2SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA STRUCTUREINTRODUCTIONSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIAFOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTPROBLEM OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA
3INTRODUCTIONTraditional development issues such as economic stagnation, persistent poverty as well as newer challenges such as worsening environmental degradation and accelerating globalisation demand attention.One key approach that has received growing attention is based on the concept of sustainable development or ‘development which lasts’ (WCED, 1987).No universally acceptable practical definition of sustainable development exists as yet.
4DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTIONDEFINITION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTDr. Emil Salim, The challenge of sustainable consumption as seen from the South. In Symposium: Sustainable Consumption. Oslo, Norway; January 1994."Sustainable consumption implies that the consumption of current generations as well as future generations improves in quality. Such a concept of consumption requires the optimalisation of consumption subject to maintaining services and quality of resources and the environment over time."Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commerce“Sustainability is an economic state where the demands placed upon the environment by people and commerce can be met without reducing the capacity of the environment to provide for future generations. It can also be expressed in the simple terms of an economic golden rule for the restorative economy: Leave the world better than you found it, take no more than you need, try not to harm life or the environment, make amends if you do.”International Institute for Sustainable Development“Sustainability is to leave future generations as many opportunities as, if not more than, we have had ourselves."
5DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTIONDEFINITION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTRenn, O.: Ein regionales Konzept qualitativen Wachstums, Stuttgart 1994, p. 37Eine nachhaltige, auf Dauer angelegte wirtschaftliche und soziale Entwicklung bedeutet, dass die natürliche Umwelt und der damit verbundene Kapitalstock an natürlichen Ressourcen so weit erhalten werden muss, dass die Lebensqualität zukünftiger Generationen gewährleistet bleibt.Grossmann, W.D.: Nachhaltige Wirtschaftweise und physische Ökonomie. In: Politische Ökonomie, Sonderheft 1. München 1990, p. 55Statisch: Nur so viel Holz wird aus den Wäldern entnommen, wie zur Erhaltung der Wuchskraft des Bodens als Voraussetzung für das Forstbestehen des Waldes notwendig ist.Dynamisch: Erhaltung der Funktionsfähigkeit und vor allem der Widerstandsfähigkeit des Waldes auch gegenüber neuen und unvorgesehenen Entwicklungen.Food Agriculture Organization (FAO), zitiert in: Vornholz, G.: Zur Konzeption einer ökologisch tragfähigen Entwicklung, Marburg, 1993, p.118Nachhaltige Entwicklung heißt Management und Bewahrung der Grundlagen natürlicher Ressourcen und die Ausrichtung des technischen und institutionellen Wandels and der dauerhaften Befriedigung menschlicher Bedürfnisse in Gegenwart und Zukunft. Eine solche nachhaltige Entwicklung (in Land, Forst- und Fischereiwirtschaft) erhält die Regenerations-fähigkeit von Boden, Wasser, Pflanzen und Tieren, verhindert Umweltzerstörung, verfügt über geeignete Technik, ist ökonomisch gangbar und sozial verträglich.Rees, W.E.: Planning for sustainable development: a resource book, Vancouver Zitiert nach Vornholz, G.: Zur Konzeption einer ökologisch tragfähigen Entwicklung, Marburg, 1993, p. 118Nachhaltige Entwicklung stellt einen positiven sozioökonomischen Wandel dar, der die für Gemeinden und Gesellschaft notwendigen ökologischen und sozialen Systeme nicht untergräbt. Die erfolgreiche Umsetzung erfordert eine integrierte Strategie von Politik, Planung und sozialen Lernprozessen; die politische Umsetzung hängt von der vollständigen Unterstützung durch die Bevölkerung, also durch ihre Regierungen, sozialen Institutionen und privaten Handlungen ab.Busch-Lüty, C.: Nachhaltigkeit als Leitbild des Wirtschafttens. In: Politische Ökologie, Sonderheft 4/1992, p.8Nachhaltige Entwicklung bedeutet den langfristigen und umfassenden Substanzerhalt der natürlichen Produktionspotenziale und zwar quantitativ und qualitativ.Source: Müller-Christ: Nachhaltiges Ressourcenmanagement, 2001
6INTRODUCTION“Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”(WCED 1987)The fulfillment of recent generation needs without sacrificing the future generation needs:The natural resource exploitation in an efficient and wise manner, to maintain the environmental carrying capacity for supporting the development and human quality.Development is executed in well planned, rational, optimal, responsible and it gives a great concern on environmental conservation.
7Sustainable development has to fulfill three prerequisites: INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONSustainable development has to fulfill three prerequisites:ECONOMICENVIRON-MENTALSOCIAL
9INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONThe economy is geared mainly towards improving human welfare, primarily through increases in the consumption of goods and services.The environmental domain focuses on protection of the integrity and resilience of ecological systems.The social domain emphasises the enrichment of human relationships and achievement of individual and group aspirations.Recent work has sought to analyse these economic, social, and environmental dimensions in a balanced manner.
10INTRODUCTIONSustainable development is also valuable in term of economy, moral and ecology.Moral responsibility, which is a responsibility to the future generation with managing natural resources efficiently.Ecological value: connected with human toleration to other creatures, means that increasing human welfare without endangered other creatures’ life. Thus it will keep the stability and integrity of the ecosystem.
11SUSTAINABLE DEV. IN INDONESIA Indonesia is committed to sustainable development.Indonesia launched its National Agenda 21 which provides references to mainstream sustainable development principles into the National Development Planning.In 2000, Indonesia released the Sectoral Agenda 21 covering mining, energy, tourism, human settlements, and forestry.
12The Law No. 22/1999 on Regional Governance. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ININDONESIASome efforts have been made and regulations arebeing formulated to address the sustainabledevelopment, such as:Ratification of many bilateral and multilateral environmental agreementsThe Law No. 22/1999 on Regional Governance.The on-going process to establish the National Council for Sustainable Development (NCSD).
13FOUR PILLARS OFSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTSwaminathan (2002) – sustainable development restson four pillars which are:PRO-ENVIRONMENTPRO-POORPRO-WOMENPRO-LIVELIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES (JOB-LED)Using the four pillars also sets the stage to measurethe progress of SD – since each of the pillar can bemeasured quantitatively.
14FOUR PILLARS OFSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT1. PRO-ENVIRONMENTPro-environment i.e. the degree by which development activities impact on environment.“The lower degree of negative impacts and higher degree of the positive ones, the more pro-environment development is”
23FOUR PILLARS OFSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT2. PRO-POORPro-poor can be measured by the Human Development Index (HDI) or by the Human Poverty Index (HPI).The HDI is a measure of achievement of the most basic human capabilities, i.e. lifeexpectancy, educational attainment andincome (UNDP, 1999).
24“The lower the percentage of HPI, the lesser poverty prevails” FOUR PILLARS OFSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTHPI is a measure of poverty indicating deprivation in four basic dimensions of human life:a long and healthy life % of people likely to die before the age of 60knowledge % of people whose ability to read and write is far from adequateeconomic provisioning proportion of the population with disposable incomes of less than 50% of the mediumsocial inclusion proportion of long term unemployed (12 months of more)“The lower the percentage of HPI, the lesser poverty prevails”
29mortality rate dropped FOUR PILLARS OFSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTPRO-POOR: HEALTHBetween , infantmortality rate droppedfrom 159 to 48 perthousand live birth(BPS et al., 2001)Year196019701980199020002002Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births)12810479.060.035.032.0Source: Globalis Indonesia
30Life expectancy increased from 41 years in FOUR PILLARS OFSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTPRO-POOR: HEALTHLife expectancy increased from 41 years in1960 to 66 years in 1999 (BPS et al., 2001)2000: 67.962001: 68.272002: 68.632003: 68.942004: 69.262005: 69.57Source: CIA World Factbook
31PRO-POOR: HEALTH FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Another issue is the increasing cases of healthproblems, related to environmental pollution suchrespiratory tract infections due to air pollution inthe cities and due to haze produced seasonally byforest and land fires.
35SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOUR PILLARS OFSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT(Kayu gelondongan selundupan eks MV. Kum Jin Gang yang ada di Basis TNI-AL, Surabaya, Jawa Timur. [Citrawijaya Lim; ].)(Penduduk menanam benih di antara lahan hutan yang tersisa dari kebakaran. [TEMPO/ Junaini KS; 39c/056/89; ])
36PRO-POOR: EDUCATION FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Indonesia has made significant progress in advancing education as indicated by increasing adult literacy rate from 39% in 1960 to 88% in 1999 (BPS et al., 2001).The number of illiterate (> 15 years old) in 2003 is 10.2 % (15.4 million).The population above 10 years old who passed junior high school, i.e. from 32.2% in 1999 to 33.6% in This is an increase of 0.1 – 0.6% compared to 1999 (SUSENAS, 2000).
37PRO-POOR: EDUCATION FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 81863988102030405060708090100199019951999Source: based on BPS et.al., 20011960Adult Literacy Rate in Indonesia(The proportion of People over the Age of 15 who can Read and Write)2002: 87.9 (Source: UNDP), : 98
38PRO-POOR: EDUCATION FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Despite the achievement, there are several problemsin education sector:The dropout rate at primary and secondary levels was 3.4%.19.3% of all students would not be able to continue their education to a higher level (SUSENAS, 2000).Teaching quality is relatively low.
39PRO-POOR: ECONOMIC CONDITION FOUR PILLARS OFSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTPRO-POOR: ECONOMIC CONDITIONPer-capita income 1996: US $ 1,153/cap/year – lowermiddle income (~ Rp ).During the economic crisis 1998: below US$750/cap/year – low income (~ Rp ).2003: US $ 1000/cap/year – lower middle income (~ Rp.).During the crisis, the gap between the rich and thepoor widened, due to unemployment, lack of access toadequate food and basic social services, inequities indistribution of wealth and access to resources.
40POVERTY FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 24.2% of the Indonesian population or 49.5 millionpeople were living in poverty in 1998; Reduced toabout 38.4 million people or 18.2% of the populationin 2000.And in 2004 reduced to about 36.1 million or 16.7% ofthe total population.Problem: increasing unemployment rate. Theunemployment following the crisis was 5.5% in 1998which increased to 9.4% in 2004.
41POVERTY FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Indonesia is facing housing shortage in terms of bothquantity and quality, particularly for the urban poor.In 2000, about 25% household in Indonesia live inhouse below the ideal size (WHO) of 10 m2 per person.
43SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOUR PILLARS OFSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTPosition of Human DevelopmentIndex in 2004 from 175 countries:Indonesia - # 111Malaysia - # 59Thailand - # 76Philippines - # 83Vietnam - # 112UNDP says in 2006 #108 among 177 countries.
443. PRO-WOMEN FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Pro-women or pro-gender can be measured by the gender related development index (GDI) and the gender empowerment measure (GEM). GDI is the same as HDI, but adjusted for gender inequality.The closer the GDI value is to HDI, the less gender disparity exists. GEM measures gender inequality in key areas of economic and political participation and decision making (UNDP, 1999).
454. PRO-LIVELIHOOD FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Pro-livelihood opportunities can be shown by the conventional method of the number of jobs created per investment.Experience has shown that only those get measured, get done.The four pillars have the dual role of guiding principle and driving force to get sustainable development beyond rhetoric and to get into the realm of implementation.
46PROBLEM IN IMPLEMENTING SUST. DEV. IN INDONESIALike many other countries, particularly developing countries, Indonesia faces many constraints in the implementation of Agenda 21 and national sustainable development (national and international constraints), such as:The lack of clean, accountable, representative & democratic governance.Inadequate public consultation coupled with emphasis on boosting economic growth has resulted in policies that often do not support sustainable development.
47PROBLEM IN IMPLEMENTING SUST. DEV. IN INDONESIAThere is an almost general lack of awareness about Agenda 21 and sustainable development among government officials, cooperation even academician.Inadequate political will, institutional capacity and law enforcementInadequate provision for the involvement of major groupInadequate financial, technological and human resourcesetc.
48INDONESIA Total population: 219,883,000 GDP per capita (Intl $, 2002): 3,390Life expectancy at birth m/f (years): 65.0/68.0Healthy life expectancy at birth m/f (years, 2002): 57.4/58.9Child mortality m/f (per 1000): 45/37Adult mortality m/f (per 1000): 241/204Total health expenditure per capita (Intl $, 2002): 110Total health expenditure as % of GDP (2002): 3.2