Präsentation zum Thema: "Beschleunigerprojekte für das zukünftige Teilchenphysikprogramm*"— Präsentation transkript:
1Beschleunigerprojekte für das zukünftige Teilchenphysikprogramm* Hadron CollidersLepton CollidersHadron-Leptonothers (µ, Plasma accelerators, γ-γ,…)Higgs-Factories* or how to put 50 years into 30 minutes!
2Contents Introduction Hadron Colliders Lepton Colliders LHC up to 2020LHC after 2020: HE-LHCLepton CollidersLinear e+e- Colliders: ILC and CLICCircular e+e- colliders: LEP3, DLEP, TLEP, SuperTRISTANMuon ColliderHadron-Lepton CollidersLHeCeRHICPlasma acceleratorsHiggs Factories : Linear, circular, γ-γ, muon colliders
3European Strategy Update Proposed Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics:
7LHC Timeline LS2 LS3 : HL-LHC LS1 secure L ~ 1034 and reliability Aiming at L ~Start LIULS3 : HL-LHCNew IRlevelled L ~Experiment upgradesLS1INCREASE ENERGY TO13-14 TeVfb-1/3yearsLower emittfb-1/3years+ higher intensity300 fb-1/year
8HL-LHC goal : 3000 fb-1 by 2030’s…levelled lumi ( virtual peak lumi)140 pile up (average)3 fb-1 per day60% of efficiency250 fb-1 /year300 fb-1/year as «ultimate»Full projectJust continue improving performance through vigorous consolidation
91.2 km of new equipment in the LHC… 6.5 cryoplant2 x 18 cryoplants for IRs
10HiLumi: Two branches (with overlap) PIC - Performance Improving Consolidation upgrade (1000 fb-1)IR quad change (rad. Damage, enhanced cooling)Cryogenics (P4, IP4, IP5) separation Arc-RF and IR(?)Enhanced Collimation (11T?)SC links (in part) and rad. Mitigation (ALARA)QPS and Machine Prot.KickersInterlock systemFP- Full Performance upgrade (3000 fb-1)Crab CavitiesHB feedback system (SPS)Advanced collimation systemsE-lens (?)SC links (all)R2E and remote handling for fb-1
11R&D on high field SC magnets High field magnets essential to obtain the luminosityRobust, ductile, well extablished techologyB < 10 TNbTiHeat treatment, brittlenessB < 15 TUS-LARp, Bruker - PrototypingNb3SnKEK, HitachiSubscale Magnet for demonstration (B = 13 T)Nb3ALB up to 45 TR&D on wires , still long road for High fields magnetsMechanical weaknessHTS
12Main dipole fieldLooking at performance offered by practical SC, considering tunnel size and basic engineering (forces, stresses, energy) the practical limits is around 20 T. Such a challenge is similar to a 40 T solenoid (-C)LBNL, with large boreSpring 2013Nb3Sn block test dipolesNb-Ti operating dipolesNb3Sn cos test dipolesL.Rossi
13HE-LHC - High Energy LHC 20-T dipole magnetsS-SPS?higher energytransfer lines2-GeV BoosterLinac4
14HE-LHC (High Energy LHC) Increasing proton energy beyond 7 TeV (2010: study group and workshop)reuse of the CERN infrastructure“ease” in producing luminosity with proton circular colliderpractical and technical experience gained with LHCBeam energy set by SC magnets dipole field: => T == 26 to 33 TeV in the centre of massPerformance targets:proton beam energy 16.5 TeV in LHC tunnelpeak luminosity 2x1034 cm-2s-1also heavy ion collisions at equivalent energyeventually high-energy ep collisions?LHCHE-LHCbeam energy [TeV]716.5dipole field [T]8.3320dipole coil aperture [mm]5640#bunches28081404IP beta function [m]0.551 (x), 0.43 (y)number of IPs32beam current [A]0.5840.328SR power per ring [kW]3.665.7arc SR heat load dW/ds [W/m/ap]0.212.8peak luminosity [1034 cm-2s-1]1.02.0events per crossing1976
15HE-LHC Challenges 20-T dipole magnets intense R&D program, profits from HL-LHC developmentsHE-LHC needs substantial advance in many other domains:accelerator physicscollimation (with increased beam energy and energy density)beam injection – strong Injector upgrade (…SPS 1 TeV)beam dumpinghandling a synchrotron radiation = 20 LHC > challenge for vacuum and cryogenics.Synchrotron radiation will also constitute a real advantage for HE-LHC design: for the first time a hadron collider will benefit of a short damping time 1-2 hours instead of h (longitudinal and transverse respectively) of the present LHC
16First consistent conceptual design Magnet design: 40 mm bore (depends on injection energy: > 1 Tev) Approximately 2.5 times more SC than LHC: 3000 tonnes! (~4000 long magnets)Multiple powering in the same magnet for FQ (and more sectioning for energy)Only a first attempt: cos and other shapes will be also investigatedL. RossiUsing multiple SC material (cost optimized)20 T field!
17Beyond HE-LHC: VHE-LHC new 80 km ringVHE-LHC with 100 TeV cmsinjector in the same tunnelpossibility for TLEP/VLHeCFrom H. Piekarz Malta Prooc. Pag. 101
18Parameters list of LHC upgrades (O. Dominguez and F. Zimmermann)
19Proton-Proton Timeline Either using existingLEP/LHC tunnel to reach TeV collisionsOr build (or reuse) a 80km tunnel to reach TeV collisionsIn both cases, SC challenge to develop Tesla magnets!Magnets for HL_LHC is an indispensable first step
20LHeC - Large Hadron electron Collider RR LHeC:new ringin LHC tunnel,with bypassesaroundexperimentsLR LHeC:recirculatinglinac withenergyrecoveryRR LHeCe-/e+ injector10 GeV,10 min. filling timePerformance targetse- energy ≥60 GeVluminosity ~1033 cm-2s-1total electrical power for e-: ≤100 MWe+p collisions with similar luminositysimultaneous with LHC pp physicse-/e+ polarizationdetector acceptance down to 1o
21Non-colliding proton beam Synchrotron radiation LHeC challengesNon-colliding proton beamcolliding proton beamElectron beamSynchrotron radiationInner tripletsQ2Q1Common for L-R and R-RInteraction region layout for 3 beamsFinal quadrupole designIR synchrotron radiation shieldingRing-Ring Optionbypassing the main LHC detectorsintegration into the LHC tunnelinstallation matching LHC circumferenceinstallation within LHC shutdown scheduleLinac-Ring Option2 x 10 GeV SC Energy Recovery Linacsreturn arcse+ production & recyclingIP e+ rate ~400/100 times higher than for CLIC or ILCseveral schemes proposed to achieve thisLHC p1.0 km2.0 km10-GeV linacinjectordumpIPcomp. RFe- final focustune-up dump0.26 km0.17 km0.03 km0.12 km10, 30, 50 GeVC ~9 km20, 40, 60 GeV
22eRHICPHENIXSTARe-ion detectoreRHICMain ERL(1.9 GeV)Low energyrecirculation passBeamdumpElectronsourcePossible locationsfor additional e-iondetectors20 (30) GeV energy recovery linacs to accelerate and to collide polarized and unpolarized electrons with hadrons in RHICThe center-of-mass energy of eRHIC will range from 30 to 200 GeV
23Linear e+e- Colliders: ILC + CLIC ILC (Internat. Linear Collider)Superconducting cavities, 1.3 GHz, 31.5 MV/m500 GeV (upgrade to 1 TeV)ILC schematic~31 km total lengthCLICRoom-temperature cavities12 GHz, 100 MV/m500 – 3000 GeV
24Parameter comparison (500 GeV) SLCTESLAILCJ/NLCCLICTechnologyNCSupercond.Gradient [MeV/m]202531.550100CMS Energy E [GeV]92RF frequency f [GHz]2.81.311.412.0Luminosity L [1033 cm-2s-1]0.0033423Beam power Pbeam [MW]0.03511.310.86.94.9Grid power PAC [MW]140230195270Bunch length σz* [mm]~10.30.110.07Vert. emittance γεy [10-8m]300342.5Vert. beta function βy* [mm]~188.8.131.52Vert. beam size σy* [nm]65055.72.3Parameters (except SLC) at 500 GeV
26ILC Main Linac Cavity / RF Unit Solid niobium, standing wave, 9-cellOperated at 2 K (LHe), 31.5 MV/m, Q0 ≥ 1010560 RF units each:1 Modulator1 Klystron (10 MW, 1.6 ms)3 Cryostats (26 cavities)1 Quadrupole at the centerTotal of 1680 cryomodules SC RF cavities
27The Path to High Performance Intense R&D program to systematically understand and set procedures for the production processgoal: 90% production yield2nd pass of surface treatment depending on achieved gradientControl of niobium materialMechanical constructionelectron-beam welding (EBW)Preparing RF (inner) surface ultra-clean mirror surfaceelectro-polishing (EP)Removing hydrogen from the surface layer800 deg C bakeRemoving surface contaminationalcohol and/or detergent rinsing2-4 bar high-pressure rinsing (HPR)2nd Pass
28ILC Cavity Gradient Yield 94% (±6%)for >28MV/macceptable for ILC mass productionN. Walker (DESY/GDE)
29Two Japanese Candidate Sites 5 mJapanese HEP community proposes to host ILC based on the “staging scenario” to the Japanese Government.
30Current CLIC Collaboration CLIC multi-lateral collaboration - 48 Institutes from 25 countriesOn-going discussions with 5 more groups …Detector and Physics Studies for CLIC being organized in a similar manner, but with less formal agreements – yet allowing a collaboration like structure to organize the work, elections and making decisions about priorities and policiesACAS (Australia)Aarhus University (Denmark)Ankara University (Turkey)Argonne National Laboratory (USA)Athens University (Greece)BINP (Russia)CERNCIEMAT (Spain)Cockcroft Institute (UK)ETH Zurich (Switzerland)FNAL (USA)Gazi Universities (Turkey)Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland)IAP (Russia)IAP NASU (Ukraine)IHEP (China)INFN / LNF (Italy)Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (Spain)IRFU / Saclay (France)Jefferson Lab (USA)John Adams Institute/Oxford (UK)Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research SOSNY /Minsk (Belarus)John Adams Institute/RHUL (UK)JINRKarlsruhe University (Germany)KEK (Japan)LAL / Orsay (France)LAPP / ESIA (France)NIKHEF/Amsterdam (Netherland)NCP (Pakistan)North-West. Univ. Illinois (USA)Patras University (Greece)Polytech. Univ. of Catalonia (Spain)PSI (Switzerland)RAL (UK)RRCAT / Indore (India)SLAC (USA)Sincrotrone Trieste/ELETTRA (Italy)Thrace University (Greece)Tsinghua University (China)University of Oslo (Norway)University of Vigo (Spain)Uppsala University (Sweden)UCSC SCIPP (USA)
31CLIC two beam scheme High charge Drive Beam (low energy) Low charge Main Beam (high collision energy)=> Simple tunnel, no active elements=> Modular, easy energy upgrade in stagesTransfer linesMain BeamDrive BeamCLIC TUNNELCROSS-SECTIONDrive beam A, 240 nsfrom 2.4 GeV to 240 MeVMain beam – 1 A, 156 nsfrom 9 GeV to 1.5 TeV5.6 m diameter
33Drive Beam Generation Complex CLIC – layout for 500 GeVonly one DB complexshorter main linacDrive Beam Generation ComplexDrive beamMain beamMain Beam Generation Complex
34CLIC Layout at various energies Linac 1I.P.Linac 20.5 TeV StageInjectorComplex4 km4 km~13 km1 TeV StageLinac 1I.P.Linac 2InjectorComplex7.0 km7.0 km~20 km3 TeV StageLinac 1I.P.Linac 2InjectorComplex21.1 km2.75 km2.75 km21.1 km48.3 km
35CLIC physics potential LHC complementarity at the energy frontier:How do we build the optimal machine given a physics scenario (partly seen at LHC ?)Examples highlighted in the CDR:Higgs physics (SM and non-SM)TopSUSYHiggs strong interactionsNew Z’ sectorContact interactionsExtra dimensionsDetailed studies at 350, 500, 1400,1500 and 3000 GeV for these processesOperation at lower than nominal energyStage 1: ~500 (350) GeV => Higgs and top physicsStage 2: ~1.5 TeV => ttH, ννHH + New Physics (lower mass scale)Stage 3: ~3 TeV => New Physics (higher mass scale)
36CLIC Drive Beam generation CLIC RF POWER SOURCE LAYOUTDrive Beam Acceleratorefficient acceleration in fully loaded linacPower ExtractionDrive Beam Decelerator Section (2 x 24 in total)Combiner Ring x 3Combiner Ring x 4pulse compression &frequency multiplicationDelay Loop x 2gap creation, pulse compression & frequency multiplicationRF Transverse Deflectors140 μs train length – 24 x 24 sub-pulses4.2 A GeV – 60 cm between bunches240 ns24 pulses – 101 A – 2.5 cm between bunches5.8 μsDrive beam time structure - initialDrive beam time structure - final
37CTF 3 demonstrate remaining CLIC feasibility issues, in particular: Drive Beam generation (fully loaded acceleration, bunch frequency multiplication)CLIC accelerating structuresCLIC power production structures (PETS)Bunch lengthchicane30 GHz “PETS Line”Delay Loop – 42mCombiner Ring – 84mRF deflectorTL1InjectorLinac4A – 1.2µs 150 MeVLaser32A – 140ns 150 MeV30 GHz test areaCLEXTL2
38Drive beam generation achieved combined operation of Delay Loop and Combiner Ring (factor 8 combination)~26 A combination reached, nominal 140 ns pulse length=> Full drive beam generation, main goal of 2009, achieved30ADLCR
39Achieved Two-Beam Acceleration Maximum probe beam acceleration measured: 31 MeV Corresponding to a gradient of 145 MV/mTD24Drive beam ONDrive beam OFF
40Accelerating Structure Results RF breakdowns can occur => no acceleration and deflectionGoal: /m breakdowns at 100 MV/m loaded gradient at 230 ns pulse lengthlatest prototypes (T24 and TD24) tested (SLAC and KEK)=> TD24 reached 106 MV/m at nominal CLIC breakdown rate (without damping material)Undamped T24 reaches 120MV/mS. Doebert et al.Breakdown probability (1/m)T24TD24CLIC goalAverage unloaded gradient (MV/m)
41CLIC CDRs published Vol 3: “CLIC study summary” (S.Stapnes) Vol 1: The CLIC accelerator and site facilities (H.Schmickler)- CLIC concept with exploration over multi-TeV energy range up to 3 TeV- Feasibility study of CLIC parameters optimized at 3 TeV (most demanding)- Consider also 500 GeV, and intermediate energy range- Complete, presented in SPC in March 2011, in print: https://edms.cern.ch/document/ /Vol 2: Physics and detectors at CLIC (L.Linssen)- Physics at a multi-TeV CLIC machine can be measured with high precision, despite challenging background conditions- External review procedure in October 2011- Completed and printed, presented in SPC in December 2011Vol 3: “CLIC study summary” (S.Stapnes)- Summary and available for the European Strategy process, including possible implementation stages for a CLIC machine as well as costing and cost-drives- Proposing objectives and work plan of post CDR phase ( )- Completed and printed, submitted for the European Strategy Open Meetingin SeptemberIn addition a shorter overview document was submitted as input to the European Strategy update, available at:
42CLIC near CERN Tunnel implementations (laser straight) Central MDI & Interaction Region
43Linear Collider Collaboration Sources (common working group on positron generation)Damping ringsBeam dynamics (covers along entire machine)Beam delivery systemsMachine Detector InterfacesPhysics and detectorssince 2008 strong collaboration between ILC+CLIC groups (acc+det): launch of the LCC (Linear Collider Collaboration)coordinate and advance the global development work for the linear colliderIn addition common working groups on: Cost and Schedule, Civil Engineering and Conventional Facilities, Technical systems – and a General Issues Working Group
44Circular e+e- Colliders Heard in the last decades:‘No other e+e- circular collider after LEP’BUT … NowConstant SR Power/beam50 MWproposalsNewProposals for CERN site120 GeV/beamLEP3, 27 kmL = 10^34TLEP, 80 km45 GeV/beamTLEP-Z,L = 10^36TLEP-H,L = 5 10^34175 GeV/beamTLEP-t,L = 7 10^33DLEP, 50 kmProposal from JapanSuperTristan40 km60 km
45LEP3 (in LHC tunnel)existence of the tunnel with associated infrastructure and high-performance detectorsL 1034Beam lifetime τ =18 min=> Need of booster + collider ring: two rings in LHC tunnel, lightweight magnetsEnergy loss per turn : 7 GeV LEP2)Rf voltage: GV, 1.3GHz LEP2 , 350 MHz)Synchroton radiation : 100 MW (7.2 mA) totalIntegration and cohabitation with LHC, HL-LHC, HE-LHCLHC tunnel
47LEP3/TLEP parameters - 2 LEP2 LHeC LEP3 TLEP-Z TLEP-H TLEP-t LEP2LHeCLEP3TLEP-ZTLEP-HTLEP-tVRF,tot [GV]dmax,RF [%]ξx/IPξy/IPfs [kHz]Eacc [MV/m]eff. RF length [m]fRF [MHz]δSRrms [%]σSRz,rms [cm]L/IP[1032cm−2s−1]number of IPsRad.Bhabha b.lifetime [min]ϒBS [10−4]nγ/collisionDdBS/collision [MeV]DdBSrms/collision [MeV]3.640.770.0250.0651.67.54853520.221.611.2543600.20.080.10.30.50.66N/A0.6511.9427210.120.6910.050.160.020.0712.05.70.092.19206007000.230.319421890.6031442.04.01.291000.060.1910335740.413.66.26.09.40.100.443000.150.1749032150.50654.90.430.25540.516195at the Z pole repeating LEP physics programme in a few minutes…
48Beamstrahlung in any e+e- collider Muon ColliderMuch less synchrotron radiation than e+e-Attractive ‘clean’ collisions at full EcmsHigh production cross section for HiggsThe challenge: Cooling the µ beam!! + multi MW proton driverEmittance reduction 10-7~1000 in each transverse plane~40 in longitudinal=> Ionisation coolingrequires 30-40T solenoids + high gradient RF cavities6-year Feasibility Assessment ProgramBeamstrahlung in any e+e- colliderE/E 2Initial AccelerationIn a dozen turns, accelerate µ to 20 GeVRecirculating Linear AcceleratorIn a number of turns, acceleratemuons up to Multi-TeV using SRFtechlnology.Collider RingBring positive and negative muons into collision at two locations 100munderground.Compressor RingReduce size of beam (2±1 ns).TargetCollisions lead to muons with energyof about 200 MeV.Muon Capture and CoolingCapture, bunch and cool muons tocreate a tight beam.
49Dielectric wakefields Plasma accelerationPlasmaaccelerators:Transform transverse fields into longitudinal fieldsLaser drivene- drivenp drivenDielectric wakefieldsDemonstrated accelerating Gradients up to 3 orders of magnitudes beyond presently used RF technologies.Still far away from possible LC project
50Example: p-driven plasma acceleration Simulations and proposal for CERN experimentNeed of 1 TeV p beam, high current to produce 600 GeV e- in 450 m plasmaVery high energy transferAwake collaboration at CERN for proof-of-principle experimentSPS beam 450 GeV, with 5-20 MeV e- beam, CDR planned for 2013Plasma-cellProton beam dumpRF gunLaserdumpOTRStreak cameraCTREO diagnostice- spectrometere-SPSprotons~3m10m15m?20m10m?
51γ-γ collider Higgs-Factories laser system close to IP for Compton backscattering off the high energy electron beamselectron beam energy lower than for the e+e− colliders: 80 GeV, instead of 120high cross section for Higgs production (about 200 fb )positrons are not requiredequivalent e-e- luminosity of few 1034cm-2s-1 yielding several Higgs bosons/yearpossibility of high polarization in both the primary e− and the colliding γ beamsDifferent proposals: ILC/CLIC based, ERLExample: SAPPHiRELHeC e beam ERL as g-g collidertotal electric powerP100 MWbeam energyE80 GeVbeam polarizationPe0.80bunch populationNb1010repetition ratefrep200 kHzbunch lengthsz30 mmcrossing angleqc≥20 mradnormalized horizontal emittanceγex5 mmnormalized vertical emittanceγey0.5 mme-e- geometric luminosityLee2x1034 cm-2s-1Challenges: ERLs physics (emittance preservation…)Laser pulses at 200 kHzTotal energy few Joules (1 TW peak power,5 ps pulse length == 1 MW average power)
52HIGGS FACTORIES e+e- e+ e- 250 GeV 500 GeV LEP3 in LHC tunnel LinearCollidersILC250 GeV500 GeVCLIC375 GeV Klystron based> 500 GeVCircular CollidersCERNLEP3 in LHC tunnelDLEP – New tunnel, 53 kmTLEP – New tunnel, 80 kmSuperTRISTAN250 GeV– 40, 60 km tunnel400 GeV
53HIGGS F. e+e- R&D & main issues Linear CollidersILCAlmost ready SC rf technology, need of opt for low energy, TDR by end ‘12, XFEL as test facilityCLICLow E : X-band Klystron technologyDemonstrated High gradient cavitiesSynergy with XFELs≥ 500, CDR, need of >10 years R&DCTF3 test facilityCircular CollidersCERNLow E - Tunnel ready (not available) , technology ok , SCrf cavities okLong tunnel, high costs, environment impactSuperTRISTANTechnology assessed,tunnel & site ???
54Summary Quite a variety of high-energy machines proposed HL-LHC and HE-LHC for protonsILC, CLIC, LEP3, Super-Tristan,… for electrons/positronsLHeC/eRHIC for lepton/hadronother projects (µ-collider, plasma acceleration, γ-γ collider,…)LHC discoveries (Higgs-like boson + new findings?) will tell the path to go…Many thanks to: C.Biscari, L.Rossi, F.Zimmermann, N.Walker, S.Stapnes, E.Gschwendtner, everyone else I took some slides from!
56C.Biscari - "High Energy Accelerators" Uncertainties increase with timeApproximate datesApproximate Timelines of HE projects201220152020202520302035LHCHL-LHCHE-LHCRHICLHeCeRHICHiggs factory ILCILC 0.5 TeV*CLIC Higgs fact klysCLIC 0.5 TeV*CLIC E UpgradesLEP3SuperTristan - TLEPg-g colliderMUON COLLIDERLWFA LCAPPROVEDRDR (CDR) R&D TDR/Preparation Construction Operation* In the hypothesis of a first stage at 250GeV12/09/12 Krakow – ESGC.Biscari - "High Energy Accelerators"Not Approved