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Beyond and After Media Literacy – Media Competence – Building Civil Society Thomas A. Bauer, Dr. O. Univ. Prof. Department of.

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Präsentation zum Thema: "Beyond and After Media Literacy – Media Competence – Building Civil Society Thomas A. Bauer, Dr. O. Univ. Prof. Department of."—  Präsentation transkript:

1 Beyond and After Media Literacy – Media Competence – Building Civil Society Thomas A. Bauer, Dr. O. Univ. Prof. Department of Communication Faculty of Social Sciences University Vienna / Austria Thomas A. Bauer, Dr. O. Univ. Prof. Department of Communication Faculty of Social Sciences University Vienna / Austria Faculdade Caspar Líbero São Paulo Feb 2012

2 MEDIA – THE SYMBOLIC-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE SOCIAL PRACTICE OF COMMUNICATION 1. Essentialist / Cognitivist Concepts Theorize Communication as a Universal Code of Action (Interaction, Transaction) In the Interest of Cosmological Practice as a Connective System of Remarkable Characters (Musts, Rules, Procedures, Rights and Obligations, Functions, Effects) Relating them to the Features of Power, Precedence, Authority and Success: Information, Knowledge, Action, Position Repeating the Ground-Model of Relation: Expectation of and Fulfilling of Action: Role Models (as culturally ritualized habits of social order) - in cultural framing (partner-partner-model) - or in professional framing (journalism-audience, producer- consumer model, industrially taylorized model) 1. Essentialist / Cognitivist Concepts Theorize Communication as a Universal Code of Action (Interaction, Transaction) In the Interest of Cosmological Practice as a Connective System of Remarkable Characters (Musts, Rules, Procedures, Rights and Obligations, Functions, Effects) Relating them to the Features of Power, Precedence, Authority and Success: Information, Knowledge, Action, Position Repeating the Ground-Model of Relation: Expectation of and Fulfilling of Action: Role Models (as culturally ritualized habits of social order) - in cultural framing (partner-partner-model) - or in professional framing (journalism-audience, producer- consumer model, industrially taylorized model)

3 MEDIA – THE SYMBOLIC-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE SOCIAL PRACTICE OF COMMUNICATION Connecting (Just by First-Level-Observation of Practice) Media to Communication and Communication to Media Understanding Media is then verifying it as real object functionally related to communication as a real object -framing the cultural phenomenon as a self-explaining, in-itself-closed objective structure (in theory of practice and in practice of theory), -as an instrument (metaphors: tool, platform, agency, system, procedural operation) used in the interest of those models of (repeating) social order and have to be -controlled (in public practice: media politics, media economy, media governance etc. -and observed (in theoretical research: media order, systems development

4 MASS-MEDIA CULTURE – MEDIA MASS-CULTURE - THE CODE OF MEDIA SOCIETY The model of hierarchical and industrial society? MassMediaCommunication: Journalism: organizational system for distribution of information and news shaping public opinion (technology & organisational strategy (system of trust) - -media in an industrial manner -professionalism of production (technological perfection) -against ignorant / dependent audience? -shaping the responsibility for mutual understanding: socialized use of media through professionalism / quality in context of production, media literacy (capacity, skills) in context of consumption (media education) The model of hierarchical and industrial society? MassMediaCommunication: Journalism: organizational system for distribution of information and news shaping public opinion (technology & organisational strategy (system of trust) - -media in an industrial manner -professionalism of production (technological perfection) -against ignorant / dependent audience? -shaping the responsibility for mutual understanding: socialized use of media through professionalism / quality in context of production, media literacy (capacity, skills) in context of consumption (media education)

5 MASS-MEDIA CULTURE – MEDIA MASS-CULTURE: THE CODE OF MEDIA SOCIETY Beyond hierarchical and industrial society? MediaMassCommunication: Social Media: network organism for sharing information, news, conversation and diverse meaning - media as a network (community building) - casual, instant, ubiqitious option to get and stay connected - producer-consumer-model becoming obsolete - sharing the capacity/responsibility/habit for mutual understanding in context of construction of reality: professionalism and media competence as connected system of trust (from hierarchy to heterarchy, from distribution of news to social balance of communication right/duty/responsibility Beyond hierarchical and industrial society? MediaMassCommunication: Social Media: network organism for sharing information, news, conversation and diverse meaning - media as a network (community building) - casual, instant, ubiqitious option to get and stay connected - producer-consumer-model becoming obsolete - sharing the capacity/responsibility/habit for mutual understanding in context of construction of reality: professionalism and media competence as connected system of trust (from hierarchy to heterarchy, from distribution of news to social balance of communication right/duty/responsibility

6 MEDIA – THE SYMBOLIC-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE SOCIAL PRACTICE OF COMMUNICATION 2. Constructivist - Hermeneutical Concepts Theorize Communication following the interest of understanding the cultural programs, the notion- models in behind of -, and the competence motifs of - constructing reality (competence: supposition of ability, capacity, habitus, responsibility, moral commitment) -human competence motif: definition against uncertainty (self- confidence) -social competence motif: sociability as a moment of trust (self- awareness) -cultural competence motif: decisionability of meaning (semantic and pragmatic paradigms of notion, models of knowledge, cultural programs) against unexpected surprise -organizational competence motif: selectiveness against need as a proof of sovereignty (models of proof as references of experience) -technical competence motif: feasibility and causality of syntactic structures against coincidence and casualness (determination of reality) 2. Constructivist - Hermeneutical Concepts Theorize Communication following the interest of understanding the cultural programs, the notion- models in behind of -, and the competence motifs of - constructing reality (competence: supposition of ability, capacity, habitus, responsibility, moral commitment) -human competence motif: definition against uncertainty (self- confidence) -social competence motif: sociability as a moment of trust (self- awareness) -cultural competence motif: decisionability of meaning (semantic and pragmatic paradigms of notion, models of knowledge, cultural programs) against unexpected surprise -organizational competence motif: selectiveness against need as a proof of sovereignty (models of proof as references of experience) -technical competence motif: feasibility and causality of syntactic structures against coincidence and casualness (determination of reality)

7 MEDIA – THE SYMBOLIC-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE SOCIAL PRACTICE OF COMMUNICATION Constructivist / Interpretative Concepts Theorize Communication as a Universal Code of Observation -in relation to oneself (identity concept) -in relation to natural, social, cultural and symbolic environment (concept of ambient and of generalized other) -in relation to constructability of meaning (concept of value of difference) -in relation to the situational, social, cultural or organizational setting deciding the meaning of mutual observation (media concept) -in reference to the system of symbolic interaction (concept of socialization of diversity and difference) (V. Flusser, S.J. Schmidt, J. Mitterer, A. Schütz, G.H. Mead, Th. Luckmann, J. Habermas) Constructivist / Interpretative Concepts Theorize Communication as a Universal Code of Observation -in relation to oneself (identity concept) -in relation to natural, social, cultural and symbolic environment (concept of ambient and of generalized other) -in relation to constructability of meaning (concept of value of difference) -in relation to the situational, social, cultural or organizational setting deciding the meaning of mutual observation (media concept) -in reference to the system of symbolic interaction (concept of socialization of diversity and difference) (V. Flusser, S.J. Schmidt, J. Mitterer, A. Schütz, G.H. Mead, Th. Luckmann, J. Habermas)

8 MEDIA – THE SYMBOLIC-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE SOCIAL PRACTICE OF COMMUNICATION Connecting Media to Communication and Communication to Media by Observing the Observation (Next Level Observation) In Constructivist Perspective Any Construction is Related / Mediated to the Social, Cultural, or Symbolic Environment Understanding Media then is -Framing the construction of reality through the Media Code (Media Perspective) of any Communication: Mediality as the modus of sociability/society, the conditional moment of decision on opinion, meaning and sense -Understanding Communication as Doing the Media in the Interest of Constructing Meaning -in a adaptive / repressive interest of usage: socialized practice -in an elaborated / emancipative interest of usage: social social practice (H. M.Enzensberger, A. Hepp, F. Krotz, B. Bernstein, J. Habermas, Thomas A. Bauer, St. Hall, Cultural Studies authors) Connecting Media to Communication and Communication to Media by Observing the Observation (Next Level Observation) In Constructivist Perspective Any Construction is Related / Mediated to the Social, Cultural, or Symbolic Environment Understanding Media then is -Framing the construction of reality through the Media Code (Media Perspective) of any Communication: Mediality as the modus of sociability/society, the conditional moment of decision on opinion, meaning and sense -Understanding Communication as Doing the Media in the Interest of Constructing Meaning -in a adaptive / repressive interest of usage: socialized practice -in an elaborated / emancipative interest of usage: social social practice (H. M.Enzensberger, A. Hepp, F. Krotz, B. Bernstein, J. Habermas, Thomas A. Bauer, St. Hall, Cultural Studies authors)

9 MEDIA CULTURE – THE SYMBOLIC ENVIRONMENT FOR SOCIAL COMMUNICATION MEDIA COMPETENCE - A Cultural Good of Communication The Communication Education and Development Programme for the Civil Society: A Public Value Concept -Sovereignty: Downsizing of organizational / institutional / economical technological overkill within the practice of social communication -Authenticity: Upgrading the meaning of individuality as a source of difference for the dialogical /dialectic construction of meaning -Diversity: The social usage of media – the condition of creative habitus -Participation: Make usage of media becoming a factor in construction of public meaning beyond ritualized practices of unification / uniformation -Emancipation: Society is, what its communication is like – critical observation and reflection of communication – the emancipative principle of social change (N. Chomsky, P. Bourdieu, M. de Certeau, M. Castells, J. Piaget, Th. A. Bauer, D. Baacke) MEDIA COMPETENCE - A Cultural Good of Communication The Communication Education and Development Programme for the Civil Society: A Public Value Concept -Sovereignty: Downsizing of organizational / institutional / economical technological overkill within the practice of social communication -Authenticity: Upgrading the meaning of individuality as a source of difference for the dialogical /dialectic construction of meaning -Diversity: The social usage of media – the condition of creative habitus -Participation: Make usage of media becoming a factor in construction of public meaning beyond ritualized practices of unification / uniformation -Emancipation: Society is, what its communication is like – critical observation and reflection of communication – the emancipative principle of social change (N. Chomsky, P. Bourdieu, M. de Certeau, M. Castells, J. Piaget, Th. A. Bauer, D. Baacke)

10 UNDERSTANDING MEDIA CHANGE The Cultural Studies Thesis Social Change: The concept of understanding reality: Change does not happen to the reality and to its observation; it happens through observation and is the structure of reality Media Change (economically driven, technologically performed) is the cultural / relational and communicational performance of social change – it mirrors the paradigms of change (action and observation) in mind, attitude, habit and behaviour. The question is not, what is the media impact (effect) in change, the question is, how changing discourse rules ( effect the use of media ( cf. M. Foucault )? Social Change: The concept of understanding reality: Change does not happen to the reality and to its observation; it happens through observation and is the structure of reality Media Change (economically driven, technologically performed) is the cultural / relational and communicational performance of social change – it mirrors the paradigms of change (action and observation) in mind, attitude, habit and behaviour. The question is not, what is the media impact (effect) in change, the question is, how changing discourse rules ( effect the use of media ( cf. M. Foucault )?

11 Media - Identity : How to save/develop the authenticity of real self under conditions of mediated relation? Media - Ecology : How to save/preserve/develop the emancipative resources of social communication against the repressive mechanism of technicity and economy Media Competence: How to use media as an agency of realizing individuality under conditions of a media organized society? Media Culture: How does the everyday usage of media effect the culture of sociability? Media Learning: What attitudes are we able to develop, in order to create an societal learning process out of it (media competence)? Media - Identity : How to save/develop the authenticity of real self under conditions of mediated relation? Media - Ecology : How to save/preserve/develop the emancipative resources of social communication against the repressive mechanism of technicity and economy Media Competence: How to use media as an agency of realizing individuality under conditions of a media organized society? Media Culture: How does the everyday usage of media effect the culture of sociability? Media Learning: What attitudes are we able to develop, in order to create an societal learning process out of it (media competence)? CULTURAL PERSEPCTIVES OF MEDIALITY

12 UNDERSTANDING MEDIA COMPETENCE Competence Models in general Competence - a normative term: is directed to social agreements of social and individual values Competence - a critical term: is directed to distinction between systems demands of assimilation and and challenge of accommodation Competence – a pragmatic term: is directed to the possibility of learning and of development. Competence - a normative term: is directed to social agreements of social and individual values Competence - a critical term: is directed to distinction between systems demands of assimilation and and challenge of accommodation Competence – a pragmatic term: is directed to the possibility of learning and of development.

13 UNDERSTANDING COMPETENCE MEDIA COMPETENCE IS CULTURAL GOOD The term of competence includes aspects: Ability (to know what operations and how to do them in case of – skills) Capacity (to have the cognitive, affective and active means and preparedness: skills) Responsibility (to be conscious of what it means for oneself and/or for others: consequences and possible effects Moral Commitment (to be aware of the implicated values when making personal decisions) In media knowledge, media participation and media usage The term of competence includes aspects: Ability (to know what operations and how to do them in case of – skills) Capacity (to have the cognitive, affective and active means and preparedness: skills) Responsibility (to be conscious of what it means for oneself and/or for others: consequences and possible effects Moral Commitment (to be aware of the implicated values when making personal decisions) In media knowledge, media participation and media usage

14 Exemplaric Back-Ground Referencies Baacke, Dieter (1997): Medienkompetenz. Tübingen: Niemeyer Verlag Bauer, Thomas A. (2011): In Zukunft mehr Kommunikation. Gesellschaft im Spiegel des Medienwandels. In: Koschnik, Wolfgang J. (ed.): Focus Jahrbuch 2010, S. 1 – 83 Bauer, Thomas A. (2011): O valor publico da Media Literacy. In Líbero 27, p. 9 – 21, São Paulo:: FCL Bourdieu, Pierre (1998): Praktische Vernunft. Zur Theorie des Handelns. Frankfurt: siuhrkamp Bernstein, Basil: Elaborated and Restricted Codes: Their Origins and some Consequences. In: Gumperz, J.J. / Hymes, D (ed.): The Ethnography of Communication. In: American Anthropologist. Special Publication, 66, 1964,/6, Part II, S Castells, Manuel (2001): Der Aufstieg der Netzwerkgesellschaft. Opladen : Leske + Budrich. Castells, Manuel (2005): Die Internet-Galaxie: Internet, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Wiesbaden: Verlag f. Sozialwissenschaft Certeau, Michel de (1989): Die Kunst des Handelns. Berlin Chomsky, Noam (1972): Aspekte der Syntax-Theorie. Frankfurt: suhrkamp Enzensberger, Hans M. (1970): Baukasten zu einer Theorie der Medien. In: Kursbuch 20,: suhrkamp, p. 159 – 186 Foucault, Michel (1974): Die Ordnung der Dinge. Eine Archäologie der Humanwissenschaften. Frankfurt: suhrkamp Hall, Stuart Hall, Stuart.(1993): Encoding, Decoding. In: During, S.: The Cultural Studies Reader. London: Routledge Habermas, Jürgen Habermas, Jürgen (1981): Thorie des kommunikativen Handelns (1981): Bd 1: Handlungsrealität und gesellschaftliche Rationalisierung. Bd 2: Kritik der funktionalistischen Vernunft. Frankfurt: suhrkamp Hepp, Andreas (2008): Netzwerke der Medien. – Netzwerke des Alltags: Medienalltag in der Netzwerkgesellschaft. In Thomas, Tanja (ed): Medienkultur und soziales Handeln. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, p Horkheimer, Max / Adorno, Theodor W. (1969 / 2003): Dialektik der Aufklärung. Philosophische Fragmente. Frankfurt: Fischer Krotz, Friedrich: Mediatisirung von Alltag, Kultur und Gesellschaft. Ein gesellschaftlicher Metaprozess wird besichtigt. Wiesbaden 2001 Mead, George Herbert (1973): Geist, Identität und Gesellschaft Frankfurt: suhrkam Luhmann, Niklas (2004): Die Realität der Masenmedien. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften ( 3 ed.) Piaget, Jean (1947): La représentation du monde chez lenfant. Pariis: Presses Universitaires de France Schmidt, Siegfried J. (2003): Geschichten und Diskurse. Abschied vom Konstruktivismus. Frankfurt Schütz, Alfred / Luckmann, Thomas 1984) : Strukturen der Lebenswelt. Bd 2. Frankfurt/M.: suhrkamp Baacke, Dieter (1997): Medienkompetenz. Tübingen: Niemeyer Verlag Bauer, Thomas A. (2011): In Zukunft mehr Kommunikation. Gesellschaft im Spiegel des Medienwandels. In: Koschnik, Wolfgang J. (ed.): Focus Jahrbuch 2010, S. 1 – 83 Bauer, Thomas A. (2011): O valor publico da Media Literacy. In Líbero 27, p. 9 – 21, São Paulo:: FCL Bourdieu, Pierre (1998): Praktische Vernunft. Zur Theorie des Handelns. Frankfurt: siuhrkamp Bernstein, Basil: Elaborated and Restricted Codes: Their Origins and some Consequences. In: Gumperz, J.J. / Hymes, D (ed.): The Ethnography of Communication. In: American Anthropologist. Special Publication, 66, 1964,/6, Part II, S Castells, Manuel (2001): Der Aufstieg der Netzwerkgesellschaft. Opladen : Leske + Budrich. Castells, Manuel (2005): Die Internet-Galaxie: Internet, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Wiesbaden: Verlag f. Sozialwissenschaft Certeau, Michel de (1989): Die Kunst des Handelns. Berlin Chomsky, Noam (1972): Aspekte der Syntax-Theorie. Frankfurt: suhrkamp Enzensberger, Hans M. (1970): Baukasten zu einer Theorie der Medien. In: Kursbuch 20,: suhrkamp, p. 159 – 186 Foucault, Michel (1974): Die Ordnung der Dinge. Eine Archäologie der Humanwissenschaften. Frankfurt: suhrkamp Hall, Stuart Hall, Stuart.(1993): Encoding, Decoding. In: During, S.: The Cultural Studies Reader. London: Routledge Habermas, Jürgen Habermas, Jürgen (1981): Thorie des kommunikativen Handelns (1981): Bd 1: Handlungsrealität und gesellschaftliche Rationalisierung. Bd 2: Kritik der funktionalistischen Vernunft. Frankfurt: suhrkamp Hepp, Andreas (2008): Netzwerke der Medien. – Netzwerke des Alltags: Medienalltag in der Netzwerkgesellschaft. In Thomas, Tanja (ed): Medienkultur und soziales Handeln. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, p Horkheimer, Max / Adorno, Theodor W. (1969 / 2003): Dialektik der Aufklärung. Philosophische Fragmente. Frankfurt: Fischer Krotz, Friedrich: Mediatisirung von Alltag, Kultur und Gesellschaft. Ein gesellschaftlicher Metaprozess wird besichtigt. Wiesbaden 2001 Mead, George Herbert (1973): Geist, Identität und Gesellschaft Frankfurt: suhrkam Luhmann, Niklas (2004): Die Realität der Masenmedien. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften ( 3 ed.) Piaget, Jean (1947): La représentation du monde chez lenfant. Pariis: Presses Universitaires de France Schmidt, Siegfried J. (2003): Geschichten und Diskurse. Abschied vom Konstruktivismus. Frankfurt Schütz, Alfred / Luckmann, Thomas 1984) : Strukturen der Lebenswelt. Bd 2. Frankfurt/M.: suhrkamp


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