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ROMANTICISM 1820-1900.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "ROMANTICISM 1820-1900."—  Präsentation transkript:


2 Time Line Monroe Doctrine 1823 Hugo: Hunchback of Notre Dame 1831
Dickens: Oliver Twist Dumas: The Three Musketeers 1844 Poe: The Raven Darwin: Origin of Species American Civil War Twain: Huckleberry Finn Bell invents telephone

3 The Spirit of the Age A sense of shared vision
Early support of the French Revolution Rise of the individual Affinity with nature Radical poetics/politics An obsession with violent change

4 The Enlightenment Romanticism
Early 19c Society is good Curbing violent impulses! Civilization corrupts Institutions have rippling effects

5 Emotions! Passion! Irrationality!

6 Lady Macbeth - Henry Fuseli, 1794

7 2. The “Rugged” Individual

8 Wandering Above the Sea of Fog Caspar David Friedrich, 1818

9 The Dreamer Gaspar David Friedrich, 1835

10 Solitary Tree Caspar David Friedrich, 1823

11 3. The Power and Fury of Nature

12 An Avalanche in the Alps Philip James de Loutherbourg, 1803

13 Sunset After a Storm On the Coast of Sicily – Andreas Achenbach, 1853

14 The Deluge Francis Danby, 1840

15 Shipwreck – Joseph Turner, 1805

16 The Eruption of Vesuvius - John Martin

17 Lion with the Rabbit - Eugène Delacroix

18 4. Science Can Be Dangerous

19 Isaac Newton – William Blake, 1795

20 5. The “New” Technology Is Dehumanizing

21 Rain, Steam, and Speed Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1844

22 6. Romanticizing Country Life

23 Flatford Mill – John Constable, 1817

24 The Corn Field John Constable, 1826

25 A Mill at Gillingham in Dorset John Constable, 1826

26 7. The Gothic: “Romanticizing” the Middle Ages

27 Coming From Evening Church Samuel Palmer, 1830

28 Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows John Constable, 1831

29 Hadleigh Castle - John Constable, 1829

30 Eldena Ruin Gaspar David Friedrich, 1825

31 8. The Exotic, the Occult, and the Macabre

32 Abbey in an Oak Forest Caspar David Friedrich, 1809-1810

33 The Great Red Dragon and the Woman Clothed with the Sun William Blake, 1808-1810

34 Stonehenge - John Constable, 1836

35 Nightmare (The Incubus) Henry Fuseli, 1781

36 Manfred and the Witch of the Alps John Martin - 1837

37 Witches Sabbath Francisco Goya, 1798

38 Saturn Devours His Son Francisco Goya, 1819-1823

39 9. Nationalism

40 Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi Eugène Delacroix, 1827

41 Liberty Leading the People Eugène Delacroix, 1830

42 Detail of the Musket Bearer Delacoix, himself

43 The Burning of Parliament (1) Joseph Turner, 1834-1835

44 His Majesty’s Ship, “Victory” (Trafalgar) - John Constable, 1806

45 The Fighting Temeraire Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1838

46 An Officer of the Imperial Horse Guard Théodore Géricault, 1814

47 The Shooting of May 3, 1808 Francisco Goya, 1815

48 Portrait of Frederick Chopin Eugène Delacroix, 1838

49 10. Interest in Exotic Foreign Lands

50 Grand Canal, Venice Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1835

51 Massacre of Chios - Eugène Delacroix, 1824

52 The Fanatics of Tangiers Eugène Delacroix, 1837-1838

53 The Sultan of Morocco and His Entourage Eugène Delacroix, 1845

54 Women of Algiers in Their Apartment Eugène Delacroix, 1834

55 The Bullfight - Francisco Goya

56 Charge of the Mamelukes, May 2nd, 1808 Francisco Goya, 1814

57 11. Return to Christian Mysteries

58 God as the Architect - William Blake, 1794

59 Elohim Creating Abraham William Blake, 1805

60 Body of Abel Found by Adam and Eve William Blake, 1825

61 Faust and Mephistopheles Eugène Delacroix, 1826-1827

62 The Seventh Plague of Egypt John Martin, 1823

63 The Cathedral Gaspar David Friedrich, 1818

64 Romantic Literature Jane Eyre Charlotte Bronte
Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte Ivanhoe Sir Walter Scott Les Miserables Victor Hugo The Three Musketeers Alexander Dumas Frankenstein Mary Shelley Dracula Bramm Stoker Grimm’s Fairy Tales Jacob & Wilhelm Grimm Faust Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


66 The Romantic Poets Percy Byssche Shelley Lord Byron
Samuel Taylor Coleridge William Wordsworth John Keats William Blake

67 Music of the Romantic Era

68 Aspects of Romanticism in music & art
The artist apart from society The artist as social critic/revolutionary The artist as genius/cultural hero BEETHOVEN: “Why bow to social status?”

69 Many important Romantic Composers
Franz Schubert Bedrich Smetana Antonin Dvořák Peter Tchaikovsky Johannes Brahms Giuseppe Verdi Giacomo Puccini Richard Wagner Robert Schumann Clara Schumann Frederic Chopin Franz Liszt Felix Mendelssohn Hector Berlioz Chapter 1

70 The misunderstood genius
“To be a genius is to be misunderstood” – Emerson The artist out in front, ahead of the audience, the advanced guard (a military metaphor) – the avant garde “Music could quickly come to such a point, that everyone who is not precisely familiar with the rules and difficulties of the art would find absolutely no enjoyment in it.” A critic reviewing the premiere of Beethoven’s 3rd Symphony

71 Beethoven the transition composer
Early style: Classical, the language of Mozart and Haydn Later style: Romantic intense, passionate, virtuosic Not a servant, but an independent creator

72 Franz Schubert 1797-1828 Austrian Only 31 years old at his death
Wrote 16 operas, only 3 performed in his lifetime; none performed today Between songs Died of syphilis

73 Schubert, Erlkonig 1815 (Goethe)
(Narrator) Who rides so late through the night and wind? It is a father with his child; he has the boy close in his arm, he holds him tight, he keeps him warm. (Father) "My son, why do you hide your face in fear?" (Son) "Father, don't you see the Erlking? The Erlking with his crown and train?" (Father) "My son, it is a streak of mist." (Erlking) "You dear child, come with me! I'll play very lovely games with you. There are lots of colourful flowers by the shore; my mother has some golden robes." (Narrator) Wer reitet so spät durch Nacht und Wind? Es ist der Vater mit seinem Kind; Er hat den Knaben wohl in dem Arm, Er fasst ihn sicher, er hält ihn warm. (Father) "Mein Sohn, was birgst du so bang dein Gesicht?" (Son) "Siehst, Vater, du den Erlkönig nicht? Den Erlkönig mit Kron' und Schweif?" (Father) "Mein Sohn, es ist ein Nebelstreif." (Erlking) "Du liebes Kind, komm geh mit mir! Gar schöne Spiele spiel' ich mit dir; Manch' bunte Blumen sind an dem Strand; Meine Mutter hat manch' gülden Gewand."

74 (Son) "Mein Vater, mein Vater, und hörest du nicht, Was Erlkönig mir leise verspricht?"
(Father) "Sei ruhig, bleibe ruhig, mein Kind; In dürren Blättern säuselt der Wind." (Erlking) "Willst, feiner Knabe, du mit mir geh'n? Meine Töchter sollen dich warten schön; Meine Töchter führen den nächtlichen Reih'n Und wiegen und tanzen und singen dich ein." (Son) "Mein Vater, mein Vater, und siehst du nicht dort, Erlkönigs Töchter am düsteren Ort?" (Son) "My father, my father, don't you hear the Erking whispering promises to me?" (Father) "Be still, stay calm, my child; it's the wind rustling in the dry leaves." (Erlking) "My find lad, do you want to come with me? My daughters will take care of you; my daughters lead the nightly dance, and they'll rock and dance and sing you to sleep." (Son) "My father, my father, don't you see the Erlking's daughters over there in the shadows?"

75 (Father) "Mein Sohn, mein Sohn, ich seh' es genau, Es scheinen die alten Weiden so grau."
(Erlking) "Ich liebe dich, mich reizt deine schöne Gestalt, Und bist du nicht willig, so brauch ich Gewalt." (Son) "Mein Vater, mein Vater, jetzt fasst er mich an! Erlkönig hat mir ein Leids getan!" (Narrator) Dem Vater grauset's, er reitet geschwind, Er hält in Armen das ächzende Kind, Erreicht den Hof mit Müh und Noth; (Father) "My son, my son, I see it clearly, it's the gray sheen of the old willows." (Erlking) "I love you, your beautiful form delights me! And if you're not willing, then I'll use force." (Son) "My father, my father, now he's grasping me! The Erlking has hurt me!" (Narrator) The father shudders, he rides swiftly, he holds the moaning child in his arms; with effort and urgency he reaches the courtyard:

76 Is death tempting & attractive?
In seinen Armen das Kind war tot. in his arms the child was dead. Emotions? Balance, repose, clarity? NO! FEAR & SUPERNATURAL EVIL Is death tempting & attractive?

77 Another development In the 1830s, composer/conductor Felix Mendelssohn conducts a performance of Bach’s Mass in B minor – so what? Music of the past begins to take a place on concert programs – it eventually dominates concert programming! By 1870, seventy-five per cent of works in the Gewandhaus (a famous German orchestra) repertory were by dead composers. By 1870, seventy-five per cent of works in the Gewandhaus repertory were by dead composers.

78 Hector Berlioz 1803-1869 French Symphonie Fantastique Program music
Themes of love, madness, drugs, death, demons

79 Frédéric Chopin 1810-1849 Polish, lived in France Famous pianist
Only gave 14 public performances in his life Minute Waltz Polonaises Nocturnes

80 Richard Wagner 1813-1883 German Opera innovator
The Ring – over 18 hours of music

81 Giuseppe Verdi 1813-1901 Italian Composer as national/popular figure
Rigoletto (“La Donna Mobilé”) “Folk” Nationalism

82 Bedrich Smetana Czech composer The Moldau 1816

83 Gioacchino Rossini 1792-1868 Italian The Barber of Seville 1816
William Tell 1829

84 Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky 1840-1893
Russian 1812 Overture Swan Lake 1875 Sleeping Beauty 1888 The Nutcracker 1891

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