Präsentation zum Thema: "Enzymes in Baking Prof. K. Lösche"— Präsentation transkript:
1 Enzymes in Baking Prof. K. Lösche BILB Bremerhaven
2 Introduction Enzyme Basics Enzymes are proteins that function as biological catalystsEnzymes are specific, both in the substrate they modify and in the reactions they catalyzeEnzymes work quickly and under mild conditionsEnzymes derived from microbial sources are produced by fermentationCurrent EU legislation considers Enzymes as processing aidsThe protein produced by the fermentation is added to the formulation, NOT the microorganism itself
3 Enzymes for Baking Indigenous Enzymes At harvest: plant Amylase Exogenous EnzymesBy microorganisms in situ: lipase, phosphatase, amylases etc.Produced by YeastMaltogenase, protease, alcohol dehydrogenase, etc.Endogenous EnzymesCommercial enzymes added during process: amylases, pentosanases, lipase, proteases etc.
4 Fungal α-Amylase Action Effect in bread degrades alpha-1.4 links in amylose and amylopectinproduces di- and trisaccharides and dextrinsendo-activityEffect in breadlarger oven spring, i.e larger volumeimproves crumb structure and texturebrown crust colour (Maillard-Reaktion)Synergistic effects with other enzymes like xylanase, lipase, glucose oxidase and maltogenic α-amylase.
5 Amyloglucosidase Action Effect in bread Degrades maltose to glucoseExo-activityEffect in breadBrowning due to Maillard-reactionSynergistic effects with other enzymes like xylanase, lipase, glucose oxidase and maltogenic α-amylase.
6 Xylanases / Hemicellulases Effect in breadimproved dough stability and mixing tolerance, tolerance to overfermentationincreased oven spring larger volume, better crumb structurecrumb softness due to larger volume and improved crumb structurecrust crispinessActiondegrade and modify nonstarch- polysaccharides fractionChange interaction between wheat arabinoxylans and gluten proteinsSynergistic effects with other enzymes like α -amylase, lipase, glucose oxidase and maltogenic α -amylase
8 Glucose Oxidase Action Effect in bread Glucose is oxidized to Gluconolacton and H2O2H2O2 interlinks the free sulfhydrylgroups (-SH) in the gluten to disulfidbonds (-S-S-)Interlinkage of Arabinoxylan through oxidation of Ferulic acidEffect in breadReduction of dough stickiness, Gluten strengtheningIncreases bread volume, especially in weak floursIncreases water absorptionSynergistic effects with other enzymes like α-amylase, xylanase, lipase and maltogenic α-amylase
9 Mechanism of Glucose Oxidase H2O2 oxidizes the Gluten network H2O2 oxidizes the sulfhydrylgroup (-SH) of the amino acid Cysteine from wheat gluten, forming Disulfide bonds within the gluten network. This leads to dough strengthening!
10 Synergies of Glucose Oxidase with Xylanase and Amylase Hemicellulase AmylaseAmylase Hemicellulase 100 U Glucose Oxidase per kg of flourControlProcedure: Straight dough pan breadFlour: European Flour all doughs contained 40ppm ascorbic acid and the optimal dosage of Amylase and Xylanase
11 Replacement of oxidants with Glucose Oxidase in French baquette 25% ascorbic acid Units of Glucose Oxidase per kg flour100% ascorbic acidProcedure: baguette bread Fermentation time: 2hoursAll bread contain 50ppm Amylase/ Xylanase 100% ascorbic acid = 60ppm ascorbic acid
12 Replacement of oxidants with Glucose Oxidase in Pan Bread 40ppm ADA100 Units Glucose Oxidase per kg flourADA = AzodicarbonamideProcedure: Sponge Dough Flour: US HRW flour Both loaves contain 50ppm ascorbic acid and the optimal level of Fungal Amylase and Xylanase
13 Partial or full replacement of extra wheat gluten with Glucose Oxidase The loaves shown were fermented for 2.5 hours and contain the optimal dosage of fungal alpha-Amylase and Xylanase along with 30ppm of ascorbic acid. Flour: French Flour150 U Glucose Oxidase per kg of flour1% Additional Wheat Gluten
14 Maltogenic α-Amylase Action Effect in bread degrades alpha-1.4 links in amylose and amylopectinproduces mainly maltose, but also mono- and oligosaccharides (DP2-7)active above starch gelatinisationdeactivated at the end of bakingEffect in breadreduces starch retrogradation, i.e. reduces staling rateunique effect on maintaining crumb elasticity and softnessno effect on dough characteristics nor on volume or crumb structureSynergistic effects with other enzymes like α-amylase, xylanase, lipase and glucose oxidase
15 Dosage Response of Maltogenic Amylase on Crumb Texture of White Pan bread Reference 350 MANU maltogene Amylase 750 MANU maltogene AmylaseProcess: Sponge & Doughmaltogenic alpha-Amylase added on top
16 Effect of Different Amylases on Crumb Softness and Elasticity in pan bread Monoglycerides = 0.5%Maltogenic alpha-Amylase, 450 U/kg flourThermostable Bacterial alpha-Amylase, 1.5 U/kg flourSponge & dough procedure using Americanflour, differences of loaf volume: max. +/- 3%
17 Synergistic effect of enzymes on crumb softness and elasticity Fungal alpha-amylase 12.5 FAU/kg flour Xylanase FXU/kg flour Maltogene alpha-Amylase (450 und 750 MANU)Straight dough processControlled volume, 3% soy fat
18 Influence of maltogenic alpha-Amylase on shelf life characteristics of mixed wheat/rye bread Control1350 Units maltogenic Amylase200 Units acidic maltogenic Amylase350 Units acidic maltogenic AmylaseUS Rye and wheat flour (50/50)Straight dough processBread crumb pH = 4.9
19 Maltogenic Amylase in Unproofed Frozen Dough 7 Weeks Frozen Storage at -18°C DMG = Destilled MonoglyceridesMANU = Maltogenic Amylase
20 Effect of maltogenic alpha-Amylase on Shelf Life of Panettone crumb softnesscrumb elasticityPanettone cake was produced according to traditional recipe (European flour; sponge dough method) also with high levels of eggs and margerine, no dried fruits includedbasic recipe contains 15 U fungal alpha- Amylase, 90 U Xylanase per kg flour and 40ppm ascorbic acid
21 Effect of Different Amylases on Crumb Softness and Elasticity in gluten-free bread Control600 U maltogenic alpha-Amylase 900 U maltogenic alpha- Amylase 600 U maltogenic alpha- Amylase U fungal alpha-Amylase
23 Action and deactivation temperatures of different Amylases during the baking process A Intact starch granules are inaccessible for enzymesB Stach granules start to swellC Amylose starts to leach into intergranular spaceD Bulk of starch is gelatinised; optimal temperature for the degradation of amylose and amylopectin
25 Lipases with different specificity towards native flour lipids Effect in breadAssures better dough consistency and stability, thereby increasing fermentation tolerance, reduction of dough stickinessIncreased volume of the baked product with fine, regular crumb structure.Mainly the Lipase with broad substrate specificity is an alternative to dough strengthening emulsifiers1,3-specific Lipasehydrolyzes non-polar lipids f.e. 1,3 ester bonds of triglyceridesLipase with broad substratespecificityModifies triglycerides but also polar lipids like f.e. Lecithin by which they become more polar and improve their surface active function.
26 Synergy: Combination of Amylase/Xylanase with 1,3-specific Lipase Enzyme: 1,3-specific Lipase combined with Fungal Amylase and XylanaseImproved bread volume and bloomUniform and regular crumb structureWhiter crumb structure
27 Combination of Amylase or Xylanase with Lipase in Hard Rolls and Pan Bread
28 Use of dual specificity Lipase in European white pan bread, straight dough process control Reference ppm Lipase 0,3% DatemEuropean flour, reference contains optimal dosage of amylase and xylanase
29 Use of dual specificity Lipase in Turkishstyle Bread, straight dough process control ,3% Datem 6ppm LipaseEuropean flour Xylanase / Amylase included
30 Use of dual specificity Lipase in Pan bread, sponge dough process 0.375% SSL 30ppm Lipase ppm Lipase 0.375% SSLWinter patent flour; rotary dough divider Xylanase/Amylase included
31 Use of dual specificity Lipase in high speed mixing, under vacuum 0.5% SSL % Datem ppm Lipase0.5% SSL % SSL ppm LipaseEuropean flourXylanase/Amylase includedAmerican flourXylanase/Amylase included
32 Use of dual specificity Lipase in Wholemeal pan bread, straight dough process 0.12% % ppm DATEM DATEM Lipase60% wholemeal flour, 40% white (T550) flour, Xylanase/Amylase included
33 Use of dual specificity Lipase in Maraquetta control ,24% Datem ,2 % SSL ppm LipaseEuropean flour contains Xylanase/Amylase/Ascorbic Acid
34 Use of dual specificity Lipase in French Baguette, straight dough process Control ppm Glucose 15ppm Glucose Oxidase OxidaseProcedure: Baquette bread procedure Fermentation time: 2.5h, Flour: French Flour 20ppm ascorbic acid Standardized Amylase & Xylanase
36 Lipase activity towards triglycerides and lecithin
37 HPLC profile of lipids from dough made with and without dual specificity Lipase Treatment indicates that DGDG and lecithin peaks decrease, DGMG, lysolecithin and FFA peaks increaseLipids extracted from dough using water saturated butanol at 25°C
38 Stages of gas cells during baking Gan, et al, 1995