneously
46but speech acts are evanescent entities: they are events, which exist only in their executions what is the physical basis for the temporally extended existence of its products and for their enduring power to serve coordination?
47Answer In small societies: the memories of those involved In large societies: documents
48provided certain background conditions are satisfied documents create and sustain permanent re-usable deontic powers
49Differences between document acts and speech acts there are categories of document acts which serve multiple ends (three-for-the-price-of-one)documents endure through time, and so can create traceable liability (rückverfolgbare Haftbarkeit)documents can be attached together, creating new complexes whose structure mirrors relations among the human beings involved (of husband to wife, debtor to creditor)
50Differences between document acts and speech acts speech acts are normally self-validating (they wear their provenance on their face)documents need technological devices (official stamps, special watermarks, signatures, countersignatures, seals, ...)documents foster proxy execution of social acts (representation, Vertretung)documents can be registereddocuments can be amended
59Identity documentscreate identity (and thereby create the possibility of identity theft)what is the ontology of identity?
60The creative power of documents documents create authorities(physicians’ license creates physician)authorities create documents(physicians creates sick notes)documents issued by an authority within the framework of a valid legal institutionvs.documents issued by an authority extralegally on its own behalf (cf. US Declaration of Independence)
61Organizational chart= a map of the organization and of its flows of authority(document creates a system of positional roles)
62Homework: How classify these kinds of documents ? partnership agreement/ statute of incorporationproxy form/representation agreementballot formresidence permitcensus reportstock certificateinsurance claim forminsurance policyvisa/immigration documentbankruptcy certificateinsurance card/health insurance cardhealth certificateconsent form (for medical procedure)medical recordcriminal recordpension bookrent bookaccident report/theft report/police report/chargearchitects plan (vs. template for an architects plan)
63What kinds of documents have creative power in social reality? not novels – which exist in many identical copies (tokens of the same type)not watercolors in a gallery – which do not contain time-sensitive information
64Non-Creative novel textbook newspaper recipe map business card advertizing fliertimetableguaranteetax form (filled in)minutes of a meetingALLOGRAPHIClicensebirth certificatedegree certificatedeedcontractwillreceiptbanknotepaintingstatuebuildingAUTOGRAPHIC
65What can we do with a document? [DOCUMENT ACTS] Sign itStamp itCopy itWitness itFill it inRevise itRegister itArchive itRealize (interrupt, abort ...) the actions mandated by itDeliver it (de facto, de jure)Declare it active/inactiveDisplay it (price list)Attest to its validityNullify itDestroy it
66Who can engage in document acts? [DOCUMENT ACTORS] creator of document / of document-template (legislator, drafter ...)signer / attestorfiller-in of templatechecker (solicitor, notary, administrative official)recipientaddressee (executor of an estate)beneficiary (will ...)registrar, archivist
67Registration storing of documents in a way which makes them permanently accessible (checkable, verifiable)amendable (e.g. where property is used as collateral for loans)combinable (attachment): social relations are created via cross-referenced and cross-attached documentsmore easily authenticated
68What can we do with an ontology of documents? what categories of documents?what categories of document acts?’what categories of provenience?what kinds of forgery and what kinds of safeguards?can we reproduce all of these computationally?
69RedundancySafety procedures for mission-critical technology involve multiple layers of redundancy to ensure against catastrophe.a photograph alone is not sufficient to establish your identity: it must appear in the right place in the right sort of document that has been marked in the right sort of way by signatures, counter-signatures, stamps, ID numbersthese elements serve to anchor the document to the reality beyond and to the history of its production
71Technologies of identification fingerprintofficial stamps and sealsphotographwatermarksbar codenumeric IDs allowing cross-referencing to documents
72ProblemsAnd how do we recreate these features in the realm of e-documents?How do we distinguish author from proxy in the realm of e-documents?How do we anchor e-documents to objects and processes in physical reality (e.g. to human beings)?
73The ontology of signatures signed/not signedsignedincorrectlyfraudulentlyand stampedand countersigned (Gegenzeichnungen)by a proxy (Stellvertreter)with a single/with a plurality of signatories
74The ontology of namesa baptism ceremony creates a new sort of cultural object called a namenames, too, belong to the domain of administrative (= created) entitiesthis is an abstract yet time-bound object, like a nation or a clubit is an object with parts (your first name and your last name are parts of your name, in something like the way in which the first movement and the last movement are parts of Beethoven’s 9th Symphony)
75How do documents relate to the underlying physical medium A credit card receipt is autographicA credit card is allographicBut the credit card as physical carrier is dispensable:What is important are the credit card numbers
76The ontology of (credit card) numbers These numbers are not mathematical (not informational) entities – they are ‘thick’ (historical) numbers, special sorts of cultural artefactsthey are information objects with provenance: abstract keys fitting into a globally distributed lock
77Standardized documents Template, followed by act of filling indocuments filled incompletely/partiallycorrectly/incorrectlyvalidly/invalidlyby proxy ...
78Standardized documents allow networkingacross time (documents can accumulate through attachment - Anhänge)across space (different groups can orientate themselves around the same document forms)can encapsulate the memory and experience of an entire profession
79Good documents vs. bad documents Good documents must be well-designedthey must map the corresponding reality in a perspicuous way – cf. maps as documentthey must be easy to fill in by members of its central target audience (need for process of education?)they must not create new problems (should bow off the stage once they have been properly filled in and never be seen again except in those rare cases where problems arise)
80Much valuable work on ‘documents’ in the context of XML, etc Much valuable work on ‘documents’ in the context of XML, etc., standardizatione.g. Bob Glushko: “A document is a purposeful and self-contained collection of information.”focuses on information content, not on the physical containersees business collaborations – e.g. between on-line customer credit card authorization service when the latter verifies and charges the customer’s account – as ‘Internet information exchanges’but there is more than information here
81Similarities between speech acts and document acts Memory and learning play a role in eachWe have to be trained to use and trust documents (de Soto in Peru)Documentary habits are acquired in small face-to-face societies
82from the Shiprock Navajo fair New Mexico, September 30-October 1, 2005
83Standardized documents embody social memory (the technology of filling in)
84The virtues of standardized documents one can more easily check that one has filled in the boxescorrectly (from a syntactical point of view)truthfullyby the right personwith the right authoritythe form itself can guarantee that it occupies its proper place in a network of formsfacilitates checking and enforceability, and thus contributes to reliability and simplification of transactions
85Document Systemsthe system of identity documents (of birth and death certificates and public records offices, of visas, passports, consulates and border posts);the system of legal documents (of codes of law, summonses, police reports, court proceedings)the system of credentialing documents (of degree certificates, examinations, class lists, charters of credentialing organizations)
86as document systems evolve human beings acquire associated documentary skills in widening circlesthey thereby acquire the capacity to concretize the relevant kinds of ‘we’ intentionality, to occupy the relevant kinds of positional roles within larger corporate wholesthrough documents the actions of countless individuals become coordinated over space and time
87documents helped to create modern civilization they help us to move from small to large societies
88Hernando de Soto Institute for Liberty and Democracy, Lima, Peru Bill Clinton: “The most promising anti-poverty initiative in the world”
89common beliefs about the African village no individual property rightsregime of ‘community property’land cannot be bought and sold, because it is sacred …no legal and economic institutionslaw is confined to what is legislated (= big-city top-down, colonial law)
90using ontology (science) to answer the question: what really exists in the African village ?
91Ontologie (science) als wissenschaftliche Begleitung der Rechtsinformationssysteme wissenschafliche Geschichte der Institutionen des Rechtswann sind welche Institutionen zuerst entstanden?Datierung von DokumentenUnterschriftenDokumentvorlagenAnkreuzfelder
92The history of document acts in medieval England a change in the meaning of ‘to record’ from to bear oral witness to to produce a documentorigin of practices such as dating and signing of documents, the making of financial accounts, the safekeeping of (master copies of) documents in central registriespeasants’ charters giving smallholders title to their landinstitutions formerly the preserve of royal chanceries progressively disseminated among the laity